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The county of Kalamazoo, of which we have attempted to furnish a reliable history, notwithstand- 
ing its comparatively recent settlement by the white race, is rich in historic material. The fragmentary 
evidences of occupation by a prehistoric people, scattered here and there among its beautiful oak- 
openings, furnish materials from which volumes might be written ; and the more recent occupation of 
the red hunter race is prolific of traditionary and written lore. 

The local writers who have from time to time placed upon record the varied incidents of pioneer 
life transpiring in the early days; the prominent representatives of the professions, teachers, clergymen, 
attorneys, and literary men, who have contributed of their knowledge to the general fund, are, each 
and all, entitled to credit for rescuing from oblivion what, in the coming years, will be invaluable. It 
matters not that portions of it may be crude and hastily written; it is far better, even in an imperfect 
state, than no record, and coming generations will appreciate and preserve every item as an heir-loom 
to be handed down to posterity. 

It has been our task to collect, to collate, to arrange, correct, and supplement this valuable mate- 
rial, of which Kalamazoo County possesses an unusual share, and present it, systematized in the best 
possible manner, for preservation and reference, and we have given our best endeavors to the work. 

We have searched to the bottom records, both public and private, and determined many matters 
about which the best citizens differed materially. The titles to lands, early mills, village plats; the 
earliest births, deaths, and marriages, and a thousand and one matters about which there has been much 
disagreement, we have carefully examined and put into permanent shape for preservation. Byron says, 

" Critics all are ready made," 

and we expect a generous share of their feathered weapons, from quivers always full, but we hope those 
whose opinions are valuable, will at least read and carefully verify, and not be hasty to condemn. 

We have trodden lightly, though eagerly, above the ruins of an unknown race, and given such de- 
scriptions of them as seemed necessary. We have endeavored to furnish a readable chapter upon the 
physical features of the State and County, including a carefully prepared geological article; we have 
given a synopsis of early discoveries by the French in the opening years of the seventeenth century, 
and outlined their adventures in and around the peninsulas of Michigan, as discoverers, missionaries, 
traders, and eoureurs des bois. 

We have gathered up what traces have been preserved of the early trading-posts and missions in 
thii immediate vicinity, and woven into the web of our history the traditions and fragmentary accounts 
of the various Indian nations which from time to time inhabited this portion of the lower peninsula. 
We have looked in upon the pioneer settlers who first adventured into the Western wilderness to make 
permanent homes for their wives and little ones, and have traveled with them along the road of 
progress and improvement. We have endeavored to traoe the planting of early schools and churches, 



and the various institutions and callings which are accompaniments of an advancing civilization, and 
have tried to chronicle all important facts concerning those who have from time to time 

" Gone at their country's call," " 

to do valiant battle when the nation was in peril, whether upon the war-trail of the savage, the battle-line of 
the descendants of the Montezumas, or the smoke-wreathed and blood-stained fields of the great Eebellion. 

Our constant aim has been to collect and utilize everything of importance connected with the history of 
the region comprising the rich county of Kalamazoo, and our endeavors have everywhere been met with that 
spirit of intelligence and courtesy which is characteristic of a cultivated people. 

Excellent chapters have been contributed by local writers, — citizens of the county : An able article upon 
the early bar and the jurisprudence of the county, by Hon. Hezekiah G. Wells; a valuable paper upon the 
medical profession, by Foster Pratt, M.D., and an additional article upon the Masonic fraternity from the 
same pen ; a characteristic and well- written history of Comstock township, from the fertile brain of A. D. P. 
Van Buren, Esq. ; a carefully prepared history of Climax township, by Francis Hodgman, Esq. ; and a full 
and reliable history of the Old Literary Institute, the old Branch of the State University, and the Baptist 
College, prepared by Rev. Drs. Stone and Brooks. 

We have also drawn largely from the writings of Henry Little, Hon. E. Lakin Brown, Volney Hascall, 
Dr. Foster Pratt, Henry Bishop, T. S. At Lee, Cyrus Lovell, George Torrey, and many others, well known 
for their contributions to the current history of the county and region. The early files of the Michigan 
Statesman and of the Kalamazoo Gazette, kindly placed at our disposal by Mr. Henry Gilbert and Mrs. 
Volney Hascall, have been a source of much, and very reliable, information, and we have been freely 
accommodated at the public-school library, and by numerous individuals throughout the county. 

It is our firm conviction that, while we would not claim any remarkable scholarship for our work, we 
have, with the help of the best citizens, compiled an exhaustive and valuable history of the county, and we 
believe that time will do us ample justice. 

We ask a careful perusal, and comparison with records, by those competent to judge of its merits, and 
expect such a verdict as the just discrimination of a cultivated community may be pleased to give. 

In collecting and compiling this volume we have been placed under many obligations to scores of indi- 
viduals in all parts of the county, many of whose names will be found with acknowledgments at the close of 
the history of townships. In gathering and preparing materials for the general chapters, we would gratefully 
acknowledge favors from Hon. H. G. Wells, Col. F. W. Curtenius, Mr. A. D. P. Van Buren (to whom we 
are particularly indebted), the editors of the Telegraph and Gazette, of Kalamazoo ; the Grange Visitor and 
the Dispatch and News, of Schoolcraft; Gen. Dwight May, Hon. Charles S. May, Hon. N. A. Balch, Judge 
George M. Buck, Lucius B. Kendall, Esq., Hon. John W. Breese, James M. Davis, Esq., William W. Peck, 
Esq., William Shakespeare, Esq., Amos D. Allen, Esq., Francis Little, Esq., the township and village offi- 
cers, Enos T. Lovell, Esq., Capt. Henry T. Smith, Theron F. Giddings, Esq., Gen. Charles E. Smith, Jona- 
than Parsons, Esq., William G. Pattison, Esq., M. B. Miller, D. O. Roberts, Luther H. Trask, Esq., T. S. 
Cobb, Esq., Israel Kellogg, Esq., Rodney Seymour, Moses Kingsley, Dr. E. M. Van Deusen, Dr. George 
C. Palmer, of the Insane Asylum, Caleb Sweetland, Esq., clergymen and church officers of all denomina- 
tions, the village school board, Francis Dennison, Esq., Hon. E. O. Humphreys, Mrs. Volney Hascall, Mrs. 
St. John, officers of the Ladies' Library Association, bankers, merchants, and manufacturers generally, and 
all and each whose names we may have omitted. 

Samuel W. Dubant. 

Kalamazoo, January, 1880. 



The Colony under French Rule. 


I. — Early Discoveries . 
II. — The Franciscans and the Jesuits 
III. — Indian Nations 
IV.— La Salle . 

V. — La Salle — (Continued) 
VI. — La Salle — (Continued) 
VII. — Michilimackinac 



The Colony under English Rule. 

VIII.— Surrender of Detroit to Capt. Rogers ... 35 
The Colony under the Republic. 

IX.— Territorial 44 

X. — State Organization 52 

XI. — Physical Features 56 

XII.— Prehistoric 65 

XIII.— The Pottawattomie Indians 70 

XIV.— Occupation by the Whites 81 

XV. — Civil Organization of the County .... 99 

XVI.— The Courts 101 

XVII.— The County Legislature 108 

XVIII.— County Civil List 113 

XIX.— The Professions 114 

XX.— County Societies . . . . * . . .129 

XXI.— Educational 139 


XXII.— Literary 151 

XXIII. — Michigan Asylum for the Insane . . . .161 
XXIV. — Internal Improvements • 163 

XXV.— Statistical .172 

XXVI.— Military 1?* 


Village of Kalamazoo 208 

Township of Kalamazoo 287 

" Alamo • 292 

" Brady 302 

" Charleston 313 

" Climax . • .324 

" Comstock . . . .* • • • .351 

" Cooper .....•••• 395 

" Oshtemo 407 

" Pavilion 417 

" Portage 427 

" Prairie Ronde 435 

" Richland 457 

" Ross 486 

" Schoolcraft 502 

" Texas 536 

" Wakeshma 544 

Appendix and Errata 552 



Nathan M. Thomas, M.D 121 

Hon. H. G. Wells between 216, 217 

Col. Delos Phillips facing 262 

Hon. Nathaniel A. Balch 275 

Hon. Frederick W. Curtenius 278 

Gen. Dwight May 278 

Col. Benjamin F. Orcutt 280 

Volney Hascall . . 282 

Gen. Isaac Moffatt 283 

Hiram Arnold 283 

George Torrey 284 

Orrin N. Giddings 284 

Alexander J. Sheldon 285 

Israel Kellogg . 285 

Maj. Abraham Edwards 285 

Rev. Leonard Slater . . . 286 

Thomas W. Barnard facing 287 

S. M. Nichols between 290, 291 

JohnGibbs " 290,291 

Thomas G. Carpenter 301 

HughMcCall .301 

William B. Clement between 304, 305 

John W. Darling 309 

Jacob Kimble 310 

Charles Kimble 310 


H. T. Clement 310 

Lewis C. Kimble 311 

Samuel Shearer 311 

Jacob Lemon 312 

William Harrison facing 314 

William G. Kirby "323 

John W. Kirby ■ . 323 

J. N. Le Fevre facing 333 

Daniel Lawrence " 336 

Isaac Pierce " 344 

Judge Caleb Eldred 345 

Thomas Eldred 347 

Isaac Davis 348 

Parvis C. Pearce 349 

Nehemiah Elwell 349 

Holland Gilson 350 

Judge John Sleeper facing 351 

E. M. Clapp "369 

Jesse Earl " 376 

Anson D. P. Van Bufen 391 

Col. William R. Shatter 393 

Frank P. Muhlenberg 395 

Jesse R. Havens 395 

Herman Blanchard facing 402 

Hon. John Walker 403 




Luther Chamberlain 403 

A. H. Stoddard 404 

William S. Delano 405 

James McNab 406 

William Skinner ". 406 

Henry Mosher 407 

Neil Hindes facing 412 

Benjamin Drake . . . 414 

Ansel and Orrin Snow 415 

Isaac Gibbs . . . . . . . . ... 415 

John J. Lusk 416 

Isaac L. Root 416 

Edward Denniston between 422, 423 

Edward Chase ....... " 422,423 

Elijah L. Smith 423 

David L. Hamilton 425 

Chauneey A. Beckwith 425 

Martin MeKain „ 425 

Henry Barnum 426 

Ferdinand V. Collins 426 

John Batey facing 426 

John F.Oliver 433 

James N. Cooley 433 

William Milham . . 433 

Harvey S. Booth 433 

Judge Bazel Harrison .' . .436 

Abram I. Shaver facing 442 

Preston J. McCreary " 444 

Abner Mack " 446 

P. F. Alexander " 450 

William Duncan 452 

Delamore Duncan 453 

Col. Abiel Fellows 454 

George Fletcher 455 

Jesse M. Crose 456 

Barna L. Brigham . . . . . . facing 461 

Hon. Eli R. Miller "466 

Morgan Curtis " 476 

Hon. Gilbert E. Read 477 

Rev. Milton Bradley 478 


Alfred Nevins . 478 

Dr. Uriah Upjohn .479 

Horace M. Peck 481 

Deacon Samuel Brown . . . . . . . 482 

C. P. Hale 482 

John F. Gilkey ........ facing 482 

Deacon Simeon Mills . k . 483 

Rev. Mason Knappen 483 

Edwin Mason 483 

Amasa S. Parker 484 

Rev. William Daubney 484 

Benjamin F. Doolittle 485 

William J. Humphrey 485 

Pliny Hale facing 488 

Hon. Simpson Howland " 492 

William Baker "496 

Anson Wooding ........ " 498 

Stephen Vickery " 504 

John Fraser "506 

Peter Kniss "508 

Godfrey Knight "510 

Joseph Frakes " 512 

S. F. Brown "514 

Thaddeus Smith "516 

Evert B. Dyckman " 518 

William Bair "524 

William H. Fox "526 

James Smith, Jr. . . 532 

Jerome T. Cobb 534 

Albert B. Judson . . .536 

Jacob McLin facing 536 

Owen P. Morton 543 

Lewis Johnson 543 

William Haynes 544 

Dr. David Haines 550 

Sylvester Fredenburg . . . . . . . .551 

Capt. Albert A. Holcomb 551 

Lieut. Stephen P. Marsh 552 

Valentine Cornwall 552 



Views in the Public Park, Kalamazoo (frontispiece) facing title. 

Map of Kalamazoo County facing 56 

Geological Map of the Lower Peninsula of Michigan " 59 

Geological Diagram 60 

Ancient Garden-Beds in Kalamazoo County . . facing 69 
Rix Robinson's Trading-House at Kalamazoo, 1824 ... 81 
Map showing First Subdivision of the County in 1830 . . 100 
Portrait of Nathan M. Thomas, M.D. . . . . .121 

Fae-Simile of First Engine and Coach used in Michigan . . 170 


Views of Kalamazoo College, Michigan Female Seminary, and 

Woodward Avenue School Building 

Portrait of Hon. H. G. Wells . 

Residence of Hon. H. G. Wells . 
" Col. F. W. Curtenius 

" Frederick Bush 

" Mary A. Trowbridge 

Ladies' Library Building . 

Portrait of Col. Delos Phillips . 
" Hon. Nathaniel A. Baloh 
" Gen. Dwight May . 
" Col. Benjamin F. Orcutt 
" Volney Haseall (steel) 

facing 208 

between 216, 217 

" 216, 217 

facing 224 






. .279 

. 281 

facing 282 

Portrait of Gen. Isaac Moffatt . 
Residence of Hiram Arnold (with portraits) 
Portraits of Thos. W. Barnard and Wife . 
Residence of John Milham (double page) . 
Portraits of S. M. Nichols and Wife 
" John Gibbs and Wife 


Residence of Hugh McCall 

" John W. James 

Portraits of Thomas G. Carpenter and Wife 


Residence of Jacob Lemon (with portraits) 
" H. T. Clement (with portraits) 

Portraits of W. B. Clement and Wife 

" John W. Darling and Wife . 

Portrait of Lewis C. Kimble 
" Samuel Shearer 


. 283 

facing 284 

" 287 

between 288, 289 

" 290, 291 

" 290, 291 

facing 292 

" 296 

. 301 

facing 302 

between 304, 305 

" 304, 305 

facing 309 

" 309 

" 309 


Residence of John W. Kirby 
Portrait of William Harrison 
" William G. Kirby . 

facing 313 
" 314 
" 323 





Residence of P. C. Pearce (with portraits) . . facing 324 

" T. B. Bldred (with portraits) double page bet. 326, 327 

Portraits of J. N. Le Fevre and Wife . . . facing 333 

" Daniel Lawrence and Wife ... " 336 

Portrait of Isaac Pierce u 344 

" Holland Gilson "349 

Portraits of N. Blwell and Wife .... " 349 


Portrait of Judge John Sleeper . 
Portraits of E. M. Clapp and Wife 

" Jesse Earl and Wife 

Portrait of A. D. P. Van Buren 

" Col. William R. Shatter 

" Jesse R. Havens 

facing 351 

" 369 

" 376 

. 392 

. 394 

. 395 


Residence of A. H. Stoddard facing 395 

" the late Hon. John Walker (with portraits) " 396 

" William Skinner (with portraits) . between 398, 399 

*' Mrs. William Skinner (with portrait) 

Portraits of Herman Blanchard and Wife . 

" Luther Chamberlain and Wife 

Residence of William S. Delano (with portraits) 

" James McNab .... 

" Benjamin Drake (with portraits) . 



Residence of Orrin Snow facing 

" J. J. Lusk « 

Portraits of Neil Hindes and Wife .... " 

Residence of Mrs. Phebe Gibbs (with portraits) . " 

" Isaac L. Root " 




Residence of E. L. Smith (with portraits) . 

" David L. Hamilton (with portraits 

" F. V. Collins (with portraits) 

Portraits of Edward Denniston and Wife 

" Edward Chase and Wife . 

Portrait of Chauncey A. Beckwith 
Portraits of Henry Barnum and Wife 

" John Batey and Wife . 


Residence of James N. Cooley . 

" John F. Oliver (with portraits) 

" William Milham (double page) 

" H. S. Booth .... 

Portraits of H. S. Booth and Wife . 

facing 41 7 



between 422, 423 

" 422, 423 

. 425 

. 426 

facing 426 

facing 427 

" 430 

between 432, 433 

facing 434 

. 434 


Portrait of Judge Bazel Harrison 
Portraits of Abram I. Shaver and Wife 
Portrait of Preston J. McCreary 
Portraits of Abner Mack and Wife . 

" P. F. Alexander and Wife 

" William, Delamore, and Mrs. P. Duncan 



Portrait of Col. Abiel Fellows 454 

Portrait of George Fletcher 
" Jesse M. Crose . 


Views in Richland Centre . 
Portrait of Carlos Barnes . 

" Barna L. Brigham . 

Residence of William J. Humphrey . 
Portrait of Joseph Miller . 
Residence of S. T. Brown (with portraits) 

C. P. Hale . 
Portrait of Morgan Curtis . 
" Rev. M. Bradley 

" Leonard Slater 

" Gilbert E. Read 

" Alfred Nevins . 

" Dr. Uriah Upjohn . 

Residence of H. M. Peck (with portraits) 
Portrait of John F. Gilkey 

" Rev. M. Knappen . 
" A. S. Parker . 

" Edwin Mason . 

" Deacon Simeon Mills 

u Rev. William Daubney . 

Portraits of Benj. F. Doolittle and Wife 


Residence of Anson Wooding 
Portraits of Pliny Hale and Wife 

" Hon. S. Howland and Wife 

" William Baker and Wife . 

" Anson Wooding and Wife 


Residence of A. B. Judson (with portraits) 
Portrait of Stephen Vickery 

" John Fraser 

" Peter Kniss 

" Godfrey Knight 

Portraits of Joseph Frakes and Wife 
Portrait of S. F. Brown . 

". Thaddeus Smith 

" Evert B. Dyckman . 

View of the Troxel House (with portraits) 
Portraits of William Bair and Wife . 
" William H. Fox and Wife 

Portrait of J. T. Cobb 


Portraits of Jacob McLin and Wife . 
Residence of 0. P. Morton (with portraits) 
Portraits of William Haynes and Wife 
" Lewis Johnson and Wife 



facing 457 

. 458 

facing 461 



" 469 

" 472 

" 476 

" 477 




. 479 

facing 481 

" 482 

" 483 

" 483 

" 483 

" 483 

. 484 

. 485 

facing 486 


" 492 

" 496 

" 498 

facing 502 

" 504 
" ' 506 

" 508 

" 510 

" 514 

" 516 

" 518 

" 520 

" 524 

" 526 

. 535 

facing 536 

" 540 

" 543 

" 543 


Portrait of Dr. David Haines 550 

" Capt. Albert A. Holcomb 551 

" Sylvester Fredenburg 551 

" Valentine Cornwall 552 







Cartier — Roberval — Champlain. 

The history of no county in the State of Michigan 
would be complete without some allusion to the early dis- 
coveries and settlements of the French in the opening years 
of the seventeenth century, together with brief notices of 
the earlier voyages. The earliest knowledge of the St. 
Lawrence valley and the basin of the great lakes was de- 
rived from the explorations of that enterprising people, who 
also first explored and made permanent settlements in the 
two peninsulas of Michigan. It seems eminently proper, 
therefore, that we should give a brief outline of these pre- 
liminary operations before considering the later history of 
the State, and of Kalamazoo County proper. 

That portion of the continent of Northern America lying 
in the valley of the St. Lawrence River, and including the 
entire water-shed of the great lakes, was first visited by 
French explorers in the years 1534-35.* 

The wonderful discoveries of Columbus, Vespucius, Cabot 
and others, in the latter part of the fifteenth century had 
concentrated the attention of the maritime and commercial 
nations of Europe upon the " New World" lying in the 
great western sea. Expeditions were fitted out in the ports 
of Spain, Portugal, England, France, and Holland, and the 
borders of the new continent were explored, and colonies 
planted from Nova Scotia to the mouth of the La Plata, in 
Southern America. 

In this race for supremacy the Spanish people monopo- 
lized the greater portion, extending from the thirty-second 
parallel of north latitude to the equator, and including the 
majority of the West Indian Archipelago. Their occu- 
pancy of the peninsula of Florida, however, was fiercely 
disputed by the French in 1565-68. The Portuguese in 
some measure divided the southern continent with their 

* We do not take into account the somewhat mythical voyages of 
the Northmen in the tenth and eleventh centuries. The statements 
concerning them, and the amount of information given, are too meagre 
for the purposes of this work. 

Spanish congeners, eventually becoming sole masters of 
what is now the immense empire of Brazil, whose present 
able and liberal sovereign boasts the high blood of the an- 
cient house of Braganza. The English, at a later date, 
occupied the country lying north of the Spanish possessions, 
and extending as far as the peninsula of Nova Scotia,f 
though the Dutch, Swedes, and Danes occupied for a time 
the country extending from the Hudson to the Delaware. 

The French navigators seem to have confined themselves 
principally to the regions lying around the Gulf of St. Law- 
rence, and thence naturally extended their discoveries inland 
along the great river valley. The daring fishermen of Brit- 
tany, Normandy, and the Basque provinces of France and 
Spain had been familiar with the cod-fishing grounds of 
Newfoundland and the adjacent region from a date certainly 
as early as 1504, and certain French writers claim that one 
Cousin, of Dieppe, had explored the American coast in 
1488 ; but the first authenticated voyage of exploration 
was made by John Verrazzano, a Florentine adventurer and 
navigator, under the patronage of Francis I. of France, in 

Yerrazzano first saw land on the coast of North Caro- 
lina, in March of that year, which he reported as " a newe 
land, never before seen of any man, either ancient or mod- 
erne," notwithstanding the fact that fires were blazing along 
the strand, and a great number of the natives crowded to 
the water's edge to greet the adventurers. 

From thence he sailed along the coast, visiting the bay 
of New York, and examining the country now known as 
New England, and as far as the great island of Newfound- 
land, leaving the continent in latitude fifty north. 

His discoveries created great interest in Europe, and the 
various courts vied with each other in fitting out expeditions 
for exploration. According to some writers Verrazzano 
entered the service of Henry VIII. of England, and was 
killed by savages during a subsequent voyage. 

Succeeding Verrazzano's voyage, the French king, in 
consequence of wars and captivity, no doubt, seems to have 
lost his enthusiasm for discovery ; but among his favorites 
was one Philippe de Brison-Chabot, who sought out the 

f This peninsula was at first occupied by the French, under the 
name of Acadia. They were dispossessed by the English, and the 
inhabitants of the colony transported. 




famous Breton navigator, Jacques Cartier, a native of the 
seaport of St. Malo, born in 1494, whom he fitted out and 
sent on a voyage of discovery. 

. Cartier sailed from his native town on the 20th of April, 
1534, and, steering across the tossing billows of the At- 
lantic, entered the straits of Belle Isle, examined the Bay 
des Chaleurs, and sailed up the St. Lawrence as far as the 
island of Anticosti. This great estuary he supposed to be 
the opening to a passage leading to the shores of Cathay. 
But the storms of autumn compelled him to return to 
France, after a brief reconnoissance of the coasts and 
islands of the north. 

In the spring of 1535 a new expedition was prepared, 
consisting of three small vessels, the largest of one hundred 
and twenty tons, and placed under the command of Cartier. 
Accompanied by several gentlemen of noble birth, he sailed 
from St. Malo on the 19th of May, and after a tempestuous 
voyage, in which his ships were separated, reached the 
straits of Belle Isle, where they were once more united. 

Sailing up the estuary of the noble river, he named it 
the Bay of St. Lawrence, in honor of his patron saint, — a 
name which subsequently attached to both the gulf and the 
river. Entering the river proper, he found its Indian name 
to be Hochelaga, or the " Great River of Canada." The 
country lying below Quebec the natives called Saguenay, 
and that above, Hochelaga. 

Cartier explored the river as far as the site of Montreal, 
which derives its modern name from the designation he be- 
stowed upon the mountain in its rear, from whose summit 
he obtained a most " royal" view of the great valley. He 
called it " Mont Royal." 

The promontory now occupied by the city of Quebec 
and its vast system of fortifications was then the site of an 
Indian village called Stadaeone, where dwelt the king or 
principal chief of the country, whose name was Donnacona. 
The great Indian capital of the valley, however, was located 
on the island of Montreal, and, like the river and country, 
bore the name of Hochelaga. The country around this 
point was at that date occupied by the Huron- Iroquois, a 
subdivision of the great Algonquin race, who afterwards 
removed westward to the valley of the Ottawa River and the 
eastern margin of Lake Huron, whence they were driven 
by their conquerors, the terrible Iroquois confederacy of 
Central New York, about 1649-50. The progenitors of 
the Five Nations had formerly resided in the vicinity of 
Montreal, but had emigrated thence to the south of Lake 
Ontario, probably about the commencement of the sixteenth 

Cartier wintered in the river St. Charles (called also by 
some writers St. Croix), and in the spring or summer of 
1536 returned to France, taking with him the chief Don- 
nacona and a half-score of his companions, whom he had 
enticed on board his ship. Most of the Indians, including 
Donnacona, soon after died. No permanent settlement was 
attempted by this expedition. 

In 1541 a squadron of five ships was fitted out, and a 
third time placed under command of Cartier. The prime 
mover and patron of this enterprise was Jean Francois la 
Roque, Sieur de Roberval, a nobleman of Picardy, upon 
whom the king conferred the high-sounding but empty 

titles of " Lord of Norembega, Viceroy and Lieutenant- 
General in Canada, Hochelaga, Saguenay, New Foundland, 
Belle Isle, Carpunt, Labrador, the Great Bay, and Bacca- 

Cartier sailed on the 23d of May in the year last named, 
leaving Roberval to follow with additional ships, emigrants, 
and supplies. He reached the St. Lawrence in safety, and 
began a settlement at a point which he named Cap Rouge, 
about three French leagues above Quebec, on the northern 
bank of the river. 

Two stockade forts were erected, and Cartier named the 
place " Charlesbourg Royal." Here the colony passed a 
long and dreary winter, and in the spring, becoming dis- 
gusted with their hard fortune, they went on board their 
ships and sailed for Europe. Cartier encountered Roberval 
in the harbor of St. John, but neither threats nor persua- 
sions could induce him to return, and he bore away for 

Roberval, who had sailed on the 16th of April, 1542, 
with three ships and two hundred colonists, from Rochelle, 
made his way to the abandoned Charlesbourg, where he 
erected barracks, mills, and store-houses for a permanent 
settlement ; but the project was unsuccessful and the enter- 
prise was soon after abandoned, and from that time to the 
year 1608 no further attempt was made to found a settle- 
ment on the St. Lawrence, except that possibly fur-trading 
posts were kept up at Tadoussac\ and a few other points 
along the lower portion of the river. 


Samuel de Champlain was born at the small seaport of 
Brouage, on the Bay of Biscay, in 1567. He held the rank 
of captain in the royal navy, and had seen service with the 
army under St. Luc and Brissac in Brittany, for which he 
had been pensioned by Henry IV. Subsequently he com- 
manded an exploring ship of the Spanish marine during 
more than two years in the West Indies, where he acquired 
a great amount of geographical knowledge, and brought 
back a curiously illustrated journal of his travels. 

Returning to the French court, he met Aymor de Chastes, 
commander of the order of St. John, and Governor of 
Dieppe, who was organizing a company for the purpose of 
establishing settlements and missions in America. The 
gray-haired veteran easily persuaded Champlain to accept a 
position in the new company, which, by the consent of the 
king, he agreed to, and in 1603, in company with one 
Pontgrave, he set sail from Honfleur for the mouth of the 
St. Lawrence, which river he ascended as far as Montreal. 
The busy Huron town of Hochelaga had vanished, and in 
its place were found a few scattering Algonquin families. 

Champlain returned to France to find his patron, De 
Chastes, dead, and the Sieur de Monts at the head of the com- 
pany. From this time to the year 1608 he was engaged 
along with De Monts, Pontgrave, D'Orville, Beaumont, La 
Motte, and others, in founding missions and trading-posts 

* Norembega was an early name for Nova Scotia, Southern New 
Brunswick, and a portion of the present State of Maine, called also 
"Arambee." Baccalaos was the Basque name for codfish or the fish- 
ing region. 

f This place was at the mouth of the Saguenay River. 



in Acadia, and in exploring the coasts and islands of the 
Atlantic as far south as Cape Cod, in Massachusetts Bay. 

In July, 1608, Champlain began the permanent settle- 
ment of Quebec, which has since grown into an important 
seaport and become the capital of a flourishing province.* 
In 1609 he, with two or three French soldiers and a band 
of sixty Algonquin Indians, discovered the lake which 
bears his name, and explored it as far south as the outlet of 
Lake George, near which, on the 30th of July, in that 
year, he fought a battle with the Mohawks, and thereby 
laid the foundation for that unrelenting enmity which con- 
tinued for a period of one hundred and fifty years, and was 
one of the principal causes of the loss of the French pos- 
sessions in America. 

In 1611, Champlain founded Montreal by establishing a 
trading-post on its site, though it was not until 1642 that a 
permanent settlement was made. Thus he became the 
founder of two of the principal cities of Canada of the 
present day. Near the site of Montreal he fought a second 
fierce battle with the Iroquois in the spring of 1610. 

In 1613, accompanied by four Frenchmen, he made a 
journey with canoes up the Ottawa River as far as the great 
island of Allumette, in the vain effort to find a water route 
to Hudson's Bay. Forty canoes, loaded with Indians, fol- 
lowed him on his return. 

In 1615 occurred Champlain's great expedition to the 
Huron region of Lake Manatouline, or the Georgian Bay of 
Lake Huron, and his arrival at the head of a vast swarm 
of natives in the country of the Iroquois. An immense 
concourse of the Western Indians — Hurons, Ojibways, Otta- 
was, Nipissings, and others — assembled at Montreal in the 
spring of that year for the purposes of trade. Here Cham- 
plain met them, and entered into a treaty offensive and de- 
fensive against the Iroquois. At the breaking up of the 
assembly Champlain returned to Quebec to make prepara- 
tions for his journey to the Huron country, while the Fran- 
ciscan friar, Joseph le Caron, and twelve French soldiers 
accompanied the Indians in their long journey to the western 

Champlain followed shortly after in two canoes, accompa- 
nied by Etienne Brule, an interpreter, one other French- 
man, and ten Indians. His route was the same which he 
had pursued two years before, — up the rapid Ottawa, across 
the portage to Lake Nipissing, and thence down the French 
River (the outlet of the lake) to Lake Huron, which he 
named " Mer Douce," the fresh-water sea of the Hurons. 

Coasting for a hundred miles along the eastern shore of 
the Georgian Bay, he finally landed at the inlet known as 
Thunder Bay, a little west of the present port of Penetan- 
guishine. Pushing inland in a southeasterly direction, he 
reached the village of Carhagouha, where he found Le 
Caron and his companions. Here the friar built a forest 
altar, and on the 12th of August, 1615, in the presence of 
Champlain and less than a score of Frenchmen, surrounded 
by a wondering horde of savages, he celebrated the first 
mass in the Huron country. 

* This was the third permanent settlement on the Atlantic coast of 
North America ; St. Augustine, in Florida, settled by the Spaniards, 
in 1565, and Jamestown, by the English, in Virginia, in 1607, being 

On the 17th of August they reached the Huron metrop- 
olis, which the savages called Cahaigue, situated in what is 
the present township of Orilla, about ten miles west of the 
River Severn, the outlet of Lake Simcoe. It was a pal- 
isaded town of about two hundred lodges, and here in the 
course of a few days assembled the two thousand five hun- 
dred warriors who had promised tQ co-operate with Cham- 
plain against the far-off Iroquois. 

On the 8th of September the curious army was in mo- 
tion. Brule, the interpreter, at his own request, was sent 
with twelve Indians to hasten the co-operation of the five 
hundred promised Eries, or Carantouans, as Brule* called* 
them. The intrepid interpreter was gone three years before 
he succeeded in escaping from the wilderness and rejoining 
his countrymen. He had a most remarkable experience 
among the Eries, and as a prisoner with the Senecas, more 
marvelous than the wildest imaginings of fiction. He was 
treacherously murdered by the Hurons, near Penetangui- 
shine, in 1632.f 

The grand army, if we may so designate a naked crowd 
of savages, crossed Lake Simcoe, passed the portage to 
Balsam Lake, and thence followed the zigzag course of the 
River Trent to its entrance into the Bay of Quinte, and 
out upon the broad, spreading waters of Lake Ontario, the 
Outonoronons of the Hurons, and landed, probably, in one 
of the arms of Black River Bay, the Niaourha of the Iro- 
quois. Secreting their canoes, they took up their march by 
land, along the sand beach of the lake, across Sandy Creek, 
Salmon River, and the outlet of the central lakes of New 
York, and on into the country of the Senecas. 

The scene of the great fight between this host and the 
Iroquois is located by Dr. O'Callaghan, of New York, at 
the outlet of Canandaigua Lake, though several writers 
disagree with him, some locating the Indian town on Onon- 
daga Lake, near the present city of Syracuse. 

The Iroquois town was strongly fortified by a quadruple 
row of lofty palisades, strongly bound together, and sur- 
mounted by a gallery from which the garrison could annoy 
the besiegers with arrows, spears, and stones. There was 
one peculiarity attending this " siege" which has not been 
seen on any other occasion in the history of the continent. 
To enable his followers to attack the enemy upon an equal 
footing, and to counteract the superior advantages of his 
lofty platforms, Champlain constructed one or more mov- 
able towers, high enough to overlook the palisade, and upon 
which he placed his French arquebusiers to shoot down the 
enemy upon his ramparts. 

Great wooden shields were also constructed to screen his 
Indian allies from the fire of the besieged. The towers 
were drawn forward by the united strength of two hundred 
warriors, and the attack began in earnest. 

But the Hurons were entirely unmanageable, so that 
Champlain could do nothing with them, and after a furious 
contest of three hours' duration, the whole army fell back 
to their fortified camp, with the loss of seventeen warriors 
wounded. The French commander was also wounded by 
an arrow in the knee. He tried every means to persuade 
his followers to a renewal of the attack, but they persist- 

f Parkman. 



ently refused, unless joined by the expected reinforcement 
from the Eries. 

Waiting five days in their camp and hearing nothing 
from their allies, they made a rapid retreat to their canoes, 
carrying their wounded in large baskets, Champlain among 
the rest. Crossing Lake Ontario, the great war-party di- 
vided into small hunting-bands and scattered through the 

Champlain had been promised an escort to Quebec, but 
after regaining their own side of the lake the Indians re- 
fused to furnish it, and he was compelled to remain and 
pass the winter with them. Once during the winter hunt 
he was lost in the wilderness and well-nigh perished, but at 
length found his way back to his band. In the course of 
the winter, in company with Le Caron, he visited all the 
villages of the Huron- Iroquois people, and may, very prob- 
ably, have penetrated near to the borders of Michigan. 

In the spring, Champlain returned via his old route 
down the Ottawa, and reached Quebec on the 11th of July, 
after a year's absence, and was received as one from the 
dead, with great rejoicing. Le Caron had preceded him, 
and also arrived in safety. No further attempts were made 
by the Franciscans to establish missions among the Lake 
Huron Indians; and it was not until 1628 that the Jesuits 
first settled among them. 

Thus ended Champlain 's second expedition into the 
country of the Iroquois. He had attacked the Mohawks 
on the eastern flank of the confederacy in 1 609 and gained 
a temporary success ; the attack upon the Senecas on the 
western flank in 1615 ended in failure. 

A century and a half of almost incessant warfare repaid 
upon the inhabitants of Canada the short-sightedness of the 
great explorer. 

Champlain continued as Governor of New France until 
his death at Quebec, on the 25th of December, 1635, with 
the exception of a period of four years, from 1629 to 1633, 
during which the English held the country for three years, 
and Emery de Caen was Governor one year, — 1632-33. 

His administration had extended over a period of twenty- 
seven years. 



The Hundred Associates — Capture of Quebec by the English — Early 
Explorations and Missions in the Lake Region — Destruction of 
the Hurons. 


The year 1615 witnessed the inauguration of that re- 
markable system of missionary work which the Catholic 
Church labored so persistently to build up among the sav- 
age nations of Canada. The Franciscans, an order founded 
in the thirteenth century by St. Francis of Assisi, led the 
advance and furnished the pioneers in this great under- 

The Bicollets, a reformed branch of the order, with the 
help of a generous subscription taken up among the car- 
dinals, bishops, and nobles of the Church, assembled for 

the States-Greneral, fitted out four friars at the earnest re- 
quest of Champlain, himself a zealous Catholic, to begin 
the great work of Christianizing the American Indians. 
The four named were Denis Jamet, Jean Dolbeau, Joseph 
le Caron, and Pacifique du Plessis, who embarked at Hon- 
fleur in the spring of 1615, and arrived at Quebec in the 
end of May. 

At Quebec their first business was to construct a convent 
and adopt a system of operations. The vast field was 
divided among them, Le Caron being assigned to the Hu- 
ron nations and Dolbeau to the Montagnais of the lower 
St. Lawrence, whom a French writer aptly designated as 
11 the paupers of the wilderness." Jamet and Du Plessis 
were for the present to remain at Quebec. 

As we have seen, Le Caron repaired at once to Montreal, 
where he studied the Indian languages, and when Cham- 
plain's expedition was preparing for the country of the 
Hurons, he accompanied it and remained a year among the 
savages, returning, in 1616, to Quebec. 

Like the Pilgrim and Puritan Fathers of New England, 
the French leaders in America designed to establish a re- 
ligious as well as commercial dominion, and while pushing 
their explorations far into the wilderness for purposes of 
conquest and of gain, the zealous representatives of the 
mother-church everywhere accompanied the mailed warriors 
of the king. 

The cross was planted wherever the golden lilies waved, 
and the rude chapel arose within or beside the strong stock- 
ade and the primitive trading-house. Indeed, the daring son 
of the church, girded with the vestments of his order, and 
bearing the cross and rosary, not unfrequently preceded the 
mousquetaire, and his awe-inspiring ceremonies were the 
avant couriers of that interminable pageantry which every- 
where and at all times characterized the French occupation 
of Canada. 

The military leaders dreamed of an interior water-passage 
to the " Great South Sea," and, in imagination, beheld the 
dominion of the " great king" extending over the yet un- 
known regions of the " forest continent ;" while the follow- 
ers of Loyola enthusiastically looked forward to a grand 
gathering of all the Indian nations within the pale of the 
Christian Church, or, in the event of a disastrous failure, 
to a glorious crown of martyrdom bravely won in the service 
of their Master. 

The Recollets, with their scanty means (for they were 
vowed to perpetual beggary), continued their self-appointed 
work among the Indians of the lower St. Lawrence until 
about 1625, when, feeling their utter incapacity to cope 
with so vast a field, they reluctantly called in the assistance 
of the Jesuits. 


This powerful and aggressive order was founded by 
Ignatius Loyola, formerly a soldier, who had been severely 
wounded at the siege of Pampeluna, in Spain, and who had 
subsequently dedicated himself wholly to the service of the 
Church. The order took the name " Society of Jesus," and 
was approved by the Pope in 1540. 

Its pioneers in America were Fathers Charles Lalemant, 
Enemond Masse, and Jean de Brebeuf. 

In 1628, Brebeuf proceeded to the field of his future 



labors and tragical death, among the Hurons living around 
the southeastern borders of the Georgian Bay. He was 
accompanied by Father de la Noue and one of the friars. 


It is necessary at this point to consider, for a few para- 
graphs, the organization and purposes of an institution 
which controlled the destinies of New France for many 
years.* In 1627, Cardinal Richelieu was the great cham- 
pion of absolutism, which had become supreme in France. 
About this date he turned his attention to the affairs of 
New France. 

Under his patronage a powerful company was formed, 
consisting of a hundred members, with the cardinal at its 
head. It was called the " Company of the Hundred Asso- 
ciates," or " Company of New France." The sovereignty 
of the whole of the French possessions* in North America 
was conferred upon it, and it was granted a perpetual 
monopoly of the fur-trade, together with a monopoly of 
all other commerce, for the period of fifteen years, and its 
entire trade was declared free from all duties for the same 

The company obligated itself to settle in the colony, be- 
fore the year 1643, four thousand persons, including men 
of all trades, and persons of both sexes ; to support them 
for three years, and to furnish them cleared lands for main- 

This colony was to be exclusively French, and every 
settler must be a Catholic. 

The Huguenots, the most enterprising class, and almost 
the only one inclined to emigration, were strictly forbidden 
to touch the shores of New France. The bigoted king 
gave his royal sanction to these measures, and, as an earnest 
of his good- will, furnished two ships-of-war completely armed 
and equipped. The establishment of the company was fully 
consummated in the beginning of 1628. The Jesuits were 
chosen as the spiritual managers of the colony ;■ the Francis- 
cans were virtually driven from the country, and the com- 
pany commenced operations with a paid-up capital of three 
hundred thousand livres, or about sixty thousand dollars. 

Cham plain was made governor of the colony, with civil 
and military jurisdiction. 

This bigoted arrangement carried within itself the seeds 
of destruction. The historian, Francis Parkman, in speak- 
ing upon this subject, justly remarks : " There is nothing 
improbable in the supposition that, had New France been 
thrown open to Huguenot emigration, Canada would never 
have been a British province; that the field of Anglo- 
American settlement would have been greatly narrowed, 
and that large portions of the United States would at this 
day have been occupied by a vigorous and expansive French 
population, "f 

Had the Huguenots been given an even chance with the 
Catholics it is more than probable that they would, at an early 
day, have penetrated to the lower peninsula, of Michigan, 

* This company was disbanded in 1645, and its franchises and 
property transferred to the inhabitants of Canada. 

f It is even yet possible that the descendants of the French in 
Canada may eventually succeed the English-speaking people among 
the hills of New England. The latest census returns show a steady 
current of migration setting in that direction. 

and possibly carried their settlements out upon the fertile 
prairies beyond the lakes. They would, at least, have been 
likely to live at peace with their Protestant brethren of the 
English colonies, and thus the devastating wars of the 
early part of the eighteenth century in America would have 
been avoided. Upon the caprice of a single individual how 
often hang the destinies of nations ! 


In 1628-29 the bigoted treatment extended to the Hu- 
guenots by the French government returned to plague its 
abettors. That oppressed people rose in arms against the 
king, and Charles the First, of England, espoused their 
cause, not from any love of the principles for which they 
contended, but through jealousy of the power of France. 

As a natural consequence of war with England, many 
Huguenots took service under her banner. Among these 
were the three brothers, David, Louis, and Thomas Kirk, 
Calvinists, of Dieppe. Following the advice of the refugees, 
the government of England resolved to attack the French 
settlements in Canada, and in July, 1628, Admiral Sir Da- 
vid Kirk entered the St. Lawrence, captured several trans- 
ports laden with supplies for the half-famished inhabitants 
of Quebec, and sent a polite summons to Champlain to sur- 
render that important post. The veteran governor was not 
frightened at his words, and as politely declined. But the 
loss of the needed supplies reduced the garrison and inhab- 
itants to great straits,J and when, on the 19th of July, 1629, 
Louis Kirk, brother of the admiral, appeared before Quebec 
and demanded its surrender, Champlain had no alternative, 
and on the 20th gave up the post, and with it the control 
of all the French possessions on the St. Lawrence. 

This transfer of sovereignty interrupted all the plans of 
the Jesuits, and they beheld the despised Huguenots taking 
possession of the very regions from which they had been 
haughtily excluded. Their work had come to naught, and 
gathering up their scanty effects, they embarked with Char|- 
plain and eventually reached France. From this time |o 
1632, when the country was restored to the French by trie 
treaty of Suza, in April, 1629, which had been actuals 
concluded three months previous to Champlain's surrendejr, 
it remained in possession of the English. 

In July, 1632, Emery de Caen appeared before Quebec 
in a French ship and received its keys from the English 
commander. Caen was to hold the post for a twelvemonth, 
to indemnify him for losses in the war, and then turn it over 
to the Hundred Associates. With him came back two of 
the Jesuits, and these were soon followed by others. 

On the 23d of May, 1633, Champlain arrived and re- 
sumed his duties as governor on behalf of the company, 
which he continued until his death. 

Champlain was one of the most remarkable men of an 
age memorable for its bigotry and persecutions. He was, in 
fact, a century in advance of his time, and while not wholly 
cosmopolitan in his religious belief, he yet possessed that 
broad humanity which, even under the iron restraints of 
superstition, will manifest itself in behalf of the rights of 
others, regardless of creeds and sectaries. To Champlain, 

J The inhabitants, by Champlain's account, were reduced to the ne- 
cessity of subsisting upon acorn* and even roots. 



more than to any other leader, New France owed whatever 
of prosperity she enjoyed down to the time of his death, 
though the task he essayed was herculean and the obstacles 
in his pathway well-nigh insurmountable. 

The name of Champlain will always occupy a prominent 
place among the rulers, statesmen, and explorers of the 
French nation. The three prominent commanders under 
French rule in America were Champlain, Frontenac, and 
Montcalm, and the founder of the province loses nothing 
by comparison with the others. 


The earliest recorded visit by Europeans to the territory 
of Michigan was made in September and October, 1641, 
by Charles Raymbault and Isaac Jogues, two Jesuits, who 
made the journey in p, birch canoe, by way of the Ottawa 
River, Lake Nipissing, and Lake Huron to the Sault St. 
Marie, at the foot of Lake Superior.* From them the place 
received its name. The Jesuit missions in the country of 
the Hurons were re-established in 1634 by Brebeuf and 
Daniel, who were joined in 1635 by Pijart and La Mer- 

In 1636 came Jogues, Chatelain, and Garnier; in 1643, 
Cabanel, and subsequently others. 

In 1642 the site of Montreal was permanently settled by 
a colony under Paul de Chomedey, Sieur de Maissonneuve, 
who had been appointed governor of the place in 1640. 

The company was somewhat similar to the Hundred As- 
sociates of fourteen years before, and was designated " The 
Forty-five Associates of Montreal." The place had been 
a trading-post since 1611. Under the new regime it was 
re-christened " Ville Marie de Montreal," in honor of the 
Holy Family. 

Between 1634 and 1639, Jesuit missions "had been estab- 
lished at seven different points within a radius of twenty 
miles around the Matchedash Bay of Lake Huron. These 
were by name St. Marie, St. Louis, St. Ignace,f St. Michel, 
St. Jean Baptiste, St. Joseph, and La Conception. J 

In 1639, St. Marie, which was situated on the little river 
Wye (flowing from the south into Matchedash Bay), near 
its mouth, was strongly palisaded and made the central and 
chief mission for the Huron country. Here the Jesuit 
fathers labored with a zeal probably never before displayed 
in the history of the church militant for the regeneration 
of a race of savages, who but illy reciprocated their good 
intentions, and upon whom their labors might be almost 
said to have been expended in vain. 

Whatever may be thought of their doctrines and modes 
of propagation, their endless ceremonies, and the parapher-. 
nalia of their order, one thing we must admit : they were 
sincere in their profession to the verge of fanaticism, and 

* It is related that one- Jean Nicollet, a -Frenchman, who had dwelt 
among the Indians of Lake Nipissing and Allumette Island and had 
thoroughly mastered their language, was sent on a mission to the 
Winnebagoea in 1639, during which journey he crossed over to the 
Fox River, and thence to the Wisconsin, which he descended nearly 
or quite to the Mississippi. This journey would have taken him 
through the territory of Michigan. The story is not authentic. 

f Not to be confounded with St. Ignace of the Straits of Mackinac. 

X The Huron nation included, according to a Jesuit enumeration 
by Brebeuf in 1635, a population of thirty thousand souls. 

most faithfully labored, at the cost of every comfort and even 
life, in the thankless attempt to bring the wild children of 
the forest into what they steadfastly believed to be the true 
and only church. 


But a terrible doom awaited them. The fierce, uncon- 
querable warriors of the Hodenosaunee penetrated the wil- 
derness and overwhelmed alike the Huron and the Jesuit, 
the bark lodge of the savage and the sacred chapel of the 
self-denying missionary, in one common ruin. From 1638 
to 1649-50 a series of bloody encounters, burnings, massa- 
cres, and occasional attempts at negotiation ensued between 
the Hurons and the Iroquois. The Eries and Andastes 
were at times persuaded into a league with the Hurons, 
and at one period the Mohawks were in great danger of 
extermination by the Andastes ; but the superior discipline 
of the Iroquois at length triumphed over superior numbers, 
and the Huron country was completely overrun, and its 
people destroyed or driven into distant lands. The missions 
shared the common fate, and most of the Jesuit fathers 
fell martyrs to the cause of their religion. 

A part of the Huron nation fled to the Isle St. Joseph, 
in the Georgian Bay, some fled to the French settlements 
on the lower St. Lawrence, some to the Eries and An- 
dastes, to perish with those doomed nations, and quite a 
number of families sought a home among the Senecas, their 
bitterest enemies, but who readily received them and incor- 
porated them as a part of the nation. 

The division of the Huron people known as the Tobacco 
Nation§ maintained their ground longer than the rest, but 
they, too, were at length compelled to fly their country and 
seek a new home on the island of Mackinac, where they 
were joined by the Ottawas and other Algonquins who had 
been driven from the valley of the Ottawa River. But 
even here, surrounded by the almost boundless waters of 
the great northern lakes, they were not safe. The Iroquois 
penetrated to their new abode, and again they retreated 
before their implacable enemies, and took up their residence 
among the islands at the entrance of Green Bay, of Lake 
Michigan. Once more the enemy sought them out, and 
compelled them to fall back upon the mainland, where they 
fortified themselves, and at length the tide of Iroquois inva- 
sion was stayed. From thence they migrated south and 
west until they came in contact with the Illinois (them- 
selves subsequently destroyed), and the Sioux branch of the 
great Dacotah race of the Western plains. 

This powerful people drove them back towards the east 
and north, and they once more made a stand around the 
southwestern extremity of Lake Superior, settling mostly 
at Chegoimegon Point, and among the Apostle Islands in 
the lake. Finding themselves still harassed by the Sioux, 
they returned about the year 1671 to the neighborhood of 
Mackinac, where they settled. 

Subsequently the greater part of them removed to the 
neighborhood of Detroit and Sandusky, where they were 
known as Wyandots. Eventually the United States gov- 
ernment removed them to a western reservation beyond the 
Mississippi, where a remnant of the once-powerful Huron- 

I Called also by the French Dionondadies. 



Ottawa nation still survives, — a fragment of that wonderful 
people who so long battled the Iroquois, and who followed 
the fortunes of the mighty Pontiac in his war against 
the English. 



Renewal of the Jesuit Missions on the Great Lakes — Explorations — 
Marquette and Joliet. 

When Champlain visited the region lying between Lakes 
Huron, Erie, and Ontario, he found it occupied by different 
branches of the great Huron- Ottawa nation, and, for an 
Indian country, quite densely populated, their numbers 
being variously estimated at from ten thousand to thirty- 
five thousand. 

This entire family of tribes having been broken up by 
the Iroquois about 1645-50, many of its scattered rem- 
nants were found twenty years later inhabiting portions of 
Michigan. A part of this once-powerful nation, as we have 
seen, subsequently took the name Wyandot*. 

The great nation of the Ojibwas, or, as they were more 
commonly called, Ghippewas, occupied all that portion of 
the present State of Michigan known as the Upper Penin- 
sula. The Pottawattomies, who were an important branch 
of the Ojibwas, we find mentioned as being present at the 
great council held by the French at the Sault St. Marie in 

This nation or tribe would appear to have gradually 
moved to Green Bay, and thence, about the beginning of 
the eighteenth century, to the vicinity of Chicago ; and 
we find them soon after occupying the country in the valleys 
of the St. Joseph and Kalamazoo Rivers. As late as 1679, 
however, unless La Salle was mistaken, the nation known 
as the Miamis was occupying the region about the mouth 
of the St. Joseph.* 

The Ottawas were mingled more or less with the Ojibwa 
nation, and in fact no one tribe or nation seemed to have 
any special abiding-place, but changed their residence as 
war, famine, or other compelling cause obliged them to.f 

The Ojibwas also occupied the region from Mackinac 
along the western coast of Lake Huron towards Saginaw 
Bay. Along the southern border were the Wyandots, 
intermingled with scattered bands of the Shawanese, those 
Bedouins of the Western Continent, and the Miamis, who 
were allied to the Illinois, lying farther west. The Menomi- 

* This nearly corresponds with the declaration of the celebrated 
Miami chief Little Turtle or Meshecunnaqua, at Greenville, in 1795 : 
" My forefathers kindled the first fire at Detroit; from thence they ex- 
tended their lines to the head-waters of the Scioto ; from thence to its 
mouth ; from thence down the Ohio to the mouth of the Wabash j and 
from thence to Chicago, on Lake Michigan. These are the boundaries 
within which the prints of my ancestors' houses are everywhere to 
be seen." 

f Traditions among the Ojibwas and Ottawas in the valleys of the 
streams which flow into Saginaw Bay seem to sustain the theory that 
"many moons" ago a nation called the Sauks, or Osaukies (whether 
identical with the modern Sauks, or Sacs, we do not know), once occu- 
pied all the Saginaw region, but were expelled by the Ojibwas and 
Ottawas before the advent of the French. 

nees, in 1671-73, inhabited the region of Green Bay, and 
dwelling near, and perhaps mingling with them, were the 
fiery Sacs and Foxes, who nominally occupied the country 
lying southwest of Green Bay and between it and the 
Mississippi River. 

The Winnebagoes, dwelling around the lake which still 
bears their name, were a branch of the Dahcotah family, 
who chose rather to be environed by the Algonquin nations 
than remain among their own people. 

The Kickapoos, or, as they were sometimes called by the 
French, Mascoutins (dwellers on the prairie), occupied the 
northern part of Illinois. 

The Kaskaskia, Peoria, CahoJcia, Ouiatanons, Pianhas- 
haws, Eel River Indians, and others, were probably branches 
of the Miami and Illinois nations. All these nations, with 
the possible exception of the Winnebagoes, spoke dialects 
of the language of the Algonquin family. Among the 
famous chiefs and orators of these nations were Pontiac, of 
the Ottawas ; Buck-ong-a-he-las, of the Delaware*; and 
Meshecunnaqua (Little Turtle), of the Miamis ; Tecumseh, 
Elskwatawa his brother, the prophet, and Blue Jacket, of 
the Shawanese ; Winnemeg and Black Partridge, of the 
Pottawattomies ; and Black Hawk and Keokuk, of the 
Sac nation. 


The first visit made by the Jesuits to the territory of 
Michigan, succeeding the Huron- Iroquois war, was proba- 
bly by Father Bene Menard (or Mesnard), in the autumn 
of 1660, who coasted the southern shore of Lake Superior J 
and attempted to plant a mission at the head of Keweenaw 
Bay, to which he gave the name of St. Theresa. Here he 
remained during the following winter, and perished in the 
summer of 1661, while on a journey across the point. It 
has been supposed by some writers that he was captured 
by a roving band of Sioux, as his cassock and breviary 
were said to have been found "many years subsequently 
among that people. 

On the 8th of August, 1666, Father Claude Allouez 
left Three Bivers with a band of several hundred Indians, 
and reached the Sault St. Marie in September following. 
He visited Lake Superior, which he named Lac Tracy au 
Superieur, in honor of the viceroy of Canada. The earliest 
map of this region, drawn in 1668 and published in 1672, 
is supposed to have been the work of Fathers Allouez and 
Marquette. It was a remarkably accurate one considering 
the means at their command. 

Allouez, in an account of his visit, speaks of copper as 
being a plentiful commodity among the Indians. The mines 
do not appear to have been in any manner worked by them, 
but they possessed numerous pieces weighing from a few 
ounces to twenty pounds, which they had picked up, evi- 
dently among the drift. 

This missionary coasted along the southern shore of the 
great lake, and on the 1st of October landed at Chaqua- 
megon Bay, which the early voyageurs named La Pointe 
Bay. Here he lived for a period of two years, and proba- 

J The great fresh-water sea was called by the Indians Gitehi 
Gomee, which Longfellow translates to mean in English "Big Sea 
Water," or " Shining Big Sea Water." 



bly visited the bay where Duluth* now stands, as he speaks 
of visiting Fond du Lac and meeting there the Sioux, from 
whom he learned of the great prairies of the West, where 
roamed immense herds of buffalo, and of the great river 
flowing through the country, which the Indians called 
Messepi or Namasepee. Allouez also visited and labored 
among the Nipissings, to the northward of Lake Huron. .* 

He returned to Quebec in the autumn of 1667, and after 
procuring the necessary aid returned again to the scene of 
his labors. 

In 1668, Claude Dablon and Jacques (or James) Mar- 
quette established a permanent settlement and mission at 
the Sault St. Marie, which was, according to the historian 
Bancroft, the first permanent settlement within the boun- 
daries of what constitutes the present State of Michigan."j" 

In 1669, Father Marquette succeeded Allouez at Cha- 
quamegon, and the latter, in company with Dablon, founded 
a mission on Green Bay, of Lake Michigan, in 1670. \ 

The first recorded visit of white men to the site of De- 
troit§ was made in the spring of 1670 by two Sulpitian 
priests, Dollier de Casson and Galinee, who had joined an 
expedition fitted out by La Salle in the summer of 1669, 
for the purpose of exploring the upper lakes and, if possi- 
ble, the Mississippi River. The expedition had been turned 
back at the head of Lake Ontario by the illness of La Salle, 
but the two priests, who had been sent out by the Sulpitian 
brotherhood, located on the bay of Quinte, resolved to con- 
tinue their journey alone. The winter overtook them on 
Lake Erie, and they were forced to remain at Long Point, 
on its northern shore, until the following spring, when they 
resumed their voyage, passing through the straits and on 
over Lake Huron to the Sault St. Marie, where they arrived 
on the 25th of May, 1670. This is the first recorded visit 
of the French to Detroit, though Louis Joliet, who had 
been on an exploring expedition the previous year, no 
doubt passed the point on his return. 

In May, 1671, a grand council was held by the French 
at the Sault St. Marie with the Indians of the Northwest, 
at which an immense concourse of the natives was present. 
M. de Lusson, who had been sent out by the intendant, 
Talon, took possession of the country in the name of the 
king of France, and extended his sovereign's protection 
over all the Indian nations of the Northwest who chose to 
be friendly to the French. Father Allouez was present 
and pronounced a panegyric upon the king, and amid great 
pomp and much ceremony a grand treaty was concluded, 
.and presents were liberally distributed among the assem- 
bled natives. 

In the same year Marquette founded the mission of St. 

* This place takes its name from Daniel Greysolon du Lhut, a 
famous leader of the couriers de bois, a cousin of Tonti, born at Lyons. 
He visited the head of Lake Superior in the autumn of 1679. 

f A fort was first erected at the Sault by the Chevalier de Repen- 
tigny, in 1750. 

t The mission at La Pointe, called St. Esprit, was broken up by the 
Sioux in 1671, and the Hurons, who composed its inhabitants, fled to 
the islands in Lake Huron. The mission of Green Bay was named 
St. Francois Xavier. A mission was also founded among the Otta- 
loas, on the Grand Manitoulin Island, in Lake Huron, in 1671, by 
Father Louis Andre. It was named the mission of St. Simon. 

\ D'etroit is French for strait. 

Ignace,|| on the north shore of the strait, opposite the 
island of Mackinac,^" and, together with Allouez and Da- 
blon, explored the country lying south of Lake Superior 
and west of Lake Michigan, and penetrated, according to 
some writers, as far as the present site of the city of Chi- 

But the rulers of Canada, and especially Talon, the in- 
tendant, were not satisfied with pomp and show and the 
mere ceremony of taking formal possession of the great 
West. It was resolved to explore the entire region, and 
above all the Mississippi River, about which there were 
numerous speculations and conjectures. According to vari- 
ous writers it discharged its multitudinous waters into the 
Gulf of Mexico, the Gulf of California, and the Great 
South Sea. 

Louis Joliet had been sent out in 1669, as we have 
already seen, but returned in the autumn of the same year 
without accomplishing the object of his commission. In 
1673, Joliet and Marquette were selected and fitted out for 
a more thorough research. 


Louis Joliet was the son of a wagon-maker in the employ 
of the Hundred Associates of Canada, and was born at 
Quebec in 1645. He was educated by the Jesuits, and 
studied for the priesthood, but when about twenty-two 
years of age he renounced his clerical vocation, and em- 
barked in the business of fur-trading. In 1669, as before 
stated, he was sent by Talon to explore the copper mines 
of Lake Superior, but returned without being able to reach 
his destination.** 


Father Jacques Marquette was born in 1637, at Laon, 
in the north of France, and was also educated by the 
Jesuits, and subsequently joined the order. In 1666 he 
was sent to the Canadian missions, where he studied the 
language of the Montagnau, and prepared himself for 
teaching among that people at Tadoussac, at the mouth of 
the Saguenay River ; but in 1668 he was sent to the upper 
lakes, where he remained until called by Talon to accom- 
pany Joliet in exploring the Mississippi, being last stationed 
at St. Ignace. 

Under the patronage of Count Frontenac, who had been 

|| Judge Campbell, in his excellent " Outlines of the Political His- 
tory of Michigan," states that a mission was founded on the island 
of Michilimackinac in 1668, but removed very soon. We do not find 
satisfactory evidence of this, but it is probable. 

\ The word Michilimackinac is said to be derived from an Indian 
word, Mich-i-mack-i-nac, signifying a great turtle; or the Ojibwa 
word Mich-ine-mauk-i-nonk, meaning the place of giant fairies. 

** In 1675, Joliet married the daughter of a Canadian merchant who 
was engaged in trade with the northern Indians. In 1679, Joliet's 
attention was drawn towards Hudson's Bay, and in that year he made 
a journey thither via the Saguenay River. In the same year he was 
granted the Mignon Islands, and in 1680 he received a grant of the 
great island of Anticosti, in the lower St. Lawrence, where, in 1681, 
he established his residence. He engaged in the fisheries and made 
a chart of the river. In 1690 his property was destroyed by the 
English, under Sir Win. Phips, and his family captured. In 1694 he 
explored the coast of Labrador. He was made royal pilot of the St. 
Lawrence by Count Frontenac, and royal hydrographer by the French 
government. He died about 1700, and was buried on one of the 
Mignon Islands. — Parkman. 



appointed Governor- General of New France in 1672, these 
two remarkable men left Mackinac in two birch canoes on 
the 13th of May, 1673, and made their way over the heav- 
ing waters of Lake Michigan,* and up the broad estuary of 
Green Bay to its extreme southern terminus. From thence 
the adventurers, against the earnest protest of the Indians, 
ascended the Fox River of Wisconsin, and crossing the 
portage descended the Wisconsin River to the Mississippi, 
which they entered on the 17th of June. 

Around the head of Green Bay they found the nation 
now known as Menominees, which they named the " Folles 
Aviones," or nation of Wild Oats. Along the Fox River 
was a medley of nations, — Miamis, Mascoutins, and Kicka- 
pooSj which latter two may have been identical. The scat- 
tering Miamis found here, soon after migrated, or returned, 
to the valley of the St. Joseph River, in Michigan. 

Descending the Mississippi, they discovered the Des 
Moines, Illinois, Missouri, and Ohio Rivers, and went 
south as far as the mouth of the Arkansas.f 

The explorers returned by way of the Illinois River, 
Chicago, and Lake Michigan, and this is perhaps the first 
well-authenticated visit to the site of the Northwestern me- 

Marquette, who was greatly exhausted by his voyage 
and the premonitory attacks of what proved a fatal malady§ 
two years later, remained at Green Bay, while Joliet, with 
the journals and documents of the expedition, descended to 
Quebec to acquaint Frontenac with their discoveries. At 
the La Chine Rapids, above Montreal, his canoe was upset, 
two men and an Indian boy drowned, and all his papers 
lost in the raging waters. Joliet himself narrowly escaped. 

Marquette spent the winter of 1673-74 and the follow- 
ing summer at Green Bay. 

In the autumn of 1674, his malady having somewhat 
abated, he resolved to found a mission on the Mississippi 
River, to be called the Mission of the Immaculate Concep- 
tion, a name which he had already given to the river. He 
accordingly left Green Bay on the 25th of October, 1674, 
accompanied by two Frenchmen, whom he called Pierre and 
Jacques, and a band of Pottawattomie Indians, in ten 
canoes, and crossing by an obscure portage to the main 
lake, coasted thence southward to the mouth of the Chicago 
River, which stream he ascended about two French leagues. 
Here, apparently, he encamped temporarily, and here his 
malady returned fiercer than ever, and he told his compan- 
ions it would be his last journey. 

The party was compelled to go into camp, and in the 
end were obliged to remain through the winter, during 
which they subsisted largely upon the game which was 
abundant in the neighborhood. They built a log cabin, 

* This lake was called by the French Lac des Illinois, and by the 
Indians, Mitchiganon, or Machihiganing. Green Bay was named Le 
Baye des Eaux Puantes. It was said to have an odor like the sea. 

f The Missouri Marquette called Pekitanoui. It is also called on 
French maps Rividre des Osages and Riviere des Emissourites. The 
Ohio is called by Marquette Ouabouskiaou. The name Ohio, or 
Oheio, is said to be from the Iroquois, and to signify " Beautiful." 
The Arkansas they called Akamsca. 

% The name Chicago is written on Frauquelin's map of La Salle's 
explorations in -1684, Ghekagou. 

g The disease which caused Marquette's death was hemorrhage of 
the lungs. 


and made themselves as comfortable as possible. The lo- 
cation was within the present limits of the built-up suburbs 
of the city of Chicago, near what was formerly known as 
Bridgeport, upon the south branch. 

In the latter part of March, 1675, feeling somewhat 
better, Marquette crossed the portage to the Des Plaines 
River, and descended to its junction with the Kankakee , 
and thence down the Illinois to the Indian town called by 
him Kaskaskia, situated about seven miles below the site 
of the present city of Ottawa. Here he held a great 
council, at which were assembled more than two thousand 
warriors. The chiefs were anxious that the missionary 
should remain among them, but he felt that his days were 
numbered, and that if he would die among his countrymen 
he must hasten his departure. 

Towards the end of April the little party started on the 
return voyage down Lake Michigan, their course being 
around the southern margin and along the eastern shore. 
On the 19 th of May, as they neared the entrance to a 
small river, 1 1 Marquette, feeling his end approaching, re- 
quested his companions to land, which they did and car- 
ried him ashore, where he died during the following night. 
They buried him in the sand, and returned to Mackinac, 
bearing the tidings of his death. 

" In the winter of 1676, a party of Kiskakon Ottawas 
were hunting on Lake Michigan ; and when, in the follow- 
ing spring, they prepared to return home, they bethought 
them, in accordance with an Indian custom, of taking with 
them the bones of Marquette, who had been their in- 
structor at the mission of St. Esprit (La Pointe). They 
repaired to the spot, found the grave, opened it, washed and 
dried the bones, and placed them carefully in a box of 
birch-bark. Then, in a procession of thirty canoes, they 
bore it, singing their funeral songs, to St. Ignace of Michil- 
imackinac. As they approached, priests, Indians, and 
traders all thronged the shore. The relics of Marquette 
were received with solemn ceremony, and buried beneath 
the floor of the little chapel of the mission."^ 



Early History — Arrival in Canada, — La Chine — Fort Cataraqui— - 
Exploring Expeditions, 1669-1673 — First Vessel on Lake Ontario 
— Fort Conti, at Niagara — The " Griffin" and her Voyage — Fort 
Miamis — On the Illinois — Fort Crlvecoeur — Journey to Canada — 
In Kalamazoo County. 

The next, and by far the most prominent explorer of the 
valley of the Mississippi, was Robert Cavelier, Sieur de la 

|| " The river where he died is a small stream in the west of Michi- 
gan, some distance south of the promontory called the 'Sleeping 
Bear/ It long bore his name, which is now borne by a neighboring 
stream/' (Parkman.) 

This stream was probably either what is now called the Platte, or 
the Bees Scies. What is now called the Marquette River discharges 
at Ludington. (Ed.) 

f Parkman, Discovery of the Great West, p. 71. 



Salle,* who was bom at Rouen, in Normandy, in 1643. 
His father, Jean Cavalier, and his uncle, Henri, were wealthy 
merchants, living much after the manner of the noblemen 
of the period, though they could not boast of noble blood. 


La Salle was educated by the Jesuits, and was probably 
a member of the order, though, like Louis Joliet, he subse- 
quently threw aside his vestments to become one of the 
most famous explorers of his time. His elder brother, the 
Abbe Jean Cavelier, was a priest in the Sulpitian order, 
and had preceded him to Canada. 

The accounts of the discoveries of Joliet, Marquette, and 
others had filled the mind of La Salle with an intense de- 
sire to visit the newly discovered regions, where he hoped 
at least to accumulate a competency, as his connection with 
the Jesuits had, under the law of France, cut him off from 
any share in his father's estate, excepting an annuity of four 
hundred livres which his father had settled upon him at his 
death, a short time before his departure for Canada. 


He sailed for Quebec in the spring of 1666. He first 
appears at Montreal, where the superior of the seminary 
of St. Sulpice granted him a large tract of land on the 
island, at a point named by him La Chine, in commemora- 
tion of his idea of discovering a water passage via the lakes 
to the great South Sea, and thence to China. 

He immediately laid out his lands into lots, commenced 
the erection of buildings, and encouraged settlers to join him. 
He determined to make La Chine a grand trading-point and 
base of operations. 

It is evident that La Salle's first intentions were to engage 
in the fur-trade as a means of livelihood and gain, and in 
the mean time to study the Indian languages, and prepare 
himself gradually for grand exploring enterprises, which he 
no doubt had outlined in his mind from the first.' He ap- 
plied himself so diligently to learning the native tongue 
that it is said he mastered within two or three years the 
Iroquois and seven or eight other languages and dialects. 
In addition to all his other duties he is said to have made 
several journeys, in the years 1667 and 1668, into the 
northern wilderness. 

At length the desire for exploring the unknown West 
took such firm hold of him that he resolved to lay his de- 
signs before the Governor-General, Courcelles, with the in- 
tention of procuring letters patent authorizing the enter- 
prise. He accordingly proceeded to Quebec, where he laid 
his plans before the Governor and Jean Talon, the inten- 
dant, with such success that they entered heartily into the 
work of assisting him. 

With his credentials he hastened back to Montreal, where 
he sold back his seigniory to the principal of the Sulpitian 
seminary and one Jean Milot, an iron-monger, and with 
the proceeds purchased four canoes, with the necessary sup- 
plies, and hired fourteen men. 

At the same time the seminary was preparing an enter- 

* Cavelier was the family name, and La Salle the title of its estate 
or seigniory. His full name and title, according to the parish record, 
was Ren6-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de la Salle. 

prise for the purpose of establishing missions among the 
Western nations, in rivalry of the powerful order of the 
Jesuits, who aspired to monopolize the entire mission work 
of New France. 

At the head of this latter enterprise was placed Dollier 
de Casson, a Sulpitian priest, who had been a soldier in his 
younger days, and had served with distinction under Gov- 
ernor Courcelles against the Mohawks, in 1666. He had 
also spent a winter among the Nipissings. 

This was intended for an independent expedition, but 
Casson was persuaded by the Governor to unite with La 
Salle, and preparations were made for the two to proceed 
together. Three canoes, with supplies, were procured, and 
seven men hired as assistants. Galinee, another priest, was 
joined with Casson, and on the 6th of July, 1669, the joint 
expedition left La Chine. 

La Salle's original idea was to pass from Lake Ontario or 
Lake Erie to the head of the Ohio, and follow that stream to 
its confluence with the Mississippi. The expedition accord- 
ingly followed the St. Lawrence to Lake Ontario, and, coasting 
the eastern and southern border of the same, entered the 
mouth of the Genesee and proceeded to the principal village of 
the Senecas. More than a month was consumed in getting 
to this point, and nearly every one of the voyageurs was 
prostrated by sickness. At the Seneca town was stationed 
the Jesuit Fremin, and between his antipathy to? the Sul- 
pitians and the suspicions of the Indians, the negotiations 
for a guide to pilot the party to the Ohio came to naught. 

They remained for a month with the Senecas, when 
an Indian from the village of Ganastogue, an Iroquois 
colony at the head of Lake Ontario, offered to conduct 
.them thither, assuring them they would find there what 
they sought. Leaving the Genesee, they coasted along the 
southern shore of the lake, passing within hearing of the 
great cataract of Niagara, and reached Ganastogue in five 
days. They were received in a friendly manner, and La 
Salle was presented with a Shawanese prisoner, who in- 
formed him that the Ohio could be reached in six weeks, 
and offered to guide them thither.f 

When on the point of starting with the new guide, they 
heard of the arrival of two Frenchmen at a neighboring 
village. One of these was Joliet, who was on his return 
from a fruitless expedition to the copper region of Lake Su- 
perior, whither he had been sent by Talon, as mentioned 
on a preceding page. He had returned via the Detroit 
River and Lake Erie, and had been led by an Indian guide 
across the country from the mouth of Grand River to the 
head of Lake Ontario, through fear of the Iroquois around 
the portage of Niagara Falls. 

Joliet showed the priests a map of such portions of the 
upper lakes as he had visited, telling them at the same time 
of the Pottawattomies, and other Indian nations of that 
region, who were in great need of spiritual instruction. 
This information determined the priests to abandon the 
Mississippi scheme and turn their attention to the Indians. 
The remonstrances of La Salle, who urged that the Jesuits 
had already occupied the field, availed nothing. The In- 

f From the length of time mentioned as necessary to reach the river, 
it is evident the savages meant the Mississippi River. 



dians were in need of spiritual succor, and nothing could 
persuade them from their purpose. 

La Salle was attacked by a violent fever after reaching 
the head of Lake Ontario, and he told his colleagues he 
was in no condition to proceed with them, and would be 
obliged to leave them. Inwardly, he was so disgusted with 
them that he was glad of any excuse for parting company 
with them. On the last day of September they parted, 
the Sulpitians and their party descending the Grand River 
towards Lake Erie, and La Salle and his companions, in- 
cluding Joliet, as they supposed, taking their way back to 

The priests, as before seen, were compelled to winter on 
Lake Erie, from whence, in the spring of 1670, they pro- 
ceeded through the Straits and Lake Huron to the Sault 
St. Marie. From thence they soon after returned to Mon- 
treal, without accomplishing the design of their voyage. 
This, as before written, was the first recorded passage of 
white men through the strait where now stands the city of 
Detroit, — the undoubted passage of Joliet in the previous 
autumn never having been recorded. The first three visits 
to the territory of Michigan by white men would be Charles 
Raymbault and Isaac Jogues, in September, 1641, through 
the Georgian Bay and Lake Huron to the Sault St. Marie ; 
that of Louis Joliet, in 1669; and the passage of Casson 
and Galinee, in the spring of 1670. 


The whereabouts of La Salle during the next three years 
has never been satisfactorily explained. A somewhat ob- 
scure record, never published, entitled " Histoire de Mon- 
sieur de la Salle," said to have been taken down from La 
Salle's lips, has been extensively drawn upon, and the at- 
tempt made by sundry writers to prove therefrom that 
during the winter and spring of 1669-70 La Salle made 
a journey of exploration down the Ohio as far as the falls 
at Louisville. 

As an offset to this statement may be quoted the story of 
Nicholas Perrot, that in the summer of 1670 he met La 
Salle hunting on the Ottawa River with a party of Iroquois. 
The manuscript in question goes on to relate that the great 
explorer in the year 1671 embarked on Lake Erie, explored 
that lake, and passed on north and west, and sailed over 
Lakes Huron and Michigan, and from the latter passed to 
a river flowing westward and followed it to another flowing 
to the southeast, — meaning possibly the Illinois, or Wis- 
consin, and Mississippi, — descending the last-mentioned 
stream to the 36th parallel of north latitude. The story 
of the exploration of the Ohio bears some marks of au- 
thenticity, since it is sustained by a memorial of La Salle 
addressed to Frontenac in 1677, in which he affirms that 
he discovered that river, and by the testimony of Joliet, 
who made two maps of the region of the Mississippi and 
the great lakes. The Ohio is laid down on both, and there 
is an inscription or statement to the effect that La Salle 
had explored it. 

This part of the account is possibly correct, but the por- 
tion relating to the discovery of the Mississippi is a fiction, 
since neither La Salle nor his friends ever made such 

In 1672, Count Frontenac had succeeded Courcelles as 
Governor-General of Canada, and we find that La Salle had 
won the confidence of the new Governor, who was greatly 
interested in all his plans of discovery. About this time 
Perrot, the Governor of Montreal, had become extensively 
engaged in the fur-trade, and had even sent men into the 
wilderness to anticipate the Indian trade, and thus divert 
it to Montreal. Frontenac was himself interested in the 
fur-trade, and this movement of Perrot seriously interfered 
with his business at Quebec. 


In this dilemma La Salle broached a plan, which had also 
been recommended by Courcelles, and which immediately 
interested the count. He suggested the advisability of estab- 
lishing a fortified post at the outlet of Lake Ontario, which 
would not only be of great value from a military point of 
view, but would enable the party who controlled it to com- 
mand the entire trade of the upper country, and Frontenac 
was not slow to take advantage of it. He did not dare 
petition for the sanction of the king, lest the Governor and 
merchants of Montreal should remonstrate and defeat the 
object, but proceeded at once to put the design in execu- 
tion. Summoning the militia of the province and collect- 
ing a large number of Indians, he set out on his journey 
from Quebec and leisurely proceeded to Montreal. He had 
given out that he was on a tour of inspection of the prov- 
ince, and had invited the officers and prominent citizens to 
accompany him. 

He had a train of about four hundred men, with one 
hundred and twenty canoes, and these, with the baggage, he 
sent from Montreal to La Chine by land, to which place he 
followed on the 28th of June, 1673. 

From thence the passage was made mostly by water. In 
the mean time La Salle had visited Onondaga and invited 
the Iroquois to meet the Governor in a grand council. He 
also sent Frontenac a map of the region around Lake On- 
tario, and recommended the mouth of the Cataraqui, 
where Kingston now stands, as the most eligible site for the 
new post. 

The expedition reached the rendezvous on the 12th of 
July, and the Governor found a respectable number of Iro- 
quois assembled to meet him. 

Here, with all the pomp and ceremony he could employ, 
Count Frontenac held a council with the delegates from the 
Five Nations, making them costly presents, fondling the 
Indian children, and using every means to make a favorable 
impression upon the haughty conquerors of the wilderness. 
The council ceremonies were protracted through several 
days, and in the mean time Frontenac's engineer, Raudin, 
was busily engaged in tracing the lines and constructing 
Fort Cataraqui. 

It was a large and strongly-palisaded earthwork, with 
ditch and bastions, and designed to mount a few light 

The Iroquois departed, apparently pleased with Onontlo,* 

* A name the Indians bestowed on the French Governors. The 
English Governors and principal men they called Corlear, a name at 
first applied to the Dutch. According to Parkman it signifies, in the 
Iroquois tongue, " Great Mountain/' 



though the experience of later years proved that all his 
efforts had neither charmed nor frightened the descendants 
of At-o-tar-ho. 

Frontenac placed a garrison in his new fort, with provis- 
ions for one year, and left on his return to Quebec, highly 
pleased with the success of his expedition. 

Thus was the strong point d'appui to the vast lake re- 
gion of the West established, — a position which the French 
held with great tenacity until 1758, when, in an unguarded 
moment, while Montcalm was confronting the decimated 
army of Abercrombie on Lake George, Gen. John Brad- 
street descended upon it with a Provincial army, and almost 
obliterated what had then become a regular fortress. 

La Salle was deeply interested in this arrangement, and 
Frontenac, who feared the king might not sanction his 
bold move, was willing to advance any scheme which La 
Salle might adopt that would insure the permanency of 
Cataraqui as a military post. 

It was finally arranged between them that La Salle 
should present two petitions to the king, — one for a patent 
of nobility for his services as an explorer, the other for a 
grant in seigniory of Fort Frontenac, which name he was to 
give the new post, in honor of his patron. 

Armed with letters of strong recommendation from the 
count, he proceeded, in the autumn of 1674, to France 
and presented his petitions at court. He was well received, 
and his petitions were granted, upon condition that he should 
repay the king the ten thousand francs which the fort had 
cost him ; maintain it at his own charge, with a garrison 
equal to that of Montreal, with the necessary laborers ; 
gather a French colony around it ; build a church when 
the inhabitants should reach one hundred ; support one or 
more Recollet friars ; and form a settlement of domesti- 
cated Indians in the neighborhood. 

" He was raised to the rank of the untitled nobles, received a grant 
of the fort and lands adjacent, to the extent of four leagues in front 
and half a league in depth, together with the neighboring islands, and 
was invested with the government of the fort and settlement, subject 
to the orders of the Governor-General. "* 

This good fortune so pleased his family that they made 
him large advances in money to enable him to pay the king, 
and also to rebuild the fort substantially with stone. 

It was a matter of record that La Salle was to share with 
Frontenac and other parties the great profits which would 
accrue from the immense trade that must centre and be 
controlled at this point. 

Though La Salle had a firm friend in Count Frontenac, 
who assisted him in every possible manner, and though the 
Sulpitian priests at Montreal and on the Bay of Quinte were 
well disposed towards him, yet he had in some way incurred 
the enmity of the Jesuits, who put forth every effort to op- 
pose his plans and destroy his growing trade. From 1674 
to the day of his death there was a continual quarrel between 
him and them, and no doubt this was the principal cause 
of his misfortunes. He was too independent in spirit to be 
controlled by the haughty priesthood, who with a strong 
hand undertook to sway the destinies of Canada. Every- 
thing was thrown in his way that could impede his plans of 
discovery, and even his brother, the Abbe Cavelier, in a 

* Parkman, 

small way interfered with him to his great annoyance. 
Attempts were even made to poison him. 


But notwithstanding all the difficulties which surrounded 
him La Salle kept steadily at work, with the one grand aim 
always in view of conducting a great exploring expedition 
through the Mississippi Valley, and thereby adding vast 
regions to the power of France. He built four small 
decked vessels on Lake Ontario for purposes of trade 
and exploration, and within two years — 1677-78 — had 
rebuilt Fort Frontenac with hewn stone, with the exception 
of the water-side, which was constructed of strong stockades. 
The regular garrison consisted of two officers, a surgeon, and 
ten or twelve soldiers ; and forty or fifty mechanics, laborers, 
and canoe-men were also maintained. There were in addi- 
tion two Rdeollet friars, Luc Buisset and the noted Louis 
Hennepin. Barracks, a mill, a bakery, a well, and clusters 
of houses were constructed, and the Recollets had a house 
and chapel. 


In 1678, La Salle again visited France for the further- 
ance of his scheme of exploration. As on a former occa- 
sion, he bore strong commendatory letters from Frontenac, 
and though denounced in advance as a madman by his 
enemies, he won the confidence and support of the king 
and his prime minister, the famous Colbert, and was author- 
ized to go on with his discoveries, plant settlements, build 
forts, and carry on trade with the natives. 

In July, 1678, La Salle returned to Canada, bringing an 
addition of thirty men, — sailors, carpenters, and laborers, — 
with abundant stores, tools, and merchandise ; in short, 
everything necessary for his enterprise. With him came 
Henri de Tonti (or Tonty, as Parkman writes it), an Italian 
officer, one of whose hands had been blown off by a grenade. 
His father, who had been Governor of Gaeta, but who had 
subsequently settled in France on account of political 
troubles, was the originator of the plan of life insurance 
known as the Tontine. 

The Prince de Conti, whose protigi Henri de Tonti was, 
had recommended him to La Salle, and the latter made him 
his lieutenant. De Tonti afterwards became almost as noted 
for his voyages and explorations as La Salle himself. He 
was undoubtedly a most remarkable man, a brave soldier, 
a most skillful leader, true as the needle to the magnet, and 
indefatigable in the discharge of his duties, whether as 
commander of the fortified post, the wilderness stockade on 
the Rock of the Illinois, or as leader of an exploring band 
in the forests of the Mississippi. 

Late in the season of 1678, De Tonti was sent forward 
by La Salle to build a fort near the cataract of Niagara, 
which La Salle, in honor of the prince, named Fort Conti.f 

Two other prominent friends of La Salle were the Sieur 

f La Salle, in a letter to the Prince de Conti, under date of Oct. 31, 
1678, in speaking of Tonti and the new fortification, uses the follow- 
ing language : " Nevertheless, his energy and address make him equal 
to anything,* and now, at a season of the year when everybody is in 
fear of the ice, he is setting out to begin a new fort two hundred 
leagues from this place. It is situated near that great cataract, more 
than a hundred and twenty toises in height, by which the lakes of 
higher elevation precipitate themselves into Lake Frontenac." 



de la Motte and Father Louis Hennepin,* a member of the 
Rieollet order of the Franciscans, who met him at Quebec. 
Early in November, La Salle and his party arrived at 
Fort Frontenac, from whence he immediately sent fifteen 
men in canoes to the region of Lake Michigan, to open 
trade with the Indians and collect provisions for future use. 
This party probably went via Lake Erie, the straits of De- 
troit, and Lakes Huron and Michigan to Green Bay, where 
La Salle met a portion of them in the following year. 


Soon after his arrival at the fort, La Salle, Hennepin, 
and La Motte, with sixteen men, set sail on Lake Ontario 
(which La Salle called Lac Frontenac) in a small brigan- 
tine, or sloop, of ten tons burden, for the post of Niagara, 
or Fort Conti. It was past the middle of November, 
and they were eight days working up the tempest-tossed 
lake to the Indian village of Tai-ai~a-gon, near the site of 
the modern city of Toronto, where they ran into harbor 
and were frozen in. 

Cutting their way out with axes, on the 5th of De- 
cember they crossed the head of the lake to the mouth of 
the Niagara River, which they reached on the 6th after a 
tempestuous night, and landed at the spot since made his- 
toric by Fort Niagara.f 

From this place Hennepin and several others ascended 
the river in a canoe as far as the foot of the ridge at Lew- 
iston, from whence they were compelled to go on foot the 
remainder of the distance (about seven miles) to the great 
fall, which they probably beheld about the 7th of December, 
1678, and were perhaps the first white men who gazed 
upon its wonders. Hennepin's account was certainly the 
first in writing given by one who had actually beheld the 
greatest curiosity of the kind on the face of the globe. J 

The Senecas were opposed to the building of a regular fort 
at Niagara, and to conciliate them La Motte and Hennepin 
made a journey to one of their villages beyond the Gen- 
esee River, near the modern town of Victor. They reached 
the place on the last day of December, 1678, and held a 
council with forty-two chiefs, to whom they made many 
presents, and tried to persuade them that the building of a 
fort at Niagara would not be an injury, but a positive benefit 
to them. The Indians took the presents, but failed to see 

* Hennepin had come to Canada in 1675, in the same ship with La 
Salle. He had been a teacher, and on his arrival was sent to Fort 
Frontenac, where he set up a huge cross, erected a chapel, and in- 
structed the Iroquois colonized there. In the winter of 1677-78, in 
company with a single soldier of the fort, he made a journey on snow- 
shoes to Onondaga, and thence down the Mohawk River to the Mohawk 
castles, where he found two Jesuit missionaries. He was a noted 
adventurer, but a bombastic and unreliable writer. 

f This name was written by Lalemant, in 1641, Onguiaahra, and 
by Sanson, on his map of 1657, Ongiara. Hennepin wrote it as now 

X The first mention of the fall was made by Ragueneau, in 1648, as 
follows : " Nearly south of this same Neutral Nation there is a great 
lake, about two hundred leagues in circuit, named Erie, which is 
formed by the discharge of the Fresh Sea, and which precipitates 
itself by a cataract of frightful height into a third lake, named On- 
tario, which we call Lac St. Louis." — Parkman's Jesuits, p. 143, 

Hennepin vastly overrated the height of the fall, which he at first 
estimated at five hundred feet, and in his second account, in 1697, at 
six hundred. Dr. O'Callaghan states that he has seen thirty-nine 
different ways of spelling Niagara. 

the project in the same light as their visitors, and the latter 
returned to their camp with very little satisfaction. 

In the mean time, La Salle had met with both good and 
evil fortune. On a second voyage, with supplies for the 
camp at Niagara, the little brigantine had been wrecked, and 
most of the supplies lost, by the disobedience of the pilot. 
This was the first of a series of misfortunes which seemed 
to persistently follow the great explorer. In another di- 
rection he had been more successful. He had met the 
Senecas, and obtained from them the privilege of construct- 
ing a stockaded warehouse at the mouth of the Niagara. 

The loss of the vessel was a terrible misfortune, but as 
the anchors and cables, destined for a larger vessel to be 
constructed on Lake Erie, had been saved from the wreck, 
La Salle did not lose heart, though La Motte had returned 
discouraged and worn out with his winter journey ings, to 
Canada. Tonti and Hennepin remained, but the motley 
retainers were almost in a state of mutiny. 

La Salle, instead of giving up to misfortune, valiantly de- 
termined to proceed with his enterprise. Accordingly all 
his supplies and materials were transported over the portage, 
and on the 22d of January, 1679, were deposited two 
leagues above the cataract, at the mouth of Cayuga Creek, 
on the American side of the river. 


Here a camp was established, a chapel erected for Hen- 
nepin (who had borne a portable altar on his shoulders 
around the falls), and the keel of a vessel of about forty- 
five tons was laid, and her construction proceeded with as 
rapidly as circumstances would permit. 

After getting everything in working order, La Salle, 
leaving the command with Tonti, made a journey on foot 
back to Frontenac, a distance of two hundred and fifty 
miles, through the forests and over the ice of Lake On- 
tario, for the purpose of procuring fresh supplies, of which 
his command stood in great need. Two men accompanied 
him, and a dog drew his personal baggage on a sled. Their 
food consisted of a bag of parched corn, which was en- 
tirely devoured two days before they reached their destina- 
tion. Two Mohegan Indians, who had accompanied La 
Salle from Frontenac, supplied Tonti and his party with 
nearly all their provisions in the absence of La Salle. 

By the opening of spring, Tonti had nearly completed 
the vessel, which was named the " Griffin," in honor of 
the armorial bearings on the arms of Frontenac. She was 
towed up to Black Rock and made fast, and her equipment 
completed. Her armament consisted of five small guns 
placed in as many ports along her deck, and on her prow 
was carved in wood a figure of the allegorical animal after 
which she was named. 


Long and anxiously Tonti and his companions awaited 
the return of La Salle. The winter was succeeded by 
spring, and this by the fiery months of summer, before he 
made his appearance. At length, in the beginning of 
August, he arrived, accompanied by three more friars. He 
brought unwelcome news: his creditors had seized his 
property and tried in every way to break up his expedi- 



tion; but he was undaunted, and, as if hurried on by a 
mysterious fate, boldly determined to advance into the 
western waters, and on the 7th of August, 1679, set sail 
upon the bosom of Lake Erie. The " Griffin" was the 
first vessel built by Europeans and navigated upon the 
ninety thousand square miles of fresh water spreading, like 
the ocean, westward and northward from the fall of Niagara. 

There were in all thirty-four souls on board the little 
craft, and for three days they bore southwestward on the 
waters of Lake Erie ; turning north, and probably coming 
in sight of the low-lying shores of Michigan about the 
tenth of the month, in the vicinity of where now stands the 
town of Monroe. Passing through the strait and across 
the expanse of waters which they called Lake Sainte Claire,* 
they still bore north through the strait beyond, and soon 
beheld opening before them — a vast ocean of waves — the 
broad waters of the " Mer Douce," the " Fresh- Water Sea 
of the Hurons." 

On the tumbling billows of Saginaw Bay a furious tem- 
pest tossed them like a cork, and the frightened adven- 
turers believed themselves surely lost, for they had seen 
nothing like it since they braved the dangers of the At- 
lantic ; but the winds abated, the billows gradually sub- 
sided, and the little craft gallantly bore on her way, the 
pioneer of unnumbered thousands that, ere two centuries 
should roll away, were to whiten with the sails of a peace- 
ful commerce all these mighty inland seas. 

Passing the clustering islands of Thunder Bay, they sailed 
along the far-extending waters, and soon came in sight of 
the wooded shores of Bois Blanc and Mackinac and the 
dense forests sweeping down on either side of the narrow 
strait which unites Lakes Huron and Michigan, and divides 
the shores of the upper and lower peninsulas. We quote 
a few interesting sentences from the historian Parkman : 

"And now her port was won, and she found her rest behind the 
point of St. Ignaee of Mich-Hint ackinac, floating in that tranquil cove 
where crystal waters cover but cannot hide the pebbly depths beneath. 
Before her rose the house and chapel of the Jesuits, inclosed with 
palisades,- on the right the Huron village, with its bark cabins and 
its fence of tall pickets ; on the left the square, compact houses of the 
French traders ; and, not far off, the clustered wigwams of an Ottawa 
village. Here was a centre of the Jesuit missions and a centre of the 
Indian trade, and here, under the shadow of the Cross, was much 
sharp practice in the service of Mammon." 

The guns of the " Griffin" thundered a salute, to the 
wonder and astonishment of the Indians, and her crew 
landed and marched, under arms, to the chapel in the Ottawa 
village, where they heard mass. On their return the Hurons 
gave them a salute of musketry, and the Indian canoes clus- 
tered by the hundred around the " Griffin," which the 
savages called the " floating fort." 

At Michilimackinac La Salle learned of more trouble 
awaiting him. Tonti had been sent forward with canoes 
from Niagara, in advance of the " Griffin," to look after 
the fifteen men dispatched by La Salle the autumn before 
to purchase furs and prepare for his coming. Tonti found 
that they had squandered the goods or used them in trad- 

* Named " St. Claire" from the fact that it was first seen on the 
12th of August, which is known in the Catholic calendar as St. Claire's 
day. Its Huron or Wyandot name was Otsiketa, 

ing on their own account, and had scattered in various 
directions. La Salle found four of them at Mackinac,f 
whom he arrested, and sent Tonti to the Sault St. Marie to 
look after others. 

Before Tonti had returned from his last-named expedi- 
tion, early in September, La Salle set sail from Mackinac, 
and proceeded to the islands at the entrance to Green Bay. 
Here he found a party of his advance men who had re- 
mained faithful, and collected a large store of furs. A 
prominent Pottawattomie chief was also very friendly. La 
Salle now resolved to load his vessel with furs, and send 
her back with something tangible to satisfy his creditors. 
Accordingly, on the 18th of September she departed in 
charge of the pilot, who had orders to unload her at Ni- 
agara, and immediately return with her to the Illinois 


La Salle remained behind, and with fourteen men and 
four canoes, heavily loaded with a blacksmith's forge, tools, 
merchandise, and arms, embarked on a voyage of explora- 
tion to the southward. They met a constant succession of 
storms, and would have perished of famine had not the na- 
tives generously supplied them with venison and corn. 
They had nearly come to blows with a band of Outagamies, 
but finally pacified them and exchanged presents. 

About the first of November the party reached the 
mouth of the St. Joseph River, in Michigan, where Tonti 
was to have joined them, but he had not arrived. La Salle's 
men grumbled and clamored to be led on to the Illinois 
country ; but La Salle determined to wait for Tonti, who 
was to come up the eastern shore with twenty men. 


To divert the thoughts of his followers from gloomy 
forebodings, he set them at work erecting a fort of logs 
near the mouth of the river. This work he named Fort 
Miamis, probably from the fact that the Miami nation were 
found occupying the country. 

This was the first post established within the limits of 
the lower peninsula. J Singular as it may seem, since 1615, 
when Champlain had approached very near the boundaries 
of Michigan, the posts and missions had been established, 
as it were, in a semicircle around the lower peninsula, with 
not a single one inside its limits. The mission of St. Ig- 
naee was on the northern side of the Strait of Mackinac ; 
St. Frangois Xavier was at Green Bay ; St. Simon was on 
the Grand Manitoulin Island of Lake Huron, and St. 
Marie at the foot of Lake Superior. Posts were subse- 
quently established on the south side of the Straits of 
Mackinac, at the foot of Lake Huron, and in various other 
places within the peninsula. 

At the end of twenty days, when the fort was well ad- 
vanced, Tonti arrived, but brought with him only ten men ; 
the remainder had been left, for want of provisions, thirty 
leagues behind, to sustain themselves by hunting. 

f This name will generally be written Mackinac instead of Mich- 
ilimackinac, according to the early style. 

J Previous to 1721, when Charlevoix visited this post, it had been 
removed to the site of South Bend, in Indiana, — Judge Campbell's 
Outlines of History. 



La Salle directed Tonti to return and hurry them on, but 
a violent storm wrecked his canoe, and with the loss of arms 
and provisions he rejoined La Salle. A few days later the 
remaining men joined the party. But there were no tid- 
ings of the " Griffin." Extremely anxious about her ; La 
Salle sent two men to Mackinac to meet her if she re- 
turned, and pilot her to his fort on the Miamis. 


On the 3d of December the entire party, consisting of 
thirty-three persons, embarked in eight canoes, and, ascend- 
ing the St. Joseph to the present site of the city of South 
Bend, Ind., crossed over to the head-waters of the Kan-ka- 
hee,* and descended that stream to its junction with the 
Illinois, near the present little village of Channahon, in 
Will Co., 111. Here they began to encounter the buffalo, 
though not in great plenty. On and around the site of the 
present village of Utica, in La Salle County, they found a 
great town, occupied by the Illinois Indians, containing about 
five hundred lodges and a population of several thousands. 

Here was the principal centre of all the Indian nations 
living within the bounds of the State of Illinois. At 
times there were as many as ten or twelve populous vil- 
lages, and Franquelin's map of 1684 shows seven villages, 
containing in the aggregate about four thousand warriors. 
They included tribes or families of the Illinois, Miamis, 
Chouanons (Shawanese), Kiclcapoos, etc.")" 

When La Salle and his companions reached these clus- 
tering villages they found them untenanted. The entire 
population was absent on its annual hunt. They found 
plenty of corn stowed away in caches, and helped them- 
selves. On New Year's day, 1680, they landed and heard 
mass. Continuing down the river, they reached a town of 
the Illinois, on the site of the present city of Peoria, about 
the 2d of January. 

The Indians, to the number of eighty families, were at 

home and received their visitors with great hospitality at 

first, but an emissary, said to have been sent to them by 

Father Allouez, the Jesuit, then in the Miami country, and 

who bore no good-will towards La Salle, came secretly with 

presents and a cunning speech, and prejudiced them against 

La Salle. He, however, with his usual success among the 

savages, discovered and exposed the cheat, and regained 

their confidence. But his men became uneasy and at 

length began to desert him, six of them stealing away in 

the night. Attempts were also made, as in Canada, to 

poison him. 


In the midst of many difficulties, La Salle resolved to 

erect a strong fortification for the protection of his party 

from apprehended treachery among the Indians, and the 

security of his property. Accordingly, about the middle 

of January, 1680, he began the erection of a stockade work 

on a gentle knoll upon the east side of the river, at the 

narrows, where the stream leaves Peoria Lake, and a little 

below the present city. 

* This name is written by various writers Theakiki, Haukeke, Kia- 
kiki. It was also called by the French the Riviere Seignelay, Riviere 
des Macoupin8, and Riviere de la Divine. 

f The names Shawaneae and Chouanons probably refer to the same 

The fort was defended by palisades twenty-five feet in 
height, by a wide ditch, and c7ieveaux-de-frise on the glacis. 

This was the first civilized occupation of the State of 
Illinois, or at least the first attempt to plant a colony within 
the region now containing more than three million people 
and seven thousand miles of railway. 

January, 1880, has seen two hundred years pass away 
since the brave explorer built his primitive work, which 
he named Fort Crevecoeur (Broken Heart), as expressive 
of the state of his mind, surrounded as he was by innu- 
merable difficulties, and greatly troubled about his vessel, 
which had no doubt gone down amid the boisterous surges 
of Lake Huron. Not a vestige of the fort now remains, 
and its actual site is probably unknown. 

La Salle, notwithstanding all his misfortunes, was not 
discouraged. He resolved to continue his discoveries. In 
order to do so it was necessary to build a vessel with which 
to navigate the Mississippi. Accordingly her keel, was laid, 
and the work was prosecuted with such assiduity that in six 
weeks the hull was nearly completed. She was of about 
forty tons burden, and had high bulwarks to protect her 
people from the arrows of the Indians. Sails, rigging, and 
anchors were lacking, and to provide these La Salle pro- 
posed to return to Canada on foot and procure them, to- 
gether with supplies for future use. 

In the mean time he bethought him that Hennepin 
might be employing his time to advantage, and instructed 
him to explore the Illinois River during his absence. Hen- 
nepin , with two companions and a canoe well laden with 
supplies and trinkets for Indian trade, left the fort on the 
last of February. 


On the 2d of March, La Salle, with four Frenchmen 
and the Mohegan hunter, started on his return to Canada, 
leaving Tonti, with about fifteen men, most of them mutin- 
ous and altogether unreliable, to hold the place during his 
absence. La Salle and his party toiled up the river, some- 
times in open water, but oftener on the shore, dragging 
their canoes through the timber and over the frozen marsh 
until the third day, when they met Chassagoac, the princi- 
pal chief of the Illinois, with whom La Salle entered into 
an arrangement to supply Fort Crevecoeur with provisions. 
They killed a buffalo and dried the meat by a fire for future 
use, and continuing on their dreary journey, soon after 
passed the remarkable sandstone bluff since known as Starved 
Rock, which La Salle sent word to Tonti to examine and 
fortify in case of necessity. At a point several miles below 
the present city of Joliet they found the river completely 
closed with ice, and were compelled to leave their canoes 
and continue their journey on foot. They hid their canoes 
on an island, and, taking what each man could carry on his 
back, struck out in a direct line for Lake Michigan. 


They reached the lake on the 23d of the month, after 
crossing several swollen streams (probably branches of the 
Calumet), and traveling along the hard, sandy beach arrived 
at Fort Miamis on the 24th. Here he found the two men 
whom he had sent to Mackinac to look for the " Griffin," 



who reported no tidings of her. These he ordered to 
proceed overland and join Tonti, while he continued his 
course across Southern Michigan towards Canada. 

As near as can be ascertained, the party followed the 
dividing ridge between the St. Joseph and Kalamazoo 
Rivers, which course would have taken them through the 
southern parts of Kalamazoo and Calhoun Counties, across 
Prairie Ronde and Climax Prairies, and thence through 
Jackson and Washtenaw Counties to the Huron River, in the 
vicinity of the present town of Dexter, where they con- 
structed a canoe of elm-bark and floated down the stream 
to the border of Wayne County, when, finding their way 
barred by fallen trees, they abandoned their canoe and 
struck across the country directly to the Detroit River.* 

On the evening of the 28th of March they encamped 
on the border of a prairie in the edge of a forest. In the 
night the guard sounded an alarm, and every man sprang 
to his gun, while the forest resounded with savage yells. 
But the Indians, seeing them prepared, retired without 
molesting them. Leaving St. Joseph as they did at noon, 
on the 25th, they must have been on the borders of Prairie 
Ronde when this rencontre took place. The enemy were 
brought upon them by the reports of their guns in shoot- 
ing the plentiful game which would no doubt be found on 
the prairie, or near it, at that season of the year. 

Several days later they were beset by a large war-party 
of Mascoutins or Kickapoos, but when they found they 
were Frenchmen they declared themselves friendly, and left 
them undisturbed. 

At the Detroit River La Salle detached two of his men 
and sent them to Mackinac, as being the nearest place at 
which they could procure the necessaries of life, and with 
the remaining two he crossed the river on a raft and struck 
southeast for the nearest point on Lake Erie, and after 
marching about thirty miles reached it at Point Pelee. 
Here he constructed another canoe with the aid of the 
only man remaining in health, and from thence pursued his 
journey along the northern shore of the lake, and landed 
at the spot where the " Griffin" was built on Easter 

At this place he found several of his men who had been 
left in the previous year, who gave him most discouraging 
tidings. The " Griffin," with her- cargo of furs, valued at 
ten thousand crowns, was lost, and still worse, a ship from 
France freighted with his merchandise to the value of 
twenty-two thousand livres had been wrecked in the St. 
Lawrence, and was a total loss. 

His followers were completely broken down, and could go 
no farther, but La Salle, taking three fresh men at Niagara, 
continued his journey and reached Fort Frontenac on the 
6th of May. During sixty -five days he had been traveling 
through a wilderness more than a thousand miles in extent, 
where to-day the journey can be made in forty-eight hours. 
It was at the time the most remarkable experience perhaps 
in the history of the continent. 

* There can be very little doubt that La Salle passed through Kala- 
mazoo County in the last of March and beginning of April, 1680, for 
his journal speaks of passing through great meadows covered with 
rank grass, which they burned to throw the savages, who were follow- 
ing them, off their track. These meadows were no doubt the beauti- 


LA SALLE— (Continued). 

La Salle searching for Tonti — Tonti Among the Illinois — Hennepin 
on the Mississippi — Greysolon du Lhut. 

Indomitable under all his reverses, where man and 
nature seemed leagued against him, La Salle hastened to 
Montreal, where, despite his injured credit, he soon pro- 
cured everything which he required, and then hastened 
back to Frontenac to prepare for his return to the Illinois. 

Here he received a letter from Tonti stating that nearly 
all the men left with him had deserted, after destroying Fort 
Crevecoeur. They had also destroyed Fort Miamis, on the 
St. Joseph, seized La Salle's property at Mackinac, and after 
being joined by others, had separated into two parties, one, 
of eight men, departing for Albany, and the other going 
down the lakes, with the avowed purpose of taking the life 
of La Salle. 

Losing no time in vain lamentations, La Salle selected 
nine of his most trusty followers, and embarking in canoes 
on Lake Ontario, went forward to meet the villains, and 
managed so adroitly that he captured or killed nearly all of 
the last-named party and brought the prisoners to Fronte- 
nac to await the Governor's arrival. 

Making hasty preparation, he departed from Frontenac 
on the 10th of August, accompanied by one La Forest and 
twenty-three men, for the Illinois River. His route was up 
the Humber River, down the Severn to Lake Huron, and 
thence to Mackinac, where he found everything hostile to 
him. Here he left La Forest to bring on the convoy, while, 
with twelve men, he continued rapidly on his journey, and 
reached his ruined fort on the St. Joseph November 4th. 

At this place he left five men with his heavy stores, and 
with six Frenchmen and an Indian hurried forward up the 
St. Joseph and down the Kankakee to the Illinois River. 

The prairies were alive with buffalo, and the party landed 
and hunted for three days, during which they killed twelve 
of the animals, besides numbers of deer, geese, and swans. 
The meat was cut into thin strips and dried, and with an 
abundant supply they again embarked and proceeded down 
the river. They found no signs of a fortification on the 
Rock of St. Louis, where La Salle had instructed Tonti to 
build, and pushing down the valley they reached the site 
of the Indian town only to find it a blackened ruin, with 
the bones of its inhabitants scattered over the plain and 
hundreds of human skulls fixed upon poles, while the 
wolves and buzzards were disputing over their foul repast. 
It was the work of the terrible Iroquois. 


Determined to ascertain the fate of Tonti, he left three 
men hidden on an island in the river, and taking the other 

ful prairies in the southern part of the county. A direct line from 
St. Joseph to Detroit would cross them. They also found plenty of 
game after two or three days' travel from the mouth of the St. Joseph, 
which would bring them just about to Prairie Ronde, at the rate 
which they must have traveled at that season of the year in snow 
and slush. The spring was a very late one, and the night of the 2d 
of April is mentioned as being so cold that their wet clothes were 



four men in a canoe, started down the river. They found 
everywhere terrible destruction. Village after village de- 
stroyed and everything in ruins. Fort Crevecoeur was found, 
as he had expected, destroyed, but the vessel remained en- 
tire, except that the Iroquois had found means to extract 
most of the nails and spikes. La Salle continued on to the 
mouth of the river, passing almost continually blackened 
camps and signs of flight and pursuit, and in one locality 
finding the remains of women and children who had been 
tortured by the savages, but no signs of Tonti and his 
men. The journey was continued to the mouth of the 
river, where La Salle first saw the Mississippi, but finding 
nothing, he drew a sketch of himself and party on a tree, 
and tying a letter to the same directed to Tonti, he began 
his return, and reached the rendezvous of his men after a 
run of four days. 

Collecting a store of corn from the ruins of the Indian 
caches, the whole party began the ascent of the river, which 
they followed to its junction with the Kankakee, where 
they left their canoes and traveled overland to Fort Mi- 
amis, which they reached about the middle of January, 
1681, after an exhaustive tramp through the deep snow, 
which in places reached to the waist. At the fort on the 
St. Joseph they found La Forest and his party, who had 
rebuilt the work, cleared ground for planting, and prepared 
quite a quantity of timber and planks for a new vessel. 
Leaving La Salle and his men to rest themselves, we will 
for a brief period look after the fortunes of Tonti and his 


The two men whom La Salle had met at Fort Miamis, 
on his return to Canada, had rejoined Tonti and brought 
him and his men tidings of the disasters which had over- 
taken their commander. The news disheartened them, and 
they became uneasy and mutinous. 

Following out La Salle's suggestion to examine and for- 
tify the great cliff on the upper Illinois, Tonti set out with 
a part of the men on that duty. In his absence, the re- 
mainder of his party destroyed Fort Crevecoeur, and fled 
from the spot. Two of them, however, remaining true to 
their commander, hastened to carry the news to Tonti, 
who immediately dispatched four of his men by two dif- 
ferent routes to inform La Salle. Tonti's party was now 
reduced to five men besides himself and the R6collet friars, 
and to lull the suspicions of the savages, and in some 
measure secure their friendship, they took up their resi- 
dence in the Indian town, taking along the forge and tools, 
and hoping to maintain themselves until the return of La 

Suddenly, in the midst of their security, a thunder-bolt 
fell upon the Illinois. A Shawanese warrior, who had 
been on a visit among them, and recently departed for his 
own nation, reappeared, and hastily crossing the river, an- 
nounced that he had met a great army of Iroquois on their 
way to attack the Illinois. In a moment all was confusion : 
warriors whooped and yelled while swathing their arms for 
battle ; women and children screamed ; and a crowd of fren- 
zied savages thronged around Tonti and his companions, 
charging them with treachery, and threatening to take 
their lives. Tonti explained matters as well as he was able 

to in broken Indian, but they were so exasperated that they 
seized his forge and tools and threw them into the river. 

The gallant Italian finally so far convinced them of his 
innocence that they left him, and gathering their women, 
children, and effects together, hurried into their canoes and 
paddled down the stream to a large, marshy island, where 
they placed them for protection. Leaving sixty warriors 
to guard them, the remainder returned to the village, where 
the excited warriors busied themselves in putting on their 
grease and war-paint and making ready for a valiant defense, 
dancing the war-dance, and yelling around their fires through 
the entire night. 

The young warriors had been scouting, and now they 
returned and reported that they had seen the enemy in 
great numbers along the forest bordering the river Ara- 
moni (the modern Vermilion). They were armed mostly 
with European weapons, — guns, pistols, and swords, and 
protected their bodies with corselets or mats made of pliant 
twigs interwoven with cordage. The scouts also reported 
that there was a Jesuit among them, and that La Salle 
himself was with the on-coming enemy. 

At these latter tidings the Illinois were terribly incensed, 
and it seemed as if nothing could save the lives of Tonti 
and his men. He tried every means to pacify them, and, 
as a last resort, while they danced frantically around him, 
brandishing their knives and hatchets, he offered to go 
with them and fight the Iroquois. This allayed their 
clamor, and forming their battle-line, they crossed the 
river, and, with the Frenchmen conspicuous among them, 
swarmed over the precipitous bluff to the south, and out 
upon the prairie beyond, where they soon met the Iroquois 
advancing to the encounter. 

In an instant the air was alive with missiles, and the 
prairie resounded far and near with the screeches and yells 
of the combatants. The Illinois, whose reputation for bra- 
very was not of a superior order, for once boldly faced their 
foes, and the battle waxed hot on all sides. But against 
the superior discipline and arms of the Iroquois, Tonti saw 
that the desperate valor of his allies would in the end avail 
but little, and he resolved to go forward and try the effect 
of negotiation. 

The Iroquois professed to be at peace with the French, 
more through respect for the prowess of Count Frontenac 
than from love to his principles or followers, and Tonti rea- 
soned that, under this quasi condition of peace, he might 
possibly prevail upon them to forego their scheme of blood 
and plunder and leave the Illinois undisturbed. Accord- 
ingly he pressed boldly forward towards the dark line of 
savages, though the air hissed with bullets and arrow-heads, 
holding out a wampum peace-belt. A few moments and he 
was among the enemy, who howled and danced around him, 
brandishing their weapons and glaring upon him with 
frightful visages and eyes as of demons. A young savage 
stabbed at his heart with his keen knife, but, fortunately, 
missed his aim, though the weapon inflicted a severe wound 
across his breast. In his half-savage dress and swarthy 
complexion they took him for an Illinois, until a prominent 
chief, noticing that his ears were not ornamented, called 
out that he must be a Frenchman. At once he was treated 
with respect. They led him to the rear and tried to staunch 



his bleeding, while the firing grew more furious in the 

The chiefs held an angry parley, during which Tonti, 
breathless and bleeding from the blow he had received, 
managed to declare that the Illinois were under the protec- 
tion of the King of France, and demanded that they be let 
alone. This bold demand somewhat staggered them, but a 
reckless young Iroquois snatched Tonti's hat, and, holding 
it aloft on the point of his gun, made the Illinois believe 
he was slain, and thereupon they renewed the battle fiercer 
than before. Another warrior seized him by the hair as if 
to scalp him. A Seneca chief demanded that he should 
be burned, and an Onondaga chief, who was friendly to La 
Salle, was in favor of setting him at liberty. The dispute 
grew fierce and hot. Tonti told them that the Illinois were 
twelve hundred strong, and that there were sixty French- 
men in the village, well armed, who would help them fight 
the Iroquois unless they desisted from the attack. 

This statement produced a favorable effect, and the 
friendly Onondaga carried his point. Diplomacy now took 
the place of trial by battle, and Tonti was sent back to the 
Illinois ranks with a belt of peace. The firing and whoop- 
ing ceased, and as Tonti, faint from loss of blood, staggered 
towards his friends, chiefs and warriors gathered around 
him with congratulations, and his own men greeted him as 
one from the dead. 

The Illinois warriors now withdrew to their village, but 
the enemy followed them closely, and quite a number 
crossed the river and appeared among the lodges. Deeming 
discretion to be the better part of valor, the Illinois set fire 
to their lodges and proceeded down the river to where their 
women and children were encamped. The Iroquois took 
possession of their abandoned town, built themselves a re- 
doubt, and finished the work of destruction, wreaking their 
vengeance on even the burial-places of their enemies. 

Tonti and his companions were removed to the Iroquois 
fort, and on the second day, when the Illinois appeared in 
great numbers among the hills, the Iroquois evinced much 
uneasiness, for they had tested the powers of the prairie 
warriors, and bearing Tonti's account of their numbers in 
their minds, they were more anxious to negotiate than to 
fight. It was now their turn to try the virtue of diplomacy, 
and they accordingly sent forward the leader of the French 
with proposals to the Illinois. The plan might have worked 
to the great advantage of the latter had not a young war- 
rior, whom they sent back with Tonti, forgotten the ordi- 
nary discretion of the savage. He made haste to show the 
great joy of his people at the prospect of peace, exposed 
their situation and stated their true numbers, and also the 
number of Frenchmen with them. 

The Iroquois now vented their wrath upon Tonti, and it 
required his utmost efforts to extricate himself from the 
awkward dilemma. A treaty was finally concluded, but it 
proved to be only a cunning device of the Iroquois to lull 
their enemies into fancied security so that they might the 
more easily destroy them. 

Tonti warned the Illinois of their danger, while the Iro- 
quois grew more jealous of him, and would have sacrificed 
his party had it not been deemed good policy to keep the 
pence with Frontenac. They came to him with presents of 

beaver-skins, and flattering words, while at the same time 
they were constructing canoes with which to attack the 
Illinois stronghold. Tonti demanded when they were going 
to depart and leave the Illinois in peace. They prevaricated 
and made evasive answers, until one more bold or more 
heedless than the rest openly declared that before they 
departed they would eat Illinois flesh. At this avowal 
Tonti indignantly kicked their presents from him, and told 
them he would have none of them ; whereupon the Iroquois 
drove him from their presence in a rage. Through the 
following night the French stood guard, expecting every 
moment an attack. 

Finding all his efforts for the protection of the Illinois 
unavailing, Tonti concluded to leave them and the Iroquois 
to settle their own affairs, and, embarking in a leaky canoe, 
took his way up the river. Stopping, after paddling for 
about five leagues, to rest and repair their canoe, one of the 
friars, Father Ribourde, strolled away from the party for 
meditation, and was captured and murdered by a strolling 
band of Kichapoos, who were reeonnoitering the Iroquois. 
Tonti and his party took their way along the western 
shore of Lake Michigan towards Green Bay, where, among 
the friendly Pottawattomies, they would be sure of a wel- 
come. They were wholly destitute of provisions, and sub- 
sisted partly on the scanty game which they were able to 
kill, and partly on nuts and roots. Towards the end of 
November they reached Green Bay, and met a hearty wel- 
come from the Pottawattomie chief, who was a great ad- 
mirer of La Salle, and who declared " that he knew but 
three great captains in the world : Frontenac, La Salle, and 
himself." * 

After the departure of Tonti from the Illinois country, 
the hostile intentions of the Iroquois were at once apparent, 
and the Illinois retreated in a compact body along the 
western bank of the river, while the Iroquois, who still had 
a wholesome respect for them, kept abreast of them on the 
opposite bank. When near the mouth of the river, the 
Illinois, who had been lulled into a fatal security by the 
professions of the Iroquois, divided into tribal bands, and 
most of them scattered in various directions, some crossing 
to the opposite side of the Mississippi River. The Tamaroa 
tribe had the hardihood to encamp and remain after the 
others had departed. They were at once attacked by the 
Iroquois, and the warriors fleeing for their lives, the women 
and children fell victims, to the number of seven hundred, 
according to one writer, to their hellish vengeance, and it 
was their mangled remains which met the sight of La Salle 
and his companions a few weeks later. 


In giving an account of Hennepin's voyage of discovery 
down the Illinois and up the Mississippi, Mr. Parkman 
prefaces his chapter with the following : 

" It was on the last day of the winter that preceded the 
invasion of the Iroquois that Father Hennepin, with his 
two companions, Accau and Du Gay, had set out from Fort 
Crevecoeur to explore the Illinois to its mouth. It appears 
from his own later statements, as well as from those of 

* Discovery of the Great West, p. 219. 



Tonti, that more than this was expected of him, and that 
La Salle had instructed him to explore not alone the Illi- 
nois, but also the upper Mississippi. 

" That he actually did so, there is no reasonable doubt ; 
and, could he have contented himself with telling the truth, 
his name would have stood high as a bold and vigorous 
discoverer. But his vicious attempts to malign his com- 
mander, and plunder him of his laurels, have wrapped his 
genuine merit in a cloud." * 

Hennepin was evidently egotistical and vainglorious re- 
garding his own merits, and greatly given to the foolish 
and unprofitable practice of building up himself and his 
exploits by pulling others' down. His nature partook 
largely of the marvelous, and he was exceedingly prone 
to exaggeration ; but notwithstanding his strained account 
of them, his discoveries and adventures are possessed of 
much real value. Stripped of prejudice and verbiage, the 
facts of his experience on the great river of the West during 
several months of 1680 would seem to be briefly as follows : 

From the best information obtainable it would appear 
that his companion, Accau,f was virtually the leader of the 
expedition, though the redoubtable friar appropriated the 
honor himself. The party passed quietly down the Illinois, 
and thence began the toilsome ascent against the strong 
current of the Mississippi. They killed deer, beaver, buf- 
falo, wild turkeys, and occasionally a black bear, which now 
and then they caught swimming the river. 

Nothing of special note occurred to disturb their journey 
until the 11th of April, when, probably in the neighborhood 
of the mouth of the Wisconsin River, they suddenly beheld 
a fleet of canoes bearing a war-party of an hundred and 
twenty naked Sioux, who rushed upon them with hideous 
yells and captured them before they could make a move 
either of defense or with a view to escape. 

They were taken across the river, and went into camp 
with their captors, who by signs made them understand 
that they were upon the war-path of the Miamis, or, as 
Hennepin translated it, Miamiha. When Hennepin told 
them the Miamis had left the country they uttered dismal 
howlings, and seemed greatly disappointed. 

Hennepin made them presents, and their hostility, which 
at first seemed about to culminate in the immolation of their 
prisoners, gradually gave way, and they finally concluded to 
take them and their goods into their own country, far to 
the northwest. 

The party wended their way up the river, occasionally 
stopping to hunt the game, which was abundant, past Lake 
Pepin, which Hennepin named the "Lake of Tears," by rea- 
son of the Indian howlings and lamentations over the French- 
men ; and at the end of nineteen days from the date of their 
capture, or on the 30th of April, landed near the site of the 
present flourishing city of St. Paul, the capital of a State 
containing a half-million inhabitants. 

Here Hennepin's troubles really began. First, the In- 
dians broke his canoe in pieces, and proceeded to divide the 
prisoners and spoils among the different bands which com- 
posed the expedition. 

* Discovery of the Great West, p. 223. 
f Hennepin calls him Ako. 

From thence they proceeded on foot toward their villages 
in the north, traveling with such mighty strides that, Henne- 
pin says, " no European could keep up with them." Though 
it was the beginning of May, yet in that northern latitude 
the nights were cold, and ice frequently formed over the 
marshes and streams which the Frenchmen were compelled 
to wade to their no small discomfort. 

At last, on the fifth day after leaving the Mississippi, 
they arrived at their villages, situated around what are now 
called the Mille Lacs, a hundred miles nearly north from 
St. Paul, and about thirty miles east by south from the 
present town of Brainerd, at the crossing of the Northern 
Pacific Kailway on the Mississippi. 

As they entered one of the villages, Hennepin was 
nearly frightened out of his senses by the appearance of a 
number of stakes with bundles of grass attached, which 
his vivid imagination construed into an evidence of forth- 
coming martyrdom for himself and companions. Instead 
of a horrible death they were regaled upon wild rice and 
dried whortleberries, which Hennepin declared was the 
best meal he had eaten since his capture. 

And now for two months the three voyagers were sepa- 
rated in different villages, and Hennepin busied himself in 
trying to make converts to his religion, but with so little 
success that he became tired and gave over the attempt. 

At length the time for the annual buffalo hunt arrived, 
and the three captives were assigned each to a particular 
band. To this arrangement Hennepin demurred, and 
stated that he expected a party of his own people to meet 
him at the mouth of the Wisconsin River, who would 
come to trade with the Indians. This story the Indians 
readily accepted as true ; and accordingly the entire hunt- 
ing-party of two hundred and fifty braves, with their 
women and children, accompanied by the three Frenchmen,, 
set out for the rendezvous, taking their way in canoes down 
Rum River, the outlet of the Mille Lacs, and thence down 
the Mississippi. A canoe was furnished for Hennepin 
and his two companions, who do not seem to have been 
very friendly towards him, and only after considerable per- 
suasion consented to allow him to occupy the canoe with 

At the mouth of Rum River, which Hennepin named 
the St. Francis, the party encamped in bark huts and 
tepees made of skins. Here they were on the verge of 
starvation, and Hennepin, becoming tired of Indian life, 
was anxious to start down the river for his expected (or 
pretended) meeting. Through the friendship of a promi- 
nent chief, whom Hennepin calls Ou-as-i-cou-d£, he and 
Du Gay, one of his companions, were furnished with a 
birch canoe, an earthen or stone pot, a gun, a knife, and a 
beaver robe, and thus equipped they began their voyage. 
Accau, choosing the wild life of the Indians, remained be- 

Hennepin and Du Gay soon reached the great falls of 
the Mississippi, which he named in honor of St. Anthony, 
and which appellation still clings to them after the lapse of 
two hundred years. In his passage up the river he had 
stopped nine miles below the falls, and, taking to the land, 
had missed them. This, then, was the first view, so far as 
known, which any white man ever had of them. 



His description is fairly accurate, though, as in the case 
of the falls of Niagara, he overestimates their height, and 
not content with his first estimate, increases it in the second 
edition of his narrative, in 1697. 

Here they found a half-dozen Indians making sacrifices 
and offerings to the " Spirit of the Waters,"* which con- 
sisted of beaver-skins, and sometimes, when the case was 
well-nigh desperate, of everything the savages possessed. 

Leaving this wonderful locality, now occupied by a flour- 
ishing manufacturing city of more than thirty thousand 
inhabitants, they floated sixty leagues down the river, living 
mostly upon turtles. Once a great herd of buffalo crossed 
the river in front of them, and they contrived to kill a single 
animal. In their half-famished condition they built a fire, 
and cooking a generous supply, ate to repletion, and suffered 
severely for their heedlessness. 

Passing slowly down the river under a burning sun, they 
passed Lake Pepin, and a few days after were surprised at 
the appearance of the chief with whom Hennepin had lived 
during his captivity, who, with ten warriors in canoes, was 
descending the river to meet the promised traders. They 
passed the Frenchmen, and in three days returned, having 
met nobody. The chief gave the friar a good scolding, and 
then resumed his course up the river. 

"Hennepin and Du Gay, despairing of finding the friends, 
as they had promised the Sioux, now resolved to join a 
party of Sioux who were hunting on the Chippewa River, 
where they could obtain much-needed provisions, and then 
return to Canada via the Wisconsin River and Green Bay, 
as Hennepin seems to have had no desire to rejoin Tonti 
on the Illinois. 

Returning up the Mississippi to the mouth of the Chip- 
pewa, they found this band, with whom also was Accau, and 
joined them in a hunt along the Mississippi. While en- 
gaged in this pastime they one day heard strange news. 

A war-party of their nation had met towards Lake Su- 
perior five "spirits," meaning Europeans. When the 
hunt was concluded, Hennepin, being anxious to see the 
" spirits," turned up "the river with the hunters, and a short 
distance below St. Anthony's Falls met Greysolon Du Lhut 
and four well-armed Frenchmen. 

This man, who was a consin of Tonti, and born at Lyons, 
was a famous leader of the coureurs des hois, and had been 
as great an explorer as La Salle. He was closely connected 
with Count Frontenac through several prominent officers 
of the colonial government, and was also carrying on the 
fur-trade in a somewhat clandestine manner, though in 
perfect understanding with Frontenac. He had left Quebec 
in September, 1678, and had, consequently, been about two 
years in the wilderness when he found Hennepin. In 1679 
he had visited the Sioux, and planted the arms of France. 
In the fall of the same year he held a council at the west 
end of Lake Superior with the Assiniboins and other tribes, 
under the authority of the Governor-General. 

In the month of June, 1680, he left the head of Lake 
Superior with the four Frenchmen, ascended a river, and 
probably reached the Mississippi via the St. Croix, where 

* This was the principal deity of the Sioux, and bore the high- 
sounding name of " O-ank-tay-hee." The savages said he bore the 
form of a buffalo, and lived under the waters. 

he heard of Hennepin and his party. In company with 
him the French all returned to the Sioux villages at the 
Mille Lacs, where they were feasted by the Indians abund- 

In the beginning of autumn the French, under the lead 
of Du Lhut, descended the Mississippi to the Wisconsin, 
and following that stream returned to Green Bay, and 
shortly thereafter to Mackinac, where they passed the 

Hennepin returned to Canada in the spring of 1681, 
where he was warmly received by Frontenac, who kept him 
in his house for twelve days. He soon after returned to 
France, where many editions of his marvelous stories were 


LA SALLE— (Continued). 

He discovers the Mouth of the Mississippi — His Subsequent Explora- 
tions and Death in Texas, 1687. 

La Salle and his companions, whom we left at Fort 
Miami, on the St. Joseph of Lake Michigan, in the autumn 
of 1680, remained there through the winter. 

Living in the neighborhood of the fort, La Salle found 
a band of twenty-five or thirty Eastern Indians, Mohegans 
and Abenakis, who, in consequence of the wars in New 
England, had fled westward and settled near the borders 
of Lake Michigan. With these La Salle was soon on 
good terms. One of this band, a Mohegan, had been with 
him for two years, and was exceedingly useful, not only for 
his success in hunting but for his knowledge of various 
Indian dialects, which served him as an interpreter. 

As the winter advanced a Shawauese chief, at the head 
of one hundred and fifty warriors, sought out the French 
commander to ask his protection against the Iroquois. La 
Salle took advantage of the fear of the Iroquois which per- 
vaded all the Western tribes to consolidate them under his 
protection, visiting the Miamis, the Outagamies, and the 
Illinois for the purpose. The latter he met at the head of 
a small party of his men on the great prairies in Central 
Illinois. His plan was to concentrate all the tribes of 
Illinois, Indiana, Southern Michigan, and Wisconsin at 
one point where they could cultivate the soil, find abund- 
ant game, and be under the protection and instruction of 
the French. 

His first object was to explore the Mississippi to its 
mouth, open the river to trade and commerce, and found 
trading-posts and settlements in the valley. From .his 

f A brief additional account of Du Lhut may not be out of place in 
this connection. He builff a trading-post on the north side of Lake 
Superior, on Thunder Bay, which he called Can-is-tig-oy-an. Com- 
manded at Mackinac 1680-86. In 1686 he was ordered by Denonville 
to fortify the Detroit. He built a stockade fort at the outlet of Lake 
Huron, which he occupied for some time. In 1687 he served at the 
head of a body of Indians under Denonville against the Senecas. In 
1689, at the time of the Iroquois invasion of Canada, he, with twenty- 
eight Canadians, attacked and killed or captured a party of twenty- 
two Senecas. In 1697 he commanded a company of infantry at Fort 
Frontenac. He died about 1710. Charlevoix calls him "one of the 
bravest officers the King ever had in the colony/' 


encampment on the prairie he sent La Forest, who had 
accompanied him, to Mackinac to instruct Tonti to await 
his arrival,* and returned himself to Fort Miami. 

From Fort Miami he ascended the St. Joseph with ten 
men well armed, and crossing to the upper waters of the 
Kankakee held a council with the Miamis. Here he found 
a band of Iroquois warriors, who had been for some time 
in the place, demeaning themselves with haughty insolence, 
and speaking of the French with the utmost contempt. 
La Salle confronted and rebuked them boldly, and in the 
following night they stole away and left the vicinity. In 
the Miami villages he found also numbers of the warriors 
of the redoubtable King Philip of Mount Hope, Wampan- 
oags, Nipmucks, and others, who had fled to the West on 
the death of their chief. The conference with the Miamis 
was successful, and La Salle returned to Fort Miami satis- 
fied that the groundwork of his great plans was well laid 

In the latter part of May he left Fort Miami, in canoes, 
and returned to Mackinac, where, to his great satisfaction, 
he found Tonti and Father Membre, who had lately arrived 
there from Green Bay. A few days later they embarked 
for Fort Frontenac, which they reached in. safety, after 
paddling a thousand miles. He was a third time success- 
ful in procuring men and supplies, and in the autumn again 
returned to Fort Miami, via Lakes Ontario, Erie, Huron, 
and Michigan. 

This was in the fall of 1681. Losing no time, La Salle 
selected eighteen Abenahis and Mohegan Indians to accom- 
pany him on his voyage down the Mississippi. To these 
were joined their women and children, twelve in* number. 
On the 21st of December the party, consisting of twenty- 
four Frenchmen and thirty Indians, making fifty-four in 
all, set out from Fort Miami, Tonti in charge of the ad- 
vance party in six canoes, and La Salle, with the remainder, 

It was midwinter, and they transported their luggage 
and canoes on sledges around the south end of the lake to 
the mouth of the Chicago River, and thence up that stream 
and down the Illinois, until they reached open water below 
the site of Peoria, when they took to their canoes. La 
Salle had given up the project of trying to navigate the 
great river in a large vessel, and so they did not attempt to 
complete the one on the stocks at Fort Creveeoeur, but 
kept on in their canoes, and reached the mouth of the 
Illinois on the 6th of February. 

Entering the majestic Mississippi, they glided rapidly 
down the stream, and towards evening passed the mouth 
of the muddy Missouri. Three days later they saw the 
mouth of the Ohio, which Membre called the Ouabache. 
On the 24th of February they landed near the Third 
Chickasaw Bluffs, where they encamped and sent out a 
hunting-party. Here also La Salle constructed a stockade 
fort, and named it Fort Proudhomme, in honor of one of 
his followers by that name who had been lost for a number 
of days in the forest. From this point, also, La Salle sent 
presents to the Ghickasaws, living to the eastward. 

* A band of Outagamiea had told him of the safe arrival of Tonti 
among the Pottawattomies, and also of the safe arrival of Hennepin 
and his party. 

Leaving Proudhomme with a few companions in charge 
of the fort, they again embarked, and proceeded on their 
way until the 11th of March, when, in the midst of a 
dense fog, they heard the booming of an Indian drum and 
the shouts of the war-dance. Pulling for the opposite 
shore, they encamped and threw up hasty breastworks, and 
when the fog cleared away found themselves near the mouth 
of the Arkansas. 

The Indians were the Kappa band, of the Arkansas 
nation, who received them with the greatest cordiality, and 
supplied them with fruits and vegetables.f Here they had 
a grand reception, and La Salle erected a cross, and fixing 
thereon the arms of France, took possession of the country, 
in the name of his sovereign. 

Resuming their journey, guided by two Arkansas In- 
dians, they next landed about three hundred miles lower 
down, in the vicinity of the Tensas RiverJ or bayou. Two 
hours' distance from here was the capital of the Tensas 

Tonti and Membre visited it and came back astonished 
at what they had seen. The town was well built of sun- 
baked brick or adobes, and there was a temple built of the 
same material, where the people worshiped the sun. The 
chief made a ceremonious visit to La Salle in his camp, and 
presents were exchanged by the two leaders. 

On the following day they reached the country of the 
Natchez Indians, whom they also visited in their villages, 
where they found much the same appearance as in the 
Tensas town. Below the Natchez they visited the Coroas, 
the Oumas, and passed villages of the Quinipissas, by whom 
they were greeted with a shower of arrows. Farther down 
they found a deserted village of the Tangibao, in which 
were many decaying corpses left during an inroad of their 
enemies a few days before. 

On the 6th of April they reached the head of the passes, 
and here, dividing their force, La Salle followed the west, 
D'Autray the east, and Tonti the middle passage. As the 
canoe drifted downward, La Salle caught the salt breeze 
from the sea, and soon the broad bosom of the gulf ap- 
peared on the horizon, and the object of all his toils and 
privations was found at last, — The Mouth of the Missis- 

On the 9th day of April, 1682, with great pomp and 
ceremony, a cross was planted, and La Salle, in the name of 
Louis the Fourteenth, took possession of all the lands 
watered by the great river, which vast region he named, in 
honor of his sovereign, Louisiana. 

Returning up the river, La Salle was prostrated by sick- 
ness at Fort Proudhomme, and forced to remain until his 
fever abated. He sent Tonti forward to Mackinac with dis- 
patches announcing his discovery, and with directions when 
his errand was accomplished to return to the Illinois. By 
the latter part of July, La Salle had recovered sufficiently 
to resume his journey, and about the 1st of August reached 
Fort Miami. In September he returned to Mackinac. 

His intention was to return to France, lay his discoveries 
before the court, and procure men and means for the estab- 

f This tribe, a remnant of which still remains, have generally been 
known by the name of Quapatcs. 
J This name La Salle wrote Taensas, 



lishment of a post near the mouth of the Mississippi. In 
the meanwhile he directed Tonti to build a strong fort on 
the Long Rocher of the Illinois, and make ready for a 

On the eve of La Salle's departure for Quebec, on his 
way to Europe, he heard that the Iroquois were again about 
to attack the Western tribes. His colony was in danger, 
and all his plans were likely to come to naught. In this 
dilemma he hastened to the Illinois, and rejoined Tonti 
near the Indian town. 


La Salle constructed his fort on what is now called 
" Starved Rock,"* situated on the south side of the Illinois, 
which here runs nearly west, and about opposite the village 
of Utica, in La Salle County. The rock rises perpendicu- 
larly from the water to the height of more than a hundred 
feet, and is separated from the sandstone bluff which forms 
the bold escarpment that, in bygone ages, was the shore of 
the great river through which Lake Michigan discharged 
its waters into the Mississippi River by a deep ravine. It 
is accessible from the rear only by a narrow passage, and its 
area, which is nearly level on the top, is about an acre. 

In December, 1682, La Salle and Tonti began the work 
of building a fort on this impregnable rock. It was en- 
circled around the margin by a strong palisade, and inside 
were erected dwellings, barracks, and storehouses. 

On the broad river-bottom opposite, and among the hills 
and rugged bluffs on either side the river, in the course of 
a few months congregated a great number of Indians of 
various nationalities, — Illinois, Miamis, Shawanese, and 
even Abenakis from beyond the Green Mountains of New 
England. Franquelin's map of 1684, already quoted, shows 
an aggregate of about four thousand warriors, besides 
women and children, so that, at a low estimate, the total 
population must have been ten or twelve thousand ; perhaps 
the most dense of any Indian population within a similar 
area in the history of the continent.'j" 

In the mean time, Frontenac had been recalled from his 
position as Governor-General of Canada, in February, 1682, 
and Le Febvre de la Barre appointed in his stead. This 
was a serious blow to La Salle and his plans, for Count 
Frontenac had, from the first, been his fast friend, while 
the new Governor unfortunately became his bitter enemy. 

La Salle in his safe retreat at Fort St. Louis enjoyed an 
immense trade with the Western Indians, and, no doubt, 
cut off quite a proportion of what would naturally have 
gone to Frontenac and Montreal, were it not for his post 
and the great Indian colony gathered around it. 

In the beginning of 1683 the Iroquois were again 
threatening war, not only against the Illinois and Miami's 
of the West, but against all the nations of the upper lakes 
and the French in Canada. The new Governor-General 
strove by every means in his power to avert such a calam- 
ity, but while striving to prevent them from attacking the 

* This name is said to be derived from the fact that a party of Illi- 
nois Indians, after the assassination of Pontiac, were pursued to this 
point by the Pottawattomies, who besieged them until they all starved 
to death. This is a current tradition in the region. 

f La Salle, in a memoir addressed to the minister of marine, esti- 
mates the total number at twenty thousand. 

Northwestern Indians, he (it is said) connived at their de- 
termination to make war upon La Salle and the Illinois. 

He also seized upon Fort Frontenac, the property of La 
Salle, under the flimsy pretext that the latter had not lived 
up to the conditions of his grant. Soon after he sent the 
Chevalier de Baugis with an armed party to take posses- 
sion of La Salle's fort on the Illinois. 

In the mean time La Salle had left his fort, in the early 
autumn of 1683, in command of Tonti, and descended to 
Quebec, intending to sail for France. 

On his way he met the Chevalier de Baugis, on his way 
to take possession of Fort St. Louis. La Salle made no 
objections, and even wrote to Tonti to receive De Baugis 
well ; and the two commanders divided the command be- 
tween them, Tonti representing La Salle and De Baugis 
the Governor. 

In the latter part of March the Iroquois attacked the 
place, but were easily beaten off. 

La Salle sailed for France, where he completely won 
over the king and court to his interests, and was granted 
much more than he asked. His lieutenant, La Forest, who 
had been ejected from Fort Frontenac, was then in Paris; 
and he was at once commissioned to return to Canada, and 
re-occupy, in La Salle's name, both Forts Frontenac and 
St. Louis. In the place of two ships, which La Salle had 
asked for, he was supplied with four. 

A hundred soldiers were furnished, and a great number 
of workmen and mechanics, and even women joined the 
expedition. There were also several priests of various 
orders, including La Salle's brother, and altogether a com- 
pany of two hundred and eighty persons. The principal 
vessel, the " Joly," of the royal navy, carried thirty-six guns. 
The naval command was given to one Captain Beaujeu, of 
the royal navy, while La Salle controlled all, except the 
management of the vessels at sea. 

La Salle's grand scheme was to take possession of the 
whole vast valleys of the Great Lakes and the Mississippi ;. 
establish a chain of trading-posts from Quebec to the 
mouth of the great river ; plant permanent settlements all 
along the route ; and eventually, drive the Spaniards from 
the Gulf of Mexico, thus giving the king of the French 
control of the largest and fairest portions of the North 
American continent, and confining the English settlements 
to a narrow strip along the Atlantic coast. He would have 
united all the Indian tribes of the interior, excepting only 
the Iroquois confederacy, to the arms of France, and by an 
immense display of force have kept possession of the coun- 
try. It was a magnificent plan, but destined never to be 

The expedition sailed from Rochelle on the 24th of 
July, 1 684. La Salle and Beaujeau were at cross-purposes ; 
everything went wrong; and when the vessels reached 
the West Indies, La Salle and fifty of the people on board 
the " Joly" were sick. But the worst trouble of all was the 
loss of the " St. Francois," transport, laden with supplies, 
which was captured by the Spaniards. 

Towards the end of November La Salle was sufficiently 
recovered to resume the voyage, which he did, accompanied 
by his brother Joutel, the historian of the expedition, and 
others of his followers, on board the store-ship " Amiable, 1 ' 



which Beaujeu declared he would leave, to follow as best 
she could. 

Crossing the Mexican Gulf, they made land far to the 
westward of the Mississippi, at Matagorda Bay. The 
" Joly" soon after arrived, when her commander accused 
La Salle of deserting him, and they fell into a dispute as to 
the location of the mouth of the Mississippi ; La Salle con- 
tending that they had passed it, and Beaujeu threatening 
to return to France. 

La Salle landed a party to explore the adjacent shores, 
who reported a great river lying to the east of them, which 
he believed was the western mouth of the Mississippi, but 
which was in reality the Colorado River, of Texas, and the 
bay into which it discharged, the present Matagorda Bay, 
the entrance to which is four hundred and fifty miles in a 
straight line west by south from the mouth of the Missis- 

At this point La Salle determined to land the people and 
stores, and send the " Joly" back to France. On attempt- 
ing to make the entrance to the bay, the " Amiable," store- 
ship, ran on a reef or bar and stuck fast. Attempts were 
made to unload her cargo, which included all the supplies 
for the colony ; but a storm arose, and the vessel going to 
pieces, most of her cargo was lost. It is affirmed by some 
writers that she was willfully wrecked. 

In the midst of these difficulties the Indians proved 
troublesome, and even hostile, stealing everything they could 
lay hold off, and at length attacking a small party and kill- 
ing two men. Finally, taking on board a portion of the colo- 
nists, who had become anxious to leave the country, Beaujeu 
made sail and disappeared. It is said, upon good authority, 
that Beaujeu knew he had passed the mouth of the river, 
and that before he returned to France he visited it, and 
caused a map to be made of the region. There is little 
doubt that he was treacherous to La Salle from the begin- 

These occurrences took place in February, 1685. La 
Salle constructed a temporary fort, and covered it with sails, 
and here was gathered the heterogeneous colony and what 
stores they had been able to save from the wreck. The 
common followers of La Salle were made up of the very 
scum of Bochelle and Rochefort, and a spirit of insubordi- 
nation, and even treachery, speedily began to develop itself. 
Several men deserted ; one was caught and hung, and a lot 
of desperadoes conspired to kill Joutel. 

La Salle undertook to explore the country, with the view 
of finding the Mississippi. In his preliminary explorations 
he found a better place for the erection of a fort, near the 
head of Matagorda Bay, on the little river which he named 
the La Vache, now known as the Lavaca. Removing 
everything from the first fortification to the new position 
they laboriously constructed a more elaborate work, inclosed 
with strong pickets, and in which the colonists lived in tents 
and hovels. The fort was named St. Louis. 

In his extremity the indomitable leader found how wofully 
he was deceived in regard to his location, and it became ap- 
parent that he was many hundred miles from where he in- 
tended to found his settlement, in the midst of a wild and 
inhospitable region, beyond the probable reach of succor. 

In this dilemma it became apparent that relief must be 

obtained in some manner, for the miserable colonists were 
dying daily, and provisions would soon be needed. La 
Salle could see but one way out of the difficulty, and that 
was for him or some other person to make his way across 
the continent to Canada, and procure the means of re- 
moving the colony to a more favorable region or back to 

The whole season of 1686 had been spent in a fruitless 
endeavor to find the " fatal river," as Joutel calls it. Up 
to the last moment La Salle had relied upon a small vessel, 
called the " Belle," to transport his followers to the Missis- 
sippi as soon as its position was determined, but this vessel 
was unfortunately lost, and nothing remained but the jour- 
ney to Canada. 

It was about the 7th of January, 1687, when La Salle 
and his little party left Fort St. Louis upon that journey 
from which he was never to return. He was assassinated 
by some of his followers on one of the head branches of 
the Trinity River, on the 19th day of March, 1687, at 
the age of forty-four years. It was a most brutal murder, 
and a most unjust requital for all his bitter experiences in 
the interests of human knowledge. 

La Salle was one of the greatest men of his day, and 
had he lived to the ordinary age of man the value of his 
early discoveries would no doubt have been greatly en- 
hanced by the labors and explorations of his later years. 

It was a sad day for the followers of La Salle when 
the bullet of the assassin closed his earthly career. His 
brother, the Abbe Cavelier, Joutel, and a few others made 
their way over the country to the Arkansas River, where 
they met with two Frenchmen, who had followed Tonti in 
a brave endeavor to rescue his old commander when he 
heard of his misfortunes in Texas. Tonti had penetrated, 
at the head of a small party, from the Fort St. Louis of 
Illinois to the mouth of the Mississippi, where he searched 
for many miles on either hand, but finding nothing had re- 
luctantly returned, leaving a part of his men (on his way 
up the river) near the Arkansas. Of these were the two 
who had met Joutel and La Salle's brother. The party 
arrived safely in Canada, and from thence returned to France. 

The remainder of the Texas colony were mostly destroyed 
in one way or another. The assassins quarreled, and shot 
each other ; the Indians massacred some ; a remnant were 
found and rescued from death by the Spaniards ; and a few 
spent their lives among the savages. 

When Tonti heard of the death of La Salle, which had 
been studiously kept from him by Joutel and the abb6, he 
immediately resolved to rescue those who were left behind 
in Texas ; and in December, 1688, he left Fort St. Louis, 
on the Illinois, with a party of five Frenchmen, a Shaw- 
anese warrior, and two Indian servants, paddled down the 
Illinois and Mississippi, and thence up the Red River to a 
village of the Caddoes, which he reached at the end of 
March, 1689. Here he was informed that a portion of 
those he sought were eighty leagues distant, and he resolved 
to push on and rescue them ; but his companions refused, 
with two exceptions, to follow him farther. Nothing 
daunted, he continued his search with the two men who 
remained faithful until he was satisfied he could do nothing 
further, when he reluctantly retraced his steps, and after 



innumerable hardships reached Fort St. Louis in Septem- 

We have been somewhat particular in tracing the jour- 
neys, voyages, and explorations of the great discoverer, 
partly because of the intense interest still centered in 
them, but chiefly because of La Salle's connection di- 
rectly and indirectly with the discovery and early settle- 
ment of Michigan. It is apparent to any one who takes 
the trouble to investigate closely the movements of the 
French in the region of the lakes, that the first post es- 
tablished within the borders of the lower peninsula was the 
one at the mouth of the St. Joseph River by La Salle, in 
November, 1679.f 

According to the best authority there can be no doubt 
but La Salle was also the first white man (or one of a 
party of three) who ever visited the county of Kalama- 
zoo, which took place in the latter place of March or fore- 
part of April, 1680, when he was on his way to Canada from 
Fort Crevecoeur, on the Illinois ; and the conclusion is ir- 
resistible that he and his companions encamped for the 
night on Prairie Ronde. The careful researches of the 
historian Francis Parkman among the Jesuit and colonial 
records of France and Canada put these matters beyond a 
doubt. (See his volume, " Discovery of the Great West." 
Boston : Brown & Little, publishers.) 



Du Lhut — M. Perot — M. de la Porte Louvigny — M. dela Motte Cadil- 
lac — Tjugh-sagh-ron-die — Founding of Detroit — " Company of the 
Colony"— Trouble with Indians, 1703, 1712. 

As we have seen, the mission of St. Ignace, of the 
Straits of Michilimackinac, was founded in 1671. The 
French gave this name to the adjacent region, and after 
the establishment of a military post there, which must have 
been about 1680, it became one of the most important 
points in the French possessions of North America. Daniel 
Greysolon Du Lhut seems to have been the first, or at least 

* In addition to the services which we have seen Henri De Tonti 
performed, he led a strong band of French and Indians in Denon- 
ville's expedition against the Iroquois in 1687. This band was from 
the Illinois, and Tonti crossed from Fort Miami to Detroit, and prob- 
ably passed through Kalamazoo County. He was proprietor of Fort 
St. Louis for several years after La-Salle's death, and carried on the 
fur-trade extensively until about 1702, when he was transferred to 
Louisiana. He was sent to Mobile Bay by D'Iberville, Governor of 
Louisiana, where he made a treaty with the Chickasaw Indians. The 
date of his death is not known. His brother, Alphonse De Tonti, was 
for many years commandant at Detroit. Fort St. Louis, on the Illi- 
nois, was occupied by the French until about 1720. 

f The writer who contributed the history of Berrien County to the 
Pioneer Collections of Michigan undertakes to show that Fathers 
Allouez, Dablon, and Marquette visited this point between the years 
1666 and 1670. Dablon and Allouez visited the Fox and Mascoutin 
Indians on the west side of the lake, but there is not a particle of 
evidence to show that they visited the east side of the lake. Father 
Marquette passed down near the east shore on his way to Mackinaw 
in May, 1675, but did not land at the mouth of the St. Joseph. Mar- 
quette died on the eastern shore on the 19th of May, 1675, as spoken 
of elsewhere. It is probable that a Jesuit mission was established 
here about the year 1700, when probably Allouez visited the place. 
(See Parkman's works.) 

one of the first military commandants of this important 
post. At any rate he was there in 1683, and continued 
until 1686, when he was ordered by M. Denonville, Gov- 
ernor-General of New France, to establish a fortified post 
on the " d'etroit," near Lake Erie, which order he pro- 
ceeded to put in execution ; but he did not build the work 
on the Detroit River. It was situated on the site of Fort 
Gratiot,J at the foot of Lake Huron, and was only kept up 
until 1688, when it was abandoned. It was named Fort 
St. Joseph, § after the patron saint of New France. 

In 1686, M. Perot succeeded Du Lhut in command of 
Fort Baude, at Mackinac. 

M. Perot appears to have remained in command until 
1691, when he was succeeded by M. de la Porte Louvigny, 
who was succeeded by M. de la Motte Cadillac, in 1694. 
At times this place was almost completely cut off from 
communication with Montreal and Quebec, but the hold of 
the French upon it was never relaxed. 

In 1695 the place, according to a letter from Cadillac to 
a friend in Quebec, contained sixty houses, — as he says, 
" one of the largest villages in all Canada ;" the fort was a 
strong one, and had a fine garrison of two hundred soldiers ; 
and there were, besides the regular residents, a great many 
persons who resided there a part of the year. Cadillac 
commanded the place from 1694 to 1699. 


Some time in the year 1700, Cadillac, who had become 
convinced of the necessity of a strong fort on the Detroit 2 
proceeded to France, and in a personal interview with the 
Count Ponchartrain,|| minister for the colonies, readily en- 
listed him in behalf of the project. Under the commission 
of the king, Cadillac returned to Canada, arriving at Quebec 
on the 8th of March, 1701. On the 5th of June he left 
La Chine with fifty soldiers, and about the same number 
of Canadian merchants and mechanics. Under him, with 
the rank of captain, went M. Alphonse de Tonti, a brother 
of Henri de Tonti, and two lieutenants. A Jesuit accom- 
panied the expedition as missionary to the Indians, and a 
Recollet priest as chaplain. The command safely arrived at 
Detroit on the 24th of July, 1701. 

Here he constructed a small stockaded work with two 
bastions at the angles, and inclosing sufficient space to con- 
tain a few log buildings for barracks. The roofs were 
thatched with grass. This work Cadillac named " Fort 
Ponchartrain," in honor of the French minister.^ 

J Fort Gratiot was built by an American officer of that name, in 

$ In the next year (1687) Baron La Hontan succeeded Du Lhut in 
command of Fort St. Joseph. He burned and evacuated the fort in 
1688. There is considerable uncertainty about the name Du Lhut. 
Some writers speak of two brothers. The family name seems to have 
been Greysolon, or Grisolon, and Du Lhut the name of the estate, near 

|| This name is written Pontchartrain in Sheldon's History of Mich- 

% There is at least the probability that there was a French fort at 
Detroit many years previous to 1701, though it may have been a post 
of the coureurs des bois, and not recognized by the government. From 
statements in the New York colonial documents it would appear that 
it was in existence as early as 1679. It is referred to in 1689 and 
1691. Judge Campbell says it may not have been continuously oc- 
cupied, and was probably never garrisoned by a regular military 
force until Cadillac's time, 1701. 



In the autumn of this year a company was formed, 
called the u Company of the Colony of Canada," composed 
of merchants and traders interested in the fur trade of the 
country. A contract was drawn up and signed, of which 
the following is a true copy, from kC Sheldon's History of 
Michigan" : 

" Contract made with the Company of the Colony of Canada concerning 
Fort Frontenac and Detroit, to enable said Company to traffic for 
beaver and other peltriex, in conformity to the agreement made in a 
convention held at Quebec, Oct. 31, 1701 

" Before the royal notaries at Quebec, in New France, appeared M. 
le Chevalier Callieres, lieutenant-governor for the king in this country 
of New France, and Monsieur Champigny, administrator of justice, 
police, and revenue of the said country, who testify that, in conse- 
quence of orders which they have this year received from his majesty, 
to entrust to the Company of the Colony of this said country the posts 
of Detroit and Fort Frontenac, there was held at the Chateau St. 
Louis, in this city, on the eighth of the present month, a general as- 
sembly of all the inhabitants of this country who have a deliberative 
voice in the said company, that all the arrangements might be made 
in their presence, if the company should decide to accept the said posts 
of Detroit and Fort Frontenac. 

"There were present at this assembly the seven directors-general of 
the said company, the governors of Montreal and Three Rivers, many 
civil and military officers, and the merchants and other inhabitants 
interested in the company. 

" After mature deliberation, the result was declared to be the ac- 
ceptance of these posts by the company, for the purposes of trade in 
beaver and other peltries, to the entire exclusion of all private indi- 
viduals who are now, or may hereafter become, residents of that 
country ; and that the act of said acceptance shall be passed between 
the governor-general and intendant and the directors-general of the 
said company. 

"In consequence of said decision, the following articles of agree- 
ment have been made between the governor-general and intendant on 
the one part, and Messrs. d'Auteuil, procureur-general of the king in 
the sovereign council of this country, Lotbinieres, lieutenant-general 
of this city of Quebec, Irazeur, Gobin, Macart, and Pierre, gentlemen, 
merchants of this city of Quebec, all directors-general of the said 
company, on the other part. 

"Be it known, that the governor-general and intendant, in conse- 
quence of the express orders which they have this year received from 
the king, do, by these presents and acceptances, in the name of His 
Majesty, cede and convey to the directors of the said Company of the 
Colony of the said posts of Detroit and Fort Frontenac, giving into 
the possession of the said Company of the Colony, from this day forth, 
the said posts in the State in which they now are, for their use to traffic 
in furs, to the exclusion of all other inhabitants of said country, so 
long as it shall please His Majesty. 

" It shall be the duty of the said company to complete the construc- 
tion of the fort at Detroit, and the buildings properly belonging 
thereto; and the company shall in future keep said fort and buildings 
in good repair, that they may be maintained and rendered in the same 
state in which they are now, and better, if possible, whenever His 
Majesty shall judge proper to receive them, if in the course of time 
he so order. 

" The Company of the Colony is also to take charge of the goods 
which have been sent to the said places, obeying the conditions that 
have been agreed upon, — Messrs. Radisson and Arnault to be overseers 
of the storehouse of the said goods which the intendant has placed in 
the hands of the directors of the company. They are also to have 
charge of the advances made by the king for this establishment, and 
to make payment for the said goods, and advances to the intendant, 
from the first bills which shall be returned from Detroit ; and in case 
said bills shall not be sufficient, on the 1st of October, 1702, the said 
overseers shall give bills of exchange far the remainder, which shall 
be drawn upon the directors and commissioners of said company in 
Paris, payable to the securities and overseers of the storehouses, for 
the purpose of liquidating the claims against the said company, con- 
formably with the agreement made with the said lord-lieutenant. 

" The intendant shall deduct from the amount due six thousand 

livres, French money, being the gift ordered by His Majesty for the 
support of the honest families in this country who may need assist- 

" The payment of the said sum of six thousand livres shall be made 
by the company every year, on the said first of October, so long as it 
shall enjoy the commerce of the said post of Detroit. 

" It is also agreed that the king shall support, at his expense, the 
garrison which the Governor shall order for the protection of the 
said fort of Detroit, and that the commandant and one other officer 
only shall be maintained by the company. 

"The said commandant and soldiers shall not make any trade for 
furs with the savages nor French, directly nor indirectly, under any 
pretext whatever, under pain of confiscation of the said furs, and 
other punishment prescribed by the king. 

" Moreover, the said company binds itself to cause to be conveyed 
from Montreal to Detroit, at its own expense, the provisions and other 
articles which His Majesty shall furnish to the said garrison, with the 
help of fifteen livres per hundred-weight, which the intendant shall 
cause to be paid from the treasury of His Majesty to the company. 

" In regard to Fort Frontenac, it will remain as it now is, fully and 
entirely at the disposal of His Majesty, unless the company can ad- 
vance some better claim than that of placing deputies there to make 
commerce in furs for their profit, to the exclusion of all others. 

" Until His Majesty's orders shall be received, the deputies shall be 
lodged and their goods stored in the store-houses of the fort, as the 
magazine guard and the goods of the king have been heretofore. 

" There shall be made an inventory of all the effects which shall be 
found at the said fort, for the commerce of the said place, after the 
return of the last convoy for this year, which effects shall remain for 
the company, who shall be bound to pay for them at the price ex- 
pressed in the invoice and statement which is in the hands of the 
intendant. The said amount to be paid during the year 1702, from 
the returns of the commerce; and in case that the said returns shall 
not be sufficient, the balance shall be paid in bills of exchange, which 
shall be drawn upon the said commissioners of the said company, and 
its director in Paris. 

"The said company shall be required to pay the sum of seven livres 
and ten sous, French money, per hundred-weight, for the transporta- 
tion of effects from Montreal to the said fort; and the said company 
enjoying, as hereinbefore stated, the privilege of trading for furs at 
the said place of Fort Frontenac, exclusive of all others, will be re- 
quired to transport to the said Fort Frontenac the articles necessary 
for the subsistence of the garrison of the said place, conformably to 
the orders of the king, contained in his dispatches of the present 
year. The commandant, officers, and soldiers which the governor- 
general shall hold there in garrison shall make no trade, directly or 
indirectly, on pain of confiscation of their furs and other punishments 
prescribed by the laws of the king, until the government be revoked. 

" Executed and conveyed at Quebec, Chateau St. Louis, in the fore- 
noon of the thirty-first day of October, 1701, the said gentlemen in- 
terested and the notaries having signed at the time, the agreements 
remaining in the office of M. de Chamblon, one of the notaries." 

Thus it appears that the original and principal cause of 
the establishment of a French post at Detroit was the de- 
sire to control the fur trade of the Upper Lake region, — a 
trade which, in the outset of the settlement, was placed 
under the control of a company of merchants, who were 
guaranteed a monopoly by both the colonial and home gov- 
ernments. The importance of the post from a military 
point of view, while of considerable moment, was subordi- 
nate to its commercial consequence, and, lastly, the estab- 
lishment of missions in its vicinity was also a factor in the 

general plan. 


This was the Indian name of a Huron village which 
formerly stood on the site of Detroit, probably as early as 
1650-55,* and quite likely planted there upon the disper- 

* Some writers claim that there was an Indian village here in 1620. 
It is also stated that a colony of Huron* settled on the site of Detroit 
in 1680. There were probably Indian settlements there at various 



sion of the Hurons by the Iroquois ; though when the two 
Sulpitian priests — Dollier and Galinee — passed through 
the strait in the spring of 1670 they made no mention of 
any village, only recording the fact that they found on the 
site of the future city what they supposed was an Indian 
god, roughly carved in stone, and which they piously broke 
in pieces with their axes and sunk in the river. 

It is quite probable that the village was not a permanent 
one, but only located there during the fishing season, or 
possibly for a few years at a time. The name is curiously 
interwoven in an interesting poem by Levi Bishop, of De- 

It seems to have been a grand plan of M. de Cadillac to 
gather all the Indians of the West — at least those in the 
vicinity of the lakes — around the new post at Detroit. He 
cordially hated the Jesuits, and they, in turn, bore him no 
good-will. The Jesuit father Marest clung tenaciously to 
the mission at Mackinac, and determined that there should 
be no great gathering of the savages at Detroit, certainly 
not to the detriment of his mission. 

But, notwithstanding the obstinacy of the priests, Cadil- 
lac succeeded in persuading a great number of the Western 
Indians to come to Detroit, and the fur trade largely cen- 
tered there for many years. Among the nations who were 
represented at Detroit in 1703, Cadillac enumerates the 
Sauteur&ft Mississagues, Hurons from Mackinac, several 
bands of the Miamis, Ottawas, and others. 

The colony seems to have been similar to the one gath- 
ered by La Salle and Tonti at the great Illinois town twenty 
years before. 

In the year 1702 the "Company of th*e Colony" becom- 
ing dissatisfied with the first contract made at Quebec, en- 
tered into a new one with M. de Cadillac, with the consent 
of the Governor-General and intendant. By this new ar- 
rangement Cadillac was to have one-third of the commerce 
of the post, and the company were to be relieved from all 
responsibility to other officers. This not proving satisfac- 
tory, another contract was entered into, by which Cadil- 
lac was to be paid two thousand francs a year, and his 
subordinate, M. de Tonti, thirteen hundred and thirty- 
three francs per year, in consideration of which sums Cadil- 
lac agreed not to traffic with the savages. This agreement 
continued in force for about one year, when the Governor 
detected M. Tonti and the commissioners carrying on a 
contraband trade. He reported them, and thereby got 
himself into trouble, for they were highly connected, and 
in 1704, when Cadillac was in Montreal, he was arrested 
and a suit commenced against him, which was not decided 
until 1705. 

In the mean time M. de Tonti was in command at De- 
troit until, at the request of Cadillac, M. Bourmont super- 
seded him. 

The establishment of the post at Detroit was strongly 
objected to by the Iroquois, and the Jesuits were also op- 
posed to it. In 1702 war broke out between England, 
France, and Holland, and its consequences were felt to a 
greater or less degree in America. In the summer of 1703 

* Mr. Bishop writes it Teuchsa Groudie. In the Ojibwa language 
this place was called Wa-we-at-a-nong. 
j- Probably Ojibioae. 

the English invited the Indian nations living in the vicinity 
of Detroit to a grand council at Albany. It does not ap- 
pear that any except the Ottawas accepted the invitation. 
But these returned with a bitter prejudice against the 
French, who, the English informed them, had established 
a fort at Detroit with the ulterior purpose of exterminating 

The attempt to destroy the fort soon after the return 
of their chiefs from Albany was probably traceable to the 
hostility of the English. 

M. de Cadillac was cleared from all the charges against 
him, and in August, 1706, returned to the command of 
the post. 

Difficulties increased, and the savages, in 1707, murdered 
three Frenchmen near the fort. It would appear that the 
principal people of Canada were greatly opposed to the es- 
tablishment of the post at Detroit and to the " Company of 
the Colony," because of their monopoly of the fur trade. 

In the same year, 1707, Cadillac led a party of four hun- 
dred French and Indians into the country of the Miamis, 
and compelled them to come to terms and furnish hostages 
for their good behavior, besides paying dearly for their 

In the summer of 1711, M. du Buisson succeeded M. 
de Cadillac in command at Detroit. The war between the 
French and English involved the Five Nations (made six 
in 1712 by the admission of the Tuscaroras from North 
Carolina), and they had stirred up some of the Western 
nations against the French, — among others the Outagamies, 
or Foxes, and the Mascoutins, who dwelt west of Lake 

In May, 1712, a large number of these nations appeared 
before Detroit, and throwing up intrenchments, it is said 
within fifty yards of the fort, sat down to a regular siege 
of the place. The French garrison consisted of only thirty 
men, and their allies, the Ottawas, Hurons, and others, 
were absent hunting. The enemy made a fierce onslaught, 
but were bravely met by the garrison under M. du Buisson, 
and held in check until their Indian allies returned. 

.The church and several buildings outside the pickets 
were pulled down by order of the commandant, lest they 
should be set on fire by the savages, and thus endanger the 

On the arrival of the friendly Indians the contest grew 
more and more furious, until at length, outnumbered and 
beaten, the enemy were forced to retreat from the vicinity to 
a fortification which they had previously thrown up. Here 
they were besieged for a period of nineteen days, when they 
asked for terms. A parley ensued, but ended without defi- 
nite results, and the fight was renewed. At length the 
Foxes and Mascoutins took advantage of a rainy night to 
steal away from their works, and retreated to an island in 
the river above Detroit, whither they were pursued, and 
after a siege of several days their stronghold was taken, all 
the warriors slain, and the women and children (if there 
were any present) taken prisoners. M. du Buisson esti- 
mated their total loss at over one thousand. 

From a letter written by Father Joseph Marest, from 
Mackinac, in June, 1712, it would appear that as a military 
post it had been abandoned since the establishment of De- 



troit ; but the mission had been kept up, and constant en- 
deavors made by the father to have the post restored. The 
letter in question contains a renewed request for the re- estab- 
lishment of the post, because of the danger of attack from 
the Sacs, Foxes, and Mascoutins, who would fall upon 
Mackinac to revenge themselves for their defeat at Detroit. 
Deserters and coureurs des hots were then in control of 
that post, and the missionaries prayed for a military com- 
mandant and garrison. 

The complete defeat of the Foxes |ind Mascoutins before 
Detroit did not destroy these warlike people, and their dep- 
redations continued until the French Governor-General, M. 
Vaudreuil, determined to humble them. To this end a 
strong force of eight hundred men was fitted out and 
placed under command of M. Louvigny, the lieutenant of 
Quebec. In the spring of 1716 this force proceeded to 
the country of the Outagamies, whom they found in- 
trenched and ready for battle in the vicinity of Green Bay. 
This expedition was successful, and the Outagamies were 
compelled to sue for peace, which was granted upon terms 
greatly to the advantage of the French, and henceforth 
they were troubled no more by the warriors who had been 
such formidable enemies. 

It would appear from certain correspondence that the 
post of Mackinac was re-established about 1713.* 

M. de Tonti was again in command of Detroit in the fall 
of 1717. Under his administration .the fort was rebuilt in 
a more substantial manner, the lands adjacent were sold to 
actual settlers, the colony increased, and prosperity gener- 
ally smiled upon the country. 

In June, 1721, M. de Tonti held a council with the 
chiefs of the Ifurons, Ottawas, and Pottawattomies, and 
united them in a league against the warlike Indians living 
beyond Lake Michigan. M. Yaudreuil, the Governor-Gen- 
eral, died on the 10th of October, 1725. He had been 
Governor for a period of twenty-one years. His successor 
was M. Beauharnais. 

Nothing of great importance concerning the territory of 
Michigan occurred while it remained under French rule, 
from this period to 1760, when the whole country held by 
the French in what is now British America fell under the 
dominion of the English. The forts and missions in the 
neighborhood of the lakes were kept up, and occasionally a 
new one was added. Detroit and Mackinac continued to 
be the principal centres of the fur trade, and the former 
grew slowly in population and commercial importance. It 
is stated, on good authority, that in 1749, under the rule 
of Count de Gallissioniere, the French cut a military road 
from Detroit to the Ohio River. This road crossed the 
Maumee Biver at the " rapids," above Toledo. The first 
settlements at Vincennes and other points on the Wabash, 
in the present State of Indiana, were made from Detroit as 
a base of operations, and it was the centre of the fur trade 
for the larger portion of the lower peninsula and all the 
country now occupied by the States of Indiana and Illi- 
nois, and portions of Ohio and Wisconsin. 

* The uew post of Michilimackinac was built on the south side of 
the strait, and thither also the mission and chapel of St. Ignaee fol- 
lowed. The fort on the island of Mackinac was built and garrisoned 
by the British in the summer of 1780. 



Surrender of Detroit to Captain Rogers — Pontiac's War — Siege of 
Detroit— Bloody Bridge — The " Quebec Act" — Detroit during the 
Revolution — Expeditions. 

The French war of 1754-60, which resulted in the sur- 
render of Canada to the British, did not seriously disturb 
the French posts in the West. It is probable that small 
bands of savages may have joined the French from this 
region in their war against the English ; and it is claimed 
by some writers that the celebrated Ottawa chieftain, Pon- 
tiac, with a band of trusty followers, took part in the bloody 
defeat of Braddock on the Monongahela, in July, 1755, 
but the evidence is not satisfactory on this point. 

In 1759, when the gallant Capt. Pouchot was struggling 
against the army under Sir William Johnson, at Niagara, 
M. de Aubrey collected a force of seventeen hundred French 
troops, coureurs des bois, and Indians, from the posts of De- 
troit, Mackinac, and the Wabash, and attempted to raise 
the siege, but the English force was too strong for his mot- 
ley army ; he was defeated with loss, and the post surren- 

With the surrender of Montreal, on the 8th of Septem- 
ber, 1760, to Gen. Amherst, virtually fell all the French 
possessions in America ; though some of their settlements 
and posts were not occupied by English troops for a con- 
siderable period thereafter. 

On the 12th of the same month, Maj. Robert Rogers, a 
provincial officer, born in New Hampshire, and a comrade 
of Stark and Putnam, was ordered by Gen. Amherst to 
proceed with a detachment of rangers to the Western lakes, 
and take military possession of the French posts. The 
major left Montreal on the 13th, with a command of two 
hundred rangers, in fifteen bateaux. Slowly toiling over 
the rapids of La Chine and the Cedars, they entered Lake 
Ontario, and skirting its northern shore in rough and bois- 
terous weather, reached Fort Niagara on the 1st of October. 

Carrying their boats and supplies over the portage, they 
launched them again above the falls, and leisurely pursued 
their voyage, while Rogers, with a few men, made a journey 
to Fort Pitt (Pittsburgh), overland, to deliver dispatches to 
Gen. Monckton, then in command of that post. This ac- 
complished, the major rejoined his command at Presque 
Isle about the last of the month, when the detachment pro- 
ceeded more rapidly on its voyage along the southern shore 
of Lake Erie. " The season was far advanced. The wind 
was chill, the lake was stormy, and the forests along the 
shore were tinged with the fading hues of autumn." 

On the 10th of November they reached the mouth of 
the Cuyahoga River, and encamped for the night on the 
site of the present city of Cleveland. It was the first time 
a body of English troops had penetrated so far to the West. 
Rain set in, and Rogers determined to rest his troops until 
the weather became more favorable. They pitched their 
tents in the neighboring woods, on the spot where now are 
found the busy streets and buildings of a city of one hun- 
dred and fifty thousand people. 




The command had not been long in their temporary 
camp when a party of Indian chiefs and warriors entered 
it from the west. and announced themselves as an embassy 
from Pontiac, who claimed to be ruler of all the adjacent 
country, sent forward by the chief to forbid their farther 
advance until he should hold a conference with them. Be- 
fore the close of the day Pontiac himself appeared at the 
head of a strong war-party, and haughtily demanded of 
Rogers, " What is your business in this country, and how 
dare you enter it without my permission ?" Rogers ex- 
plained that the French had surrendered all their posses- 
sions to the English, and he was on his way, under orders 
from the British commander-in-chief, to take possession of 
Detroit. Pontiac listened attentively, but made no reply 
except " / shall stand in the path until morning" and 

This was the first time an English officer or body of troops 
had met the famous Ottawa warrior. 

He was then about fifty years of age, and occupied the 
position of head chief of the Ottawas, and controlled also 
the Ojibwas and Pottawattomies — these three tribes being 
somewhat loosely united in a kind of confederacy. His 
influence extended over all the northwestern nations from 
the head-waters of the Ohio to those of the Mississippi. 
He was the model of the great Tecumseh in later years. 

From his earliest manhood to this time he had been the 
fast friend of the French, who had studiously treated the 
Indians, and especially their principal chiefs, with the great- 
est deference. But he was shrewd and politic, a man of 
great natural abilities, while at the same endowed with all 
the cunning and treachery characteristic of the Indian race. 
The news of the overthrow of the French fell like a thun- 
der-clap upon him ; but he was sagacious enough to see that 
he might enter into an alliance with these new sovereigns 
of Canada which would be as advantageous to him and his 
people as had been his former connection with the French. 

The detachment of Rogers stood well on their guard 
during the following night, fearful of treachery on the part 
of the Indians, but the hours passed quietly, and in the 
morning Pontiac returned to the camp and replied to 
Rogers that he was willing to let the English remain in 
the country and to treat them as he had the French, pro- 
vided they showed him proper respect as became his posi- 

The peace-pipe was now passed around and smoked by 
Pontiac and his chiefs and by Rogers and his officers, and 
harmony reigned among them. 

The expedition was detained by stormy weather until the 
12th, when it was again in motion, and in a few days arrived 
at the head of the lake, where Rogers learned that a force 
of four hundred savages were in ambush at the mouth of 
the Detroit River to cut him off. 

But this threatened danger was swept aside by the pow- 
erful wand of Pontiac, who ordered the path cleared for the 
English, and the command continued on unmolested up the 

In the mean time Lieutenant Brehm had been sent for- 
ward with a letter to Captain Bel etre, the French officer in 
command at Detroit, informing him of the conquest of 

Canada, and that he was deputed to receive the surrender 
of the post. But that officer totally disregarded the report, 
and resolved to hold the place. 

Failing in his first attempt, Rogers now sent forward 
Captain Campbell with a copy of the capitulation of Mon- 
treal, and a letter from M. Vaudreuil (late Governor-Gen- 
eral), directing that the place should be given up in accord- 
ance with the terms between himself and the English 
commander. This brought Beletre to terms, and he reluc- 
tantly yielded the place and pulled down the flag of France, 
which had waved in triumph over the walls of the border 
fortress for a period of fifty-nine years. 

This surrender occurred on the 29th of November, 1760, 
in the presence of a great assemblage of Indians, who could 
not conceal their astonishment at the forbearance of the 
conquerors in not destroying their enemies at once. The 
French garrison was sent down the lake, and the Cana- 
dians were allowed to remain on condition of swearing 
allegiance to Great Britain, which, "making a virtue of 
necessity," they at once proceeded to do. An officer was 
sent down the Wabash to take possession of the posts at 
Vincennes and Ouatenon, and Fort Miami on the Maumee 
was also occupied by the English. Rogers took upon him- 
self the task of proceeding up Lake Huron and taking pos- 
session of Mackinac, the second most important post held 
by the French in these waters, but the lateness of the 
season compelled his return after reaching the outlet of the 
lake, and Mackinac, Green Bay, St. Marie, and St. Joseph 
remained in the hands of the French until the following 
season, when a detachment of the 60th Royal Americans 
took possession of them, and nothing remained in the 
power of France except the posts on the Mississippi.* 


It was fondly believed by the English government and 
by the American colonists that the transfer of the French 
possessions to the British government would be the begin- 
ning of an era of peace and prosperity, and under this belief 
the settlements increased and spread wonderfully through- 
out all the frontiers. But the calm which followed the war 
was of short duration. 

The English government treated the Indians very differ- 
ently from that of the French. While the latter had 
always paid them proper respect and deference, the former, 
on the contrary, almost immediately began to thrust them 
aside and treat them as vagabonds and dependents upon 
public charity. They also kept continually encroaching 
upon their domain, through unauthorized treaties with 
petty chiefs, or by the strong hand of might. Even the 
Iroquois, who had been the allies of the English since the 
days of Champlain, began to murmur, and had refused to 
come to the aid of Braddock in the disastrous campaign in 
which he lost his army, his reputation, and his life. It is 
even possible that outlying bands of the Seneca nation, 
under Guyasutha, took part in the bloody encounter on the 

Scarcely had the English garrisons taken possession of 
the various posts vacated by the French, when complaints 

*From 1760 until 1775, Detroit and the surrounding settlements 
were under military rule. 



be^an to be heard among the Indians, and the French in- 
habitants of Canada and the borders of Michigan naturally 
sympathized with them in their grievances. As early as 
1761-62, plots were secretly laid for the capture of the En- 
glish posts, but they were for the time being frustrated by 
the vigilance of Capt. Campbell, in command at Detroit. 


By the " Treaty of Paris," in February, 1763, France 
ceded all her Canadian possessions to Great Britain, and, 
as before stated, the people of America fondly hoped their 
Indian troubles were at an end. But the short-sightedness 
of the English and their contemptuous treatment of such 
chiefs as Pontiac and Guyasutha, at length bore its legiti- 
mate fruit. 

Scarcely had the treaty been promulgated in Europe ere 
the horrors of a savage war were precipitated upon the 
English frontiers from Lake Superior to Pennsylvania. 
The leading spirits in this unequaled outbreak were Pon- 
tiac, the Ottawa, and Guyasutha, the Seneca; the former 
commanding in the West, the latter in the East. 

As on other occasions, both among the Indians and the 
Europeans, a " Prophet" arose among the Delaware nation, 
who, like " Peter the Hermit," preached a crusade against 
the enemies of his people. He claimed to be inspired di- 
rectly from the " Great Spirit," and wrought up the savages 
to the highest pitch of excitement and enthusiasm. 

Pontiac likewise found it convenient to make extrava- 
gant claims upon the credulity of his followers. The 
French inhabitants also circulated the report that the King 
of France had been sleeping, but was now awake, and that 
his white-coated legions and armed ships were advancing up 
the St. Lawrence and the Mississippi to drive out the Eng- 
lish and recover possession of the country. 

In the latter part of 1762, Pontiac had matured his 
plans for a general rising of all the Indians east of the 
Mississippi against the English forts and settlements. It 
was the most stupendous scheme of warfare ever planned, up 
to that time, by any Indian warrior on the continent The 
great chieftain determined to strike at the same moment 
every English post from Niagara to the Sault St. Marie. 
He sent his embassies throughout the length and breadth of 
the land. They penetrated to the head of the Ohio, to the 
far northern wilds of the Ottawa, and descended the Mis- 
sissippi nearly to its mouth, bearing speeches from their 
leader, and carrying the great war-belt of wampum manu- 
factured by the cunning fingers of the Ottawa maidens 
expressly for the emergency. 

The result of these proceedings was the banding together, 
for a war of extermination, of nearly the entire Algonquin 
race, including the Senecas of the Six Nations, the Wyan- 
dots, the Shawanese, the Loups or Delawares, and many 
of the tribes on the lower Mississippi. All the nations in- 
habiting the lake region were in arms, and the sagacious 
Pontiac found himself virtually at the head of the Indian 
nations of the East and West. The command was divided 
between him and Guyasutha, and the premeditated blow fell 
like a bolt of thunder from a clear sky. 

Rumors, it is true, had reached Maj. Gladwyn, in com- 
mand of Detroit, through Ensign Holmes, who was stationed 

at Fort Miami, q£ danger approaching ; but the Indians 
kept the matter so profoundly secret and lounged about the 
various posts with such an air of peaceful nonchalance that 
nothing was suspected, and business went on as usual. 

At the outbreak of the great " conspiracy" the post of 
Detroit was garrisoned with about one hundred and twenty 
soldiers, to whom might be added about forty fur-traders 
and engages; but little dependence, however, could be 
placed upon any except the regular soldiers. Two small 
armed schooners — the " Beaver" and the " Gladwyn" — were 
anchored in the river, and a few light guns were mounted 
on the bastions of the fort. The inclosing pickets were 
about twenty-five feet high, and there were within the 
work about one hundred straw- and bark- roof houses besides 
the barracks of the garrison. A wide passage-way or road 
encircled the place next the pickets, which was known as 
the chemin du ronde. 

The attack upon the English posts was nearly simul- 
taneous. Michilimackinac, Miami, St. Joseph, Ouatenon, 
Sandusky, and Presq'isle were taken and destroyed, and 
their garrisons either massacred or held as prisoners. 
Michilimackinac was allotted to the Ojibwas, whose prin- 
cipal chief, Minavavana, captured it by the use of a strata- 
gem almost equal to the wooden horse of the Greeks. 

On the 4th of June, 1763, the birthday of the English 
king, a grand Indian game of ball, called by them Bagatti- 
way, was arranged to come off in front of the garrison. 
During the game the savages managed to send the ball 
over the stockade and into the fort. The soldiers were 
mostly off duty, it being a holiday, and were watching the 
game, when suddenly the fort was filled with savages, under 
pretense of finding the ball ; the war-whoop echoed, and in 
an incredibly short time the garrison were nearly all mas- 
sacred and the post in possession of the Indians. 

Fort St. Joseph, as it was then called, on the St. Joseph 
River, was taken on the 25th of May ; Fort Miami, on the 
Maumee, where Maumee City, Ohio, now stands, on the 
27th ; Ouatenon, on the Wabash, a short distance below 
Lafayette, on the 1st of June; and Presq'isle, on the 
16th of June. Green Bay was evacuated on the 21st of 
June. Thus at almost one fell swoop disappeared in blood 
and ashes all the English posts in the West except Detroit, 
Niagara, and Fort Pitt. Niagara was deemed by the In- 
dians impregnable, and was not attacked. Fort Pitt was 
besieged by a swarm of Shaivanese, Delawares, and Sen- 
ecas, under the celebrated Guyasutha, while Detroit was 
environed by the Western Indians, under the immediate 
command of Pontiac. 

His force was estimated by the Canadians at about eight 
hundred and twenty warriors, divided among the various 
tribes as follows : two hundred and fifty Ottawas; one hun- 
dred and fifty Pottawattomies, under their chief Ninivay ; 
fifty Wyandots, under Takee ; two hundred Ojibwas, under 
Wasson ; with one hundred and seventy of the same tribe, 
under Sekahos. 


Pontiac was accustomed to spend a considerable portion of 
his time in summer upon a small island just below Lake St. 
Clair, and here he fixed his headquarters during the siege of 
Detroit. He intended to capture the place by stratagem or 



a sudden surprise, and endeavored to keep his plans a pro- 
found secret, but, according to Parkman, an Ojibwa maiden 
who had become a favorite of Maj. Gladwyn, revealed the 
plan to him, and he was thus placed upon his guard. Had 
it not been for this there is every probability that the place 
would have suffered the fate of the other English posts. 

The plan of Pontiac was to get all his warriors in readi- 
ness and have them distributed around the fort, while he, 
with sixty of his chiefs, should enter the fort all armed 
with short rifles, which had been cut off so they could be 
concealed under their blankets. They were to come upon 
pretense of holding a council with Maj. Gladwyn and to 
smoke the pipe of peace with the English. 

The previous night had been spent by the assembled 
warriors in their camp in a grand war-dance, and in making 
preparations for the intended massacre of the morrow. 
Gladwyn and his officers had kept a vigilant watch through 
the night in momentary expectation of an attack, for the 
sounds of the Indian orgies came fitfully on the breeze, 
and the monotonous war-drum was heard at intervals. 

But no disturbance occurred, and the following morning 
dawned clear and beautiful. At an early hour the open 
ground around the fort was thronged with warriors, squaws, 
and children, and apparent preparations were making for a 
ball-play. Quite a large number of warriors, wrapped in 
their blankets, were admitted to the fort, for Gladwyn was 
a close reader of Indian character, and he wanted to show 
the savages that while he understood their treachery he did 
not fear their strength. 

At length Pontiac appeared at the head of about sixty 
warriors, all wrapped in blankets, and marching in the 
customary Indian file. The line reached the gate at ten 
o'clock! They were all bedecked in war-paint and feathers, 
and were a stately and fierce-looking band. At their head 
strode the great chief, his face as calm and imperturbable as 
a summer morning, and his bearing that of a king. The 
chief and his party were promptly admitted, but as Pontiac 
stepped through the gateway and beheld the elaborate 
preparations made in anticipation of an emergency, his 
countenance for a moment changed, and he betrayed a look 
of surprise. A sudden ejaculation escaped his lips, but 
instantly recovering himself he passed on. He had, in 
deed, reason to be surprised, for the troops were drawn up 
on the parade, with muskets and bayonets glistening in the 
sun, and the fur-traders and engages were mustered in 
groups, and " all armed to the teeth," ready for instant 
service ; and a bloody service it would have been had the 
great chief dared to give the preconcerted signal. Pontiac 
felt instinctively that if his plans were not betrayed, at 
least Maj. Gladwyn was suspicious of treachery, and pre- 
pared for the worst. 

The chief and his followers marched across the town 
and entered the council-room, where they found Gladwyn 
and his officers all seated ready to receive them, and the 
chief noticed that every man wore his side-arms. Saluting 
the commander of the fort, Pontiac inquired, in a half in- 
different way, " Why do I see so many of my father's young 
men standing in the street with their guns ?" The major 
carelessly replied that they were out for their regular daily 

It was not without considerable delay and many signs of 
distrust that the chiefs at leugth seated themselves on the 
mats prepared for them. In a few moments Pontiac rose, 
and holding in his hand the belt of wampum with which 
he was to have given the signal of massacre, commenced a 
speech cunningly devised and full of flattery. He pro- 
fessed the most profound friendship for the English, and 
declared he had come for the express purpose of smoking 
the pipe of peace and for renewing the chain of friendship. 
Once he seemed about to give the signal, when Gladwyn 
made a sign with his hand and instantly there was the clash 
of arms without, the drums rolled a charge, and every man's 
hand was on his weapons. The chief was astounded, and 
seeing the stern, unflinching look on Gladwyn's face, at 
length sat down in great perplexity. 

Maj. Gladwyn made a brief and pointed reply, assuring 
the chief that he should be treated as a friend *so long as 
he deserved it, but the first attempt at treachery would be 
met with a bloody retribution. The council broke up, but 
before leaving the room Pontiac, still true to his instinctive 
treachery, told the officers that he should return in a few 
days with his squaws and children, as he wanted them all 
to shake hands with the English. With this the gates 
were opened, and the baffled and disconcerted savage and 
his followers were suffered to depart. 

It was certainly a bold and dangerous experiment of the 
chief to place himself within the power of his enemy ; but 
he no doubt had full faith in the secrecy of his scheme, and 
the movement was eminently characteristic of him. When 
he plainly saw that his treachery was anticipated, if not al- 
together betrayed, he bore himself with most consummate 
tact, and carried himself through the trying ordeal which 
he must have been aware, before its close, was liable to end 
in the destruction of himself and his party. A finer speci- 
men of savage craft and hauteur has never been witnessed 
in America. 

Pontiac withdrew to his village, where he took counsel 
with his chiefs how best to circumvent the English, since 
his deep-laid and cherished scheme had failed. What were 
the conclusions arrived at we can best conjecture by the 
course subsequently pursued by the savages. 

On the morning of the 9th of May the common was 
again thronged with Indians of all the four tribes then 
present, — Ojibwas, Ottawas, Pottawattomies, and Wy art- 
dots. Soon the stately form of the chief was seen approach- 
ing the gate, where he demanded entrance. The gate was 
closed, and Gladwyn replied that he could enter, but his 
followers must remain without. This brief interview ended 
the chapter of Indian diplomacy, and Pontiac withdrew in 
a rage to where his swarming followers were lying flat on 
the ground just beyond gunshot range. The whole plain 
in an instant became dark with the miscreants, who arose 
and ran, whooping and screeching like wild devils, to the 
house of an English woman, where they instantly beat 
down the door, and in a moment more the scalp-halloo told 
the bloody fate of its inmates. Another party ran yelling 
to the river, jumped into their canoes, and pushing from 
shore paddled rapidly for the Isle au Cochon, where they 
killed and scalped an old English sergeant, formerly of the 
regular army. 



The chief took no part in these outrages, but walking 
fiercely towards the shore, stepped into his canoe, and, push- 
ing across the river, ordered the Ottawa village to move at 
once to the other side of the stream, that all his people 
might be on the same side with the enemy, and nothing 
between them. He was at once obeyed. 

And now the business of the siege began in earnest ; and 
it is a curious and interesting fact that never, before or 
since, in the history of the American Indians has such a 
protracted investment been kept up by them or carried on 
with so much system and military knowledge. On the 10th, 
at daybreak, Pontiac began the attack by a rapid musketry- 
fire, accompanied with most infernal yells. This was kept 
up for six hours, when the baffled savages fell back beyond 
range, and quiet covered the scene. 

And now Gladwyn, who still thought the whole affair 
was but a sudden ebullition of Indian bloodthirstiness, be- 
lieved he might open negotiations with Pontiac, and at least, 
while they were pending, be able to obtain a supply of pro- 
visions, of which the garrison stood in great need. With 
this in view he dispatched the interpreter La Butte with 
a message to the Indian camp, asking Pontiac what his 
grievances were, and stating his willingness to redress them 
if his demands were reasonable. Accompanying La Butte 
were two Canadians of Detroit, — Chapeton and Godefroy. 

The embassy was received very politely by the chief, who 
treated its members with studied kindness, and seemed to 
assent to G-ladwyn's propositions. But the savage chieftain 
instantly saw his opportunity, and played his game with 
such consummate tact, and assumed such an honest counte- 
nance, that while planning the deepest treachery he com- 
pletely won over the interpreter and his companions to the 
belief that amicable and satisfactory arrangements could 
readily be made. With this belief La Butte returned alone 
to the fort and reported favorably, and suggested that a few 
presents distributed among the Indians would produce good 
results and eventuate in peace. But when he returned to 
the Indian camp he found that Pontiac would not come to 
any definite agreement. Finally all the chiefs withdrew and 
held a council, after which they returned, and Pontiac 
declared they had a desire to be at peace with their Eng- 
lish fathers ; but they desired to hold a council with them 
in person, and expressed an earnest wish to treat with Maj. 
Campbell in their camp, at the same time promising faith- 
fully that his person should be sacred, and no impediment 
be placed in the way of his safe return to the fort, whatever 
might be the result of the conference. 

To this arrangement Gladwyn demurred, suspecting 
treachery ; but Campbell earnestly begged him to let him 
depart, as he had no fear of the Indians, with whom he 
had always been on friendly terms. The sequel is well 
known. Maj. Campbell went into the lions' den, from 
which he never returned, having been treacherously mur- 
dered in the camp a few days later in spite of Pontiac's 
efforts to protect him, after basely detaining him and his 
companion, Lieut. McDougal, the latter of whom fortu- 
nately escaped. 

This episode over, the siege was resumed on the 12th of 
May with greater fury than before. The fort was com- 
pletely surrounded except on the river side, and no one 

could expose a head above the pickets without the speedy 
whistle of a musket- or rifle-ball admonishing him to seek 
cover. This continued for weeks, until the garrison were 
worn with constant watching and provisions began to be 
scarce. In pressing need of supplies, Gladwyn was fortunate 
enough to obtain them through the friendliness of M. 
Baby, who lived on the Canadian side of the river. This 
real philanthropist, under cover of neutrality, succeeded in 
getting over in the night sufficient cattle, hogs, and other 
supplies to relieve their immediate wants, and provide 
tolerably for the future. 

Pontiac was likewise in great straits for provisions, but 
his wonderful sagacity came to his assistance, and he man- 
aged with all the tact and acumen which are supposed to 
belong to the white man alone. He canvassed the Cana- 
dian farms, and assigned the exact amount which each was 
to furnish to his army, and in the absence of the necessary 
means with which to defray his expenses issued his certifi- 
cates of indebtedness upon slips of birch-bark, sealed with 
the figure of an otter, the totem of his nation, and subse- 
quently redeemed them all. In this way he kept a re- 
spectable force together for a period most remarkable in 
Indian history. 

Both sides were looking for reinforcements. Pontiac, on 
his part, sent an express to the French commandant on the 
Illinois asking for a reinforcement of regular troops ; while 
Gladwyn, on the part of the English, sent one of his vessels 
to Niagara to hasten forward men and supplies. The sav- 
ages undertook to capture her as she lay becalmed at the 
entrance to the lake, but were not successful. 

Lieut. Cuyler left Niagara on the 13th of May, and em- 
barked above the falls with ninety-six men and a large 
amount of supplies. On the 28th he reached Point Pelee, 
where he landed and prepared to encamp. Here he was set 
upon by a strong force of Indians, who had lain in ambush, 
and his party cut to pieces and everything captured except- 
ing Cuyler and two boats, who pulled away and returned to 
Niagara. The loss was about sixty men and nearly all the 
supplies. The boats captured by the savages were rowed 
up the Detroit River, appearing in sight of the fort on the 
28th of May. They were mistaken at first for the convoy, 
but the naked forms of the Indians were soon made out in 
them, and gloom and disappointment settled down upon the 

The savages who so successfully accomplished this bold 
stroke were Wyandots. The prisoners taken were brought 
to the camps around Detroit, and there put to death with 
the most inhuman tortures. On the heels of this terrible 
disaster came the news of the loss of Sandusky and the 
massacre of its garrison. 

At length the vessel which Gladwyn had sent to Niagara 
reached the west end of Lake Erie on its return, with a 
small reinforcement and supplies. On the 23d of June 
there was a great commotion among the Indians around the 
fort, and they were noticed in hundreds passing towards the 
south. Nearly the whole force was on its way to intercept 
the schooner now attempting to pass up the river. Maj. 
Gladwyn heard of her arrival through a Canadiau, and 
fired two signal-guns, to let her people know that the fort 
still held out. 



The schooner had about sixty men on board, mostly con- 
cealed below. Her commander, knowing of the fate which 
had befallen Cuyler's party, was on the alert, and ready for 
the enemy. When in the narrowest part of the channel, 
near Fighting Island, the wind died away, and she came to 

A strict watch was set, and in the middle of the night, 
when everything was still save the gentle plashing of the 
water against her bows, the sentinel discovered a swarm of 
canoes gathering around the vessel. Instantly the men 
were called to their places, and lying quietly along the deck 
on either side awaited the attack. When the Indians were 
close upon her the blow of a hammer on the mast gave the 
signal, and, like a flash of lightning, the vessel burst into 
flame from stem to stern. Her heavy guns, charged with 
grape, and a deadly fire of musketry poured death and de- 
struction among the horde of naked savages, who set up a 
terrible howl and paddled away with the greatest haste. 
Several of the canoes were cut to pieces, and fourteen In- 
dians were killed and many wounded. 

The Indians had constructed a breastwork on Turkey 
Island, from which they opened fire as soon as they could 
recover from the consternation produced by the fire from 
the vessel ; but their shots did little harm, though the Eng- 
lish commander deemed it prudent to weigh anchor and 
drop down to where the stream was broader until the wind 
should be favorable. A few days later she took advantage, 
of a favorable breeze and sailed up to the fort, though the 
enemy pelted her with musketry as she passed their breast- 
work. As she swung around broadside on to the Wyandot 
village she opened all her guns upon it, and sent a storm 
of grape and canister among its whooping inhabitants, kill- 
ing several, and stirring them up beautifully. 

The vessel brought a most welcome supply of men, arms, 
and munitions, and, in addition, tidings of the conclusion of 
a treaty of peace between England and France, by which the 
latter ceded her Canadian possessions, including Detroit, to 
the former. This news was of course promulgated at once 
among the Canadians and the army of Pontiac ; but many of 
the former detested the English, and persuaded the Indians 
that the report was an invention of Maj. Gladwyn's. Pontiac 
himself was loth to believe it, and his hatred of the English 
impelled him to continue the war on his own account, even 
though Gladwyn spoke the truth. He renewed the siege 
with great vigor, and at the same time attempted to frighten 
Gladwyn into a surrender by sending him information that 
eight hundred Ojibwas would join him in a few days, when 
the whole English garrison would be massacred. To this 
message Gladwyn returned a very brief and haughty answer, 
that he cared nothing for him or his Ojibwas. Pontiac 
next tried to persuade the Canadians to take up arms with 
him, and threatened war upon them unless they complied ; 
but they pleaded the convention of Montreal, and claimed 
that they dare not violate its conditions lest the king of 
France should be angry with them. A band of the rougher 
class, voyageurs and coureurs des bois, struck hands with the 
Indians, but their aid amounted to very little, and most of 
them fled before the siege ended to the Illinois country. 

The next grand attempt against the English was directed 
towards the two armed vessels lying at the wharf, of which 

the Indians stood in much dread, for they had on several 
occasions, when the wind was fair, sailed up abreast of the 
Indian camps and given them a taste of their metal, creating 
great consternation, which had on more than one occasion 
ended in a stampede of warriors, squaws, and children to the 

Resolved to destroy this source of their troubles, the 
Indians, on the 10th of July, sent down a blazing raft, 
which fortunately missed the vessels. On the 12th they 
made a second attempt, which also proved a failure. Other 
similar attempts followed, but all failed of accomplishing 
their object, and the Indians finally desisted. 

The siege had now continued for several months, and a 
portion of the Indian forces began to grow weary of the 
war. The Wyandots and Pottawattomies sent deputa- 
tions to the fort to ask for peace. Arrangements were easily 
made with the former, but there was considerable difficulty 
encountered with the Pottawattomies in effecting an ex- 
change of prisoners, and on one occasion a deputation of 
their chiefs had adopted the desperate resolution of assassi- 
nating Gladwyn in his quarters, but by a sudden change in 
the situation were compelled to abandon the design. Peace 
was finally made with them and prisoners were exchanged. 


From this time until near the beginning of August 
nothing of importance transpired, though the Ojibwas and 
Ottawas kept a close surveillance around the fort. In the 
mean time a strong reinforcement, though without the 
knowledge of the garrison, was coming to their aid. Capt. 
Dalzell,* aid-de-camp on the staff of Sir Jeffrey Amherst, 
was preparing an expedition for the relief of Detroit. 

The gallant captain left Niagara with twenty -two barges 
or bateaux, carrying two hundred and eighty men, several 
small pieces of artillery, and a good supply of provisions 
and munitions. On the 26th of July the expedition landed 
at Sandusky, and from thence marched inland and de- 
stroyed the Wyandot village and all its growing corn. As- 
cending the liver, the convoy, on the morning of the 29th, 
came in sight of the beleaguered garrison and signal-guns 
were fired. 

It will be recollected that the Wyandots and Pottawat- 
tomies had made a treaty of peace a few days previously, 
but they still remained in their camps. As Dalzell's little 
fleet came abreast of their villages the perfidious miscreants 
opened a hot fire upon it, by which fifteen of the troops 
were killed or wounded. The savages were, however, driven 
back and the boats reached the wharf, where they were 
received with every demonstration of joy. 

The reinforcement consisted of detachments from the 55th 
and 80th Regiments and twenty independent rangers, the 
latter commanded by Maj. Rogers, the same officer who, 
three years previously, had received the surrender of De- 
troit from the French. 

On the day of his arrival Capt. Dalzell had a conference 
with Maj. Gladwyn, and urged him to send out a strong 
party and attack the savages in their camp, believing that 
it would finish the war at a single blow. Gladwyn, become 
cautious from long experience, was not in favor of the plan, 

■ Gen. Amherst writes this name Daly ell. 



but at length yielded a reluctant consent to the persistency 
of the impetuous officer, who, had he known his adversary 
as well as Gladwyn did, would have been perhaps equally 
wary of risking anything in open battle. 

At two o'clock on the morning of the 31st of July the 
gates were thrown open, and the detachment, consisting of 
about two hundred and fifty men, marched quietly out and 
took up its line of march towards the camp of the enemy. 
Two large bateaux, carrying each a small swivel-gun in the 
bow, were rowed up the river abreast of the column. 

Capt. Dalzell hoped to surprise the Indians, and the 
command moved with the utmost celerity and in close col- 
umn by the flank, every man as silent as death. But he 
little knew the wary enemy with whom he had to deal. 

Pontiac had learned something of the intentions of the 
English, and, in anticipation, had broken up his camp, 
sending his women and children out of harm's way, and 
was, at the same moment when the detachment filed through 
the gate of the fort, marching at the head of five hundred 
chosen warriors to intercept it. 

A small stream, called then Parent's Creek, but since 
that fatal night named " Bloody Run," entered the river 
about a mile and a half above the fort. A few rods above 
its mouth a wooden bridge crossed the stream, and beyond 
the ground rose in terraces on both side of the creek. On 
their summits were rude intrenchments, thrown up by 
order of Pontiac to cover the approach to his camps. Here 
were the orchards, gardens, and dwellings of the Canadians, 
with out-buildings, piles of firewood, and picket-fences 
around them ; and here the great Indian leader placed his 
men under cover, and awaited the approach of the English, 
while nothing disturbed the stillness of the night except 
the occasional barking of a dog, whose howl rose omin- 
ously as the column of determined men pushed on in the 

Lieut. Brown led the forlorn hope, Capt. Gray com- 
manded the centre, and Capt. Grant* brought up the rear. 
Maj. Rogers also led a party of the provincial rangers on 
this memorable occasion. 

The night was exceedingly dark, and the Canadian 
dwellings were only dimly discerned on either hand as the 
troops passed along. The column entered upon the bridge ; 
the advance-guard had passed it, and the centre was rapidly 
following, when — 

"At once there rose so wild a yell 
Within that dark and narrow dell, 
As all the fiends from heaven that fell 
Had pealed the banner-cry of hell !" 

A deafening crash of musketry burst upon the startled 
column, and pandemonium seemed breaking loose. Half 
of the advance fell under this withering fire, and for a 
moment the destruction of the whole detachment seemed 
inevitable. The men staggered under the dreadful carnage, 
and but for the heroic exertions of Dalzell and his brother 

* This may have been the same officer who suffered such a severe 
defeat at Pittsburgh, Pa., in advance of Gen. Forbes' army in Septem- 
ber, 1758, though he is then spoken of as major. If he was the same, 
he afterwards held the rank of major-general in the British army, 
and commanded a division at the battle on Long Island, in August, 


oflieers the rout would have been complete. The horrible 
yells of the savages, continuous as the roar of a conflagra- 
tion, drowned the voice of command, but Dalzell placed 
himself at the head of the column and dashed on over the 
bridge and up the slope beyond, determined to come to 
close quarters with the enemy and give them the " British 
bayonet." But they fought an invisible foe, and when 
they deployed upon the height not an Indian was to be 
seen. They had scattered in all directions, and the fire 
now assailed the troops in front and on both flanks. They 
were in a deadly cul-de-sac, and the enemy, keeping out of 
reach, still poured in a murderous fire and continued their 
infernal yells. The flashes of their guns were incessant, 
and the air was full of the whizzing messengers of death. 

In this emergency the commander determined to fall 
back a short distance and await the approach of day, now 
near at hand. The bateaux, which had been rowed up the 
little stream to the bridge, were loaded with the dead and 
wounded, preparatory to taking them to the fort. At this 
moment a heavy fire assailed them from the rear. The 
Indians were between them and the fort. In a moment 
Grant formed his command, and attacking the enemy on 
the hill to the south of the bridge, routed them with the 
bayonet ; but they only fell back a few rods, and continued 
the work of death. 

A retreat was now ordered, and the column moved in 
reverse order, Grant leading the advance and Dalzell cover- 
ing the rear. Fighting all the way, they fell back a half- 
mile, when they encountered a murderous fire from a clus- 
ter of farm -buildings, which again threw them into mo- 
mentary confusion. But the gallant commander, though 
severely wounded, restored order, and the fire was returned 
with good effect. Maj. Rogers with his rangers burst open 
the doors of a house in which a large party of Indians 
were concealed, and drove them out; while Capt. Gray 
charged with great impetuosity upon another body lying 
behind the fences, and routed them, though he fell mortally 
wounded in the encounter. It was now daylight, but a 
thick fog obscured everything, and the retreat was again 
resumed, while the savages poured an incessant fire from 
every available spot where they could hide themselves, and 
followed rapidly upon the rear, cutting down stragglers and 
scalping the dead and wounded, while the morning air re- 
sounded with their continuous yells. 

A sergeant of the 55th, mortally hurt, raised himself 
where he lay beside the road and looked after his retreating 
comrades. The brave Dalzell caught the poor fellow's ex- 
pression, and instantly ran to him, determined to save him. 
In the very act of stooping to lift him up a rifle-ball struck 
the gallant officer, and he fell dead beside the soldier. 

The retreat continued as rapidly as possible, for there was 
no safety now except in flight. At the house of the trader, 
"Old Campau," the soldiers crowded in, barricaded the 
doors and windows, and made a desperate fight. Rogers 
was inside with a portion of his rangers, and the cellar was 
filled with frightened women and children huddled together 
for shelter. The fire from this building, under the cool 
direction of Maj. Rogers, checked the enemy somewhat ; 
and in the mean time the bateaux had returned from the 
fort, and now came up and opened a severe fire from their 



swivels, which forced the Indians to fall back. Rogers left 
the house and followed Capt. Grant, who halted at every 
house and fought until the command was well advanced, 
when he again pushed on, and after a dreadful conflict of 
six hours' duration the column reached the fort, with a loss, 
as stated by Parkman, of fifty-nine men killed and wounded, 
including among the former Capts. Dalzell and Gray. The 
loss of the Indians was never known to the whites, but it 
was considerable. The battle was opened by the Ojibwas 
and Ottawas, but later in the night the Wyandots and 
Pottawattomies came up in their canoes and joined in the 

Their success highly elated the Indians, and reinforce- 
ments joined them in considerable numbers. " Fresh war- 
riors," wrote Gladwyn, " arrive almost every day, and I 
believe that I shall soon be besieged by upwards of a thou- 

Following the terrible fight of " Bloody Bridge" nothing 
of importance occurred until the night of the 4th of Sep- 
tember, when the most remarkable encounter of the whole 
war occurred. The schooner u Gladwyn" had been sent to 
Niagara with letters and dispatches, and was now on her 
return loaded with provisions and having a crew of twelve 
provincials, including one Horst, her master, and Jacobs, 
her mate. In addition there were six Iroquois Indians, 
probably Mohawks, who were supposed to be friendly to 
the English. 

On the morning of September 4th, when in the mouth of 
the Detroit River, these Indians asked to be put on shore, 
which curious request was very foolishly granted, for it is 
altogether probable that they immediately went to the hos- 
tile camps and reported her arrival and condition. 

Certain it is that three hundred and fifty Indians passed 
down the river in their canoes and attacked the schooner, 
with terrific yells, so suddenly as to have almost captured 
her before the crew were aware of their presence. But 
they had a moment to spare, and made the best disposition 
in their power to meet the enemy. There was just time to 
discharge a single heavy gun among them when they came 
swarming over her sides, tomahawk and knife in hand. 

The crew made a desperate defense, for they well knew 
the result if they were captured, and gave the Indians so 
heavy a fire that twenty or more of them were killed or 
disabled in a few minutes. But they were more than thirty 
to one, and in spite of a most gallant defense they at length 
gained the deck. Horst was killed, and in a few minutes 
every man would have met a like fate, when Jacobs, with 
great presence of mind, called out in a loud tone, " Fire the 
magazine and blow the red devils all up together !" Among 
the Indians were some Wyandots who understood English, 
and they instantly gave the alarm to their comrades, and 
every Indian went overboard instanter and swam for the 
shore. The vessel was saved, and on the following morn- 
ing sailed up to the fort. They had two men killed and four 
wounded, — just half the force, — while the loss of the In- 
dians was eight killed and twenty wounded. It was a 
gallant affair on the part of the crew. 

When Gen. Amherst heard of the action he ordered a 
medal to be struck and presented to each of the men. 
Jacobs was afterwards lost in a storm on Lake Erie. 

In the mean time the war was raging along the whole 
line of the frontiers of New York, Pennsylvania, and Vir- 
ginia. Forts Niagara and Pitt were attacked, and twenty 
thousand settlers were said to have been driven from their 
homes west of the Alleghanies. The Delawares and 
Shawanese were out in full force, under such chiefs as 
Teedyuskung, Shingas, and Turtle Heart; and a portion 
of the Senecas and Cayugas, under Guyasutha and other 
chiefs, had joined in the well-nigh universal crusade against 
the English. 

At length a gleam of hope shot through the darkness 
and somewhat assured the frontiers. The gallant Col. 
Henry Bouquet, a Swiss by birth, penetrated the wilder- 
ness of Pennsylvania with two skeleton regiments, mostly 
made up of Highlanders, and amounting to about five 
hundred men, fought a most desperate and bloody battle at 
Brush Run, in Westmoreland County, about thirty miles 
from Pittsburgh, and relieved the beleaguered garrison of 
Fort Pitt, though with very heavy loss. The Indians were 
checked and staggered by this blow, and the war, though 
not by any means abandoned, was somewhat diminished in 
its fury. 

In the mean time Maj. Wilkins, in command at Niagara, 
collected a force of six hundred regulars and was proceed- 
ing in boats to the relief of Detroit. Once he was driven 
back by the Indians before he had reached the foot of Lake 
Erie, but starting again he entered the lake, and was rapidly 
working his way westward when a violent storm overtook 
him, and after great loss he was again compelled to return 
to Niagara. 

At Detroit the savages had kept up the investment of 
the fort from May until October, but now they began to 
waver. They heard of great preparations to send a strong 
force against them, and they began to despair of capturing 
the place, notwithstanding their successes. Finally, on the 
12th of October, a deputation from the Ojibwas came to 
the fort with a pipe of peace. Their principal chiefs said 
that they represented the Ojibwas, Wyandots, and Potta- 
wattomies, which tribes were all anxious for peace. Gladwyn 
replied that he had no authority to make peace, but would 
consent to a truce. To this the Indians agreed, and de- 

The truce was a godsend to the garrison, for, in spite of 
all the supplies received from below, they were now nearly 
in a destitute condition. Under cover of the armistice 
Gladwyn made haste to purchase provisions among the 
Canadians, and succeeded in laying in a reasonable supply 
for the winter. 

The Ottawas, Pontiac's own nation, were now alone in 
the prosecution of the siege, but they continued to annoy 
the garrison by petty skirmishing until the 30th of October, 
when a message from M. Neyon, the French commander at 
Fort Chartres, in the Illinois country, was received at De- 
troit, advising the Indians to abandon the war and go home. 
This was a discouraging blow to Pontiac, for he had cher- 
ished the forlorn hope that the French would yet recover 
the country from the detested English. In great rage he 
now withdrew from the vicinity to the country on the 
Maumee, where he hoped to stir up all the Indians in that 
quarter and recommence operations in the spring. 



In the spring a great council was held by Sir William 
Johnson at Niagara with an immense number of Indian 
warriors, including Iroquois, Caughnawagas, Wyandots, Ot- 
tawas, Ojibwas, Menominees, and Mississaguas. A treaty 
was concluded, and thus the war virtually ended, though 
the Shawanese and Delawares refused to attend the council 
and still kept up a species of warfare on the frontiers of 
Pennsylvania and Virginia. The movements of Col. Bou- 
quet, however, finally reduced them to submission. 

Two great expeditions were also fitted out to force a 
peace or carry on a war of extermination against the com- 
mon enemy. One of these was under command of Col. 
John Bradstreet, and was to proceed by way of Niagara, 
and thence against the Western tribes ; while the other, 
under Col. Bouquet, should operate from Pittsburgh against 
the Shawanese and Delawares. Both were successful in a 
great measure, and the terrible frontier war at length closed. 

From Niagara Bradstreet proceeded westward via San- 
dusky, and on the 28th of August came in sight of Detroit. 
There was great rejoicing in the place, and well there might 
be, since it had been practically besieged for fifteen months 
by a horde of savages, commanded by the ablest and most 
sagacious leader that had yet appeared among the American 

Bradstreet now summoned all the savages to meet him in 
council, and they very readily obeyed. The council was 
held in the open air on the 7th of September, in the midst 
of the greatest military display that had ever been seen in 
the West. The nations and tribes represented included 
Ottawas, Ojibwas, Pottawattomies, Miamis, Wyandots, and 
Sacs ; the council concluded by the entire assembly trans- 
ferring their allegiance (if such it could be called) from 
the crown of France to that of Great Britain. 

Soon after this occurrence Capt. Howard was sent with 
a strong detachment to take possession of Michilimackinac, 
which he accomplished without resistance, and immediately 
sent forward parties to occupy the posts at Green Bay and 
Sault St. Marie. And thus, after an interval of upwards 
of twelve months, the English colors again floated over the 
entire Northwest. 

Capt. Morris, who had been sent by Bradstreet from San- 
dusky to make peace with the Miamis and Illinois, found 
Pontiac with a large following on the Maumee. The chief 
received him very roughly, and told him the English were 
liars, at the same time showing him a letter purporting to 
have been written by a French officer, saying that a French 
fleet of sixty sail and an immense army were on their way 
up the St. Lawrence to chastise the English and recover 
the whole country. 

Unable to accomplish anything with the Ottawa chief- 
tain, Morris and his four companions (Canadians and friendly 
Indians) pushed on to Fort Miami, on the site of the present 
Maumee City, nine miles above Toledo, and still well pre- 
served. Here Morris fared worse than before, the Indians, 
who were a motley crowd of Miamis, Kickapoos, Shawanese, 
and others, seizing and stripping him and threatening his 
life, which was finally saved by an Ottawa, Indian, a young 
chief and nephew of Pontiac. The brave fellow was de- 
termined to press forward and meet the Illinois, but those 
of the chiefs who were friendly to him finally persuaded 

him that it would be madness, and he reluctantly returned 
to Detroit, to find that Bradstreet had departed for San- 
dusky. From thence the doughty colonel soon after re- 
turned to the east, leaving the Shawanese and Delawares 
still on the war-path, and many other tribes either lukewarm 
friends or open enemies. With these last-named tribes the 
energetic Bouquet, by his rapid and vigorous movements, 
soon forced a treaty of peace in the very heart of their 
country. Thus ended the terrible " conspiracy of Pontiac," 
which had drenched the land in blood from the Sault St. 
Marie to the head-waters of the Monongahela and Kana- 
wha, and nearfy obliterated the forts and trading-posts of 
the West. 

The great chief Pontiac soon after left the banks of the 
Maumee and removed to the vicinity of St. Louis, where he 
tried to persuade not only all the Indian nations from the 
lakes to the gulf, but also the French commander of Fort 
Chartres to join him in a powerful crusade against the 
English. But all his plans proved abortive, and the dis- 
appointed savage sullenly resolved to accept the inevitable 
and make peace with the English. 

In August, 1765, a preliminary council was held in the 
council-house, at Detroit, between George Croghan, an 
agent sent out by Sir William Johnson, and a large num- 
ber of the Western Indians, including Pontiac and many 
prominent chiefs. 

Here Pontiac agreed to meet Sir William Johnson in 
the following spring at Oswego and conclude a permanent 

On the 23d of July, 1766, true to his promise, the great 
Ottawa met Sir William at Oswego, and signed a definitive 
treaty of peace, along with deputies from most of the 
western nations then living east of the Mississippi. He 
returned with his people to the Maumee, where he spent 
the following winter. In April, 1769, he again appeared 
upon the scene, when he came among the Illinois, and soon 
after visited St. Louis. A few days later he crossed the 
river and visited the Indian camps at Cahokia. He was 
dressed in the full uniform of a French general officer, 
which had been presented him by the Marquis Montcalm. 

While here, and probably somewhat under the influence 
of liquor, he was treacherously assassinated by a Kaskaskia 
Indian, hired by an Englishman named Wilkinson, for a 
barrel of liquor, to do the dastardly deed. It was a woful 
day for the Illinois Indians when a member of one of their 
tribes* committed the terrible act. The dreadful and united 
vengeance of many tribes fell upon them, and they were 
nearly annihilated, — the last band perishing miserably, ac- 
cording to tradition, on the " Starved Rock" of the Illinois 
River, the spot where eighty years before stood the Fort 
Saint Louis of La Salle. 


This act, which was passed by the British Parliament in 
1774, during the administration of Sir Guy Carleton, Gov- 
ernor-General of Canada, among other provisions, defined 
the boundaries of the Canadian Provinces, which were 
made to include the peninsula of Michigan, and comprised 

* Kaskaskias, Peorias, CahoJeiaSf Tamaroas, eto. 



also all the country lying north of the Ohio and west to 
the Mississippi River. 

" The act granted to the Catholic inhabitants the free exercise of 
their religion, the undisturbed possession of their church property, 
and the right, in all matters of litigation, to demand a trial accord- 
ing to the former laws of the province. But the right was not ex- 
tended to settlers on land granted by the English Crown.*' 

" The enterprise of the people was not wholly confined to the fur 
trade. As early as 1773 the mineral regions of Lake Superior were 
visited, and a project was formed for working the copper ore discov- 
ered there, and a company in England had obtained a charter for that 
purpose. A sloop was purchased and the miners commenced opera- 
tions, but soon found, however, that the expense of blasting and 
transportation were too great to warrant the prosecution of the enter- 
prise, and it was abandoned. The fur trade was successfully prose- 
cuted. In 1783 a company called the Northwest Fur Company was 
organized, and store- and trading-houses were erected at many places 
on the lakes, and agents were located at Detroit, Mackinac, the Sault 
St. Marie, and the Grand Portage, near Lake Superior, who packed 
the furs and sent them to Montreal for shipment to England."f 


From 1774 to 1779, when he was captured by Col. 
George Rogers Clark at Vincennes, on the Wabash, Lieu- 
tenant-Governor Sir Henry Hamilton was in command at 
Detroit, which was the British headquarters for the North- 
west during the whole period of the Revolution ; and the 
cruel forays upon the border settlements of Kentucky, Penn- 
sylvania, and Virginia were mostly fitted out and directed 
from this point. It is claimed that the British colonial 
government of Canada actually paid the Indians a stipu- 
lated sum for every American scalp which they brought in, 
though, for the honor of a common humanity, we may 
hope that the claim is unsupported by facts. 

Mackinac was also an important point during the war, 
and, as we have already seen, the island of Mackinac was 
occupied and strongly garrisoned by the British in 1780. 

There were two important expeditions fitted out at De- 
troit against the American border settlements during the 
Revolution. These were : one under command of Lieu- 
tenant-Governor Hamilton, in 1778, against the post at 
Vincennes on the Wabash ; and the other, under Col. Byrd, 
against Louisville^ and the Kentucky settlements, in 1780. 
Vincennes was taken possession of by Hamilton, but he 
was in turn besieged and captured by the indomitable Col. 
George Rogers Clark, on the 24 th of February, 1779. Ham- 
ilton was sent a prisoner to Richmond, Va., and his troops, 
seventy-nine in number, were paroled and allowed to return 
to Detroit. 

CoL Byrd's expedition consisted of a force of six hundred 
Canadians and Indians and six field-guns. It left Detroit 
in the summer of 1780, and made an inroad into Kentucky 
by way of the Big Miami and Licking Rivers, and quite a 
number of small posts and stockades and many prisoners 
were taken. Byrd appears to have been a humane officer, 

* Judge Campbell says of this act: "It was delusive everywhere, 
and the historian Garneau finds a lack of words to express his indig- 
nation at the course pursued under it. By our Declaration of Inde- 
pendence it was denounced as unfavorable to liberty. If the Detroit 
colonists heard of it, it was but as a distant rumor of something 
which did not affect them." — Outlines of Political History, p. 152. 

f Tuttle's History of Michigan. 

| Then called the " Beargrass Settlement/' from the creek of that 
name which falls into the Ohio at this place. 

and prevented the Indians from abusing the prisoners so 
far as laid in his power. 

When Lieut.-Gov. Hamilton left Detroit for Vincennes, 
he placed Maj. Lernoult§ in command at the former post. 
Lernoult was succeeded in 1779 by Maj. De Peyster. From 
1780 until the surrender of the country, in 1796, nothing 
of special importance transpired at Detroit, or within the 
territory now constituting the State of Michigan. The ex- 
pedition of Maj. Caldwell against the Kentucky settlements 
in the summer of 1782, which terminated in the bloody 
battle of u Blue Licks," was mostly fitted out at Detroit. 
With this party went " Simon Girty, the Renegade." The 
Indians who joined the expedition were mostly Miamis and 

The settlements around the various military and trading 
posts increased very slowly, if at all, and when the penin- 
sula fell into the hands of the United States, it is probable 
that the number of inhabitants did not greatly exceed those 
transferred from the dominion of France in 1763. 

Under the apprehension of an attack by the American 
troops under Clark, Maj. Lernoult constructed a new fort 
at Detroit about 1779. It was a much larger and stronger 
work than the old French stockade, and stood on the second 
terrace. It was named Fort Lernoult, or Le Noult,|| 
which name it retained until after the war of 1812-15, 
when it took the name of Fort Shelby, in honor of Hon. 
Isaac Shelby, formerly Governor of Kentucky. 




Treaty of 1783, between the United States and Great Britain — Or- 
dinance of 1787, Establishing the Northwest Territory — Gen. 
Arthur St. Clair appointed Governor — Territorial Subdivisions 
— Wayne County — Surrender of Detroit — Indiana Territory — 
Michigan Territory — War of 1812 — Early Counties — Surveys — 
Land-Sales — Indian Treaties — Miscellaneous. 

Under the treaty of peace between the United States 
and Great Britain, signed at Paris, Sept. 3, 1783, and 
ratified by the American Congress on the 14th of January, 
1784, Michigan became a part of the United States ; but 
from various causes the British held possession of Oswe- 
gatchie (now Ogdensburg), Oswego, Niagara, Presque Isle 
(now Erie), Sandusky, Detroit, and Mackinac, for longer 
or shorter periods. In the spring of 1794 they rebuilt and 
strengthened the old Fort Miami, at the rapids on the 
Maumee River, which came very near producing a collision 
between Gen. Wayne and the British authorities in August 
of that year. 

The American Congress acted upon the basis that the 
boundary as laid down in the treaty would be made the 
permanent one, and on the 13th of July, 1787, passed the 
act known as the 

§ This name is written by some authors Le Noult. 

II This name is written in Albaeh's " Annals of the West" Lenault. 




Under this act all the territory lying west and north of 
the Ohio River to the line of the Mississippi was organ- 
ized into what was called the Northwest Territory, including 
what now constitutes the States of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, 
Michigan, and Wisconsin. In October of the same year, 
Gen. Arthur St. Clair, a veteran officer of the Revolution, 
and a native of Scotland, who had come to America with 
Gen. Abercrombie in 1758, was appointed the first Gov- 

This extensive territory had been ceded by Virginia to 
the United States in 1784. Several of the remaining 
States also claimed proprietary rights in the lands lying to 
the west of Pennsylvania and New York. Of these New 
York had ceded her claims in 1781, Massachusetts in 
1785, and Connecticut in 1786. 

In 1790 occurred the defeat of Gen. Harmar, around the 
site now occupied by the city of Fort Wayne, Ind., and in 
November, 1791, the still more disastrous defeat of Gen. 
St. Clair, in what is now Mercer County, Ohio, on the head 
streams of the Wabash. These defeats were mostly brought 
about by the Miami and Wyandot tribes, under the com- 
mand of Buck-ong-a-he-las and the celebrated Little Turtle, 
though the Delaware*, Shawanese, and Pottawattomies 
had warriors present ; and it is said, on the authority of 
William L. Stone, that Brant, the celebrated Mohawk chief, 
was on the ground, and aided, with one hundred and fifty 
warriors, in the defeat of St. Clair. 

Many attempts were made between the latter date (1791) 
and the advance of Gen. Anthony Wayne against the con- 
federated tribes, in 1794, to negotiate treaties with the sav- 
ages, and there is little doubt but for the machinations of 
McKee, Elliott, Simon Girty, and others, and, very pos- 
sibly, higher British officials, they would have been success- 
ful. But every attempt failed, and on the 20th of August, 
1794, at the " Fallen Timbers," or Maumee Rapids, Wayne 
gave the combined Indian tribes of the Northwest a san- 
guinary defeat. 

This brought the savages to terms, and in December fol- 
lowing several of the nations sent deputies to Col. Ham- 
tramck, at Fort Wayne, asking for peace. The British 
agents used every means to prevent them from treating with 
the United States, but without avail, and in June, 1795, 
the chiefs of the various nations began to assemble at Green- 
ville, Ohio, where, on the 3d of August, following, Gen. 
Waynef executed a treaty with the following nations : 
Delawares, Ottawas, Pottawattomies, Miamis, Wyandots, 
Shawanese, and Ojibwas (or Chippewas) ; and with the 
following tribes or fractions of other nations : Kickapoos, 
Weas, Eel River Indians, Piankeshaws, and Kaskaskias. 

By this treaty the dividing line between the United States 
and the Indian Territory was established as follows : 

* Gen. St. Clair was one of the leading spirits of the company 
which settled at Marietta, Ohio, in 1788. This colony was mostly 
composed of New England people, under the lead of Gen. Rufus 
Putnam, Return J. Meigs, and others. This was the first permanent 
settlement by white men in Ohio. 

t Gen. Wayne died quite suddenly, at or near Presque Isle, now 
Erie, Pa., in December, 1796, at the age of fifty-one years, lacking a 
few days. 

" The general boundary lines between the lands of the United States 
and the lands of the said Indian tribes shall begin at the mouth of 
the Cuyahoga River, and run thence up the same to the portage be- 
tween that and the Tuscarawas branch of the Muskingum ; thence 
down that branch to the crossing-place, above Fort Laurens; thence 
westwardly to a fork of that branch of the Great Miami River run- 
ning into the Ohio, at or near which fork stood Loramie's store, and 
where commences the portage between the Miami of the Ohio and 
St. Mary's River, which is a branch of the Miami which runs into 
Lake Brie; thence a westerly course to Fort Recovery, which stands 
on a branch of the Wabash ; thence southwesterly in a direct line to 
the Ohio, so as to intersect that river opposite the mouth of Kentucky 
or Cuttawa River." 

Within the Indian territory certain reservations were 
made by the United States, and among them the following 
within the limits of Michigan : 

" The post of Detroit, and all the lands to the north, the west, and 
the south of it, of which the Indian title has been extinguished by 
gifts or grants to the French or English governments; and so much 
more land, to be annexed to the district of Detroit, as shall be com- 
prehended between the river Raisin, on the south, and Lake St. Clair, 
on the north, and a line, the general course whereof shall be six miles 
distant from the west end of Lake Erie and Detroit River. 

"The post of Michilimackinac, and all the land on the island on 
which that post stands, and the main land adjacent, of which the In- 
dian title has been extinguished by gifts or grants to the French or 
English Governments; and a piece of land on the main, to the north 
of the island, to measure six miles on Lake Huron, or the strait be- 
tween Lakes Huron and Michigan, and to extend three miles back 
from the water on the lake or strait; and also the island De Bois 
Blanc, being an extra and voluntary gift of the Chippeway (Ojibioa) 

This treaty was ratified by the United States Senate on 
the 22d of December, 1795. 

On the 12th of July, 1796, Capt. Moses Porter, at the 
head of a company of sixty-five American troops, took pos- 
session of Detroit, and hoisted for the first time upon its 
battlements the starry banner of the republic. In Sep. 
tember of that year, Winthrop Sargent, secretary of the 
Northwestern Territory, proceeded to Detroit and organized 
the county of Wayne, named in honor of the general, which 
included within its limits all of the lower peninsula, with 
portions of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, and Wisconsin. J Of 
this immense county Detroit was the capital. It contained, 
according to Weld, in 1797, about three hundred houses. 
Sargent was succeeded in the office, in 1798, by William 
Henry Harrison, who had been aid to Gen. Wayne at the 
Maumee Rapids, and stood very high with the Western 
people. This position he held until Oct. 3, 1799, when he 
was elected by the Territorial Legislature as a delegate in 


On the 7th day of May, 1800, Congress passed an act 
dividing the Northwest Territory on a line, a part of which 
now constitutes the line between Ohio and Indiana, and 
extending thence north until it intersected the line between 
the United States and Canada. This line, as will readily 
be seen by reference to a map of the State, divided the 
lower peninsula almost exactly in the centre, crossing the 
strait of Mackinac and intersecting the national boundary 
in Whitefish Bay, of Lake Superior, near Isle Parisienne. 

J Wayne County was entitled to three members in the Territorial 



The new Territory lying west of this line was called In- 
diana Territory, and William Henry Harrison was appointed 
its first Governor in the following year. Its seat of govern- 
ment was fixed at Vineennes. Under this legislation the 
region now constituting Kalamazoo County became a part 
of Indiana Territory. The seat of government for the old 
Northwest Territory, including Ohio and the eastern half 
of Michigan, was fixed at Chillicothe. 

Ohio was erected into a State on the 29th of November, 
1802, and from that date the whole of the lower peninsula 
of Michigan became a part of Indiana Territory. 


The act of Congress erecting the Territory of Michigan 
was passed on the 11th of January, 1805, and took effect 
from and after June 30th of the same year. The Governor 
and judges were appointed by the President of the United 
States, and endowed with legislative power. The Territorial 
officers were nominated by the President on the 26th of 
February, 1805. Gen William Hull, a veteran officer of the 
Revolution, was nominated for Governor, and Hon. A. B. 
Woodward presiding judge. The nominations were con- 
firmed, and Judge Woodward arrived at Detroit on the 
29th of June, and Governor Hull on the 1st of July. On 
the 11th of June, preceding their arrival, a fire broke out 
in the town, and in the course of a few hours every build- 
ing in the place, save two, was destroyed. 

The new functionaries, in their report to Congress in 
October following, in speaking of Detroit, use the follow- 
ing language : 

"The place which bore the appellation of the town of Detroit was 
a spot of about two acres of ground, completely covered with build- 
ings and combustible materials, the narrow intervals of fourteen or 
fifteen feet, used as streets or lanes, excepted ; and the whole was en- 
vironed with a very strong and secure defense of tall and solid 

Upon petition of the distressed inhabitants for relief, 
Congress passed an act granting them the old site and ten 
thousand additional acres lying immediately around it, and 
including the old French " Commons." The town was 
subsequently laid out upon a greatly-enlarged and improved 

The Territorial government of Michigan went into active 
operation on the 2d of July, 1805. It included within its 
jurisdiction the lower peninsula. When Illinois was ad- 
mitted as a State, in 1818, the region now constituting 
Wisconsin and the upper peninsula of Michigan was added 
to Michigan Territory, and in 1834 the territory now con- 
stituting the States of Iowa and Minnesota was annexed 
for temporary purposes. 

Various treaties were made with the Indians from 1807 
to the breaking out of the war of 1812. On the 17th of 
November, 1807, Governor Hull made a treaty with the 
Ottawas, Chippewas, Wyandots, and Pottawattomies, by 
which they ceded a large tract of country between the 
Maumee River and Saginaw Bay to the United States. 
On the 25th of November, 1808, another treaty was made 
with the same tribes, and also including the Shawanese 1 
by which a strip of country lying between the Maumee 

* Annals of the West. 

and the Western Reserve was ceded. In 1809, Governor 
Harrison, of Indiana Territory, made treaties at Fort 
Wayne with the Delawares, Pottawattomtes, Miamis, Eel 
River Indians, Weas, and Kickapoos, for certain lands upon 
the Wabash ; but these were protested against by Tecum- 
seh, the Shawanese chief, in the following year. 

In the mean time, Tecumseh (or Tecumthe, as it is also 
written) and his brother, Elk-swat-a-wa, the prophet, had 
begun laying their plans for a grand union of all the In- 
dian tribes against the whites as early as 1803. It was 
substantially the same as Pontiac's confederation of 1763, 
and was to embrace all the western and southern nations 
and tribes. The prophet visited many nations under a pre- 
tended inspiration of the "Great Spirit;" and Tecumseh 
himself traversed the country from the head-waters of the 
Mississippi to the gulf, carrying the great war belt and 
making speeches among all the nations. 

In August, 1810, the u Successor of Pontiac," as Te- 
cumseh was sometimes called, met Governor Harrison at 
Vineennes, in a council called to consider the grievances of 
the Indians who were not willing to abide by the treaties 
at Fort Wayne. The council was abruptly broken up by 
the insolence of Tecumseh, who, instead of bringing no 
more than forty warriors, came with upwards of three hun- 
dred. This council accomplished nothing, and in the fol- 
lowing year, while Tecumseh was absent on a war mission 
to the south, a crisis was precipitated by the prophet, who, 
contrary to his brother's instructions, attacked Governor 
Harrison at the famous Tippecanoe battle-ground, on the 
morning of Nov. 7, 1811, and after a two hours' night con- 
flict, in which the savages fought desperately, was com- 
pletely defeated. The mask was now entirely thrown off, 
and Tecumseh made open war. 

WAR OF 1812. 

The causes which led to the last war with Great Britain 
dated back to the years immediately succeeding the Revo- 
lution. The affair between the British frigate " Leopard" 
and the American frigate " Chesapeake," in 1807, had 
greatly intensified the bitterness of feeling between the two 
countries ; and the continual outrages committed by British 
armed vessels upon the American merchant marine, under 
the " right of search," together with a constant stirring up 
of the Western Indians by pretended agents, fur-traders, 
and others, at length produced their legitimate results, and 
on the 19th of June, 1812, war was formally declared by 
the United States. 

At this date the Northwest was in an almost defenseless 
condition, while the British already had or were construct- 
ing a formidable fleet on Lake Erie, and possessed a re- 
spectable force of regular and volunteer troops and militia 
in Canada. 

Governor Hull was appointed commander-in-chief of the 
forces destined to operate on the Western frontier, which 
were fixed by Gen. Armstrong, Secretary of War, at two 
thousand, this number being deemed sufficient for the con- 
quest of Upper Canada. 

On the 1st of June, preceding the declaration of war, 
Gen. Hull had taken command in person at Dayton, Ohio, 
from which place he commenced his march towards the 



Maumee, constructing roads, bridges, and block-houses by 
the way. The general was not apprised of the declaration 
until the 2d of July. From the Maumee rapids he sent 
forward towards Detroit his own and most of the baggage 
of the officers, in a small sloop, under command of Lieut. 
Goodwin, who had on board also about thirty men and 
several ladies. The vessel and contents was captured as 
she attempted to pass Maiden. 

The force under Gen. Hull consisted of four regiments, 
commanded by Cols. McArthur, Findlay, Cass, and Miller. 
The army arrived at Detroit about the 7th of July, and on 
the 12th crossed over and occupied Sandwich, opposite. 
The general issued a proclamation to the Canadians, but 
no important movement was made, though his subordinate 
officers repeatedly urged him to assume the bold offensive, 
and capture Maiden. After nearly a month had been frit- 
tered away, and when the British were gathering a strong 
force to dispute with him the occupation of Canada, Gen. 
Hull, on the 7th of August, returned with his army to 

Gen. Proctor, commander of the advance of the British, 
reached Maiden on the 29th of July, and immediately be- 
gan operations for the purpose of cutting off Hull's commu- 
nications with Ohio, and thus isolating his army. The 
British commander-in-chief, Gen. Brock, a most efficient 
and daring officer, arrived on the 18th of August, and be- 
gan preparations not only for the effectual defense of Can- 
ada, but for the conquest of Detroit and all the posts on the 
American side of the straits.* 

Gen. Henry Dearborn, in command of the American 
forces at Niagara, had foolishly concluded an armistice with 
the enemy, which enabled them to at once concentrate a 
strong force against Gen. Hull. Brock pushed his advan- 
tages to the utmost. He sent parties to cut off Hull's 
communications towards the south, erected strong batteries 
opposite Detroit, and on the 16th of August compelled the 
pusillanimous Hull to surrender the place, the whole terri- 
tory of Michigan, and fourteen hundred good troops to a 
motley collection of three hundred English regulars, four 
hundred Canadian militia, and a band of Indians. 

For this unexampled conduct Gen. Hull was tried by 
court-martial, found guilty of cowardice and neglect of 
duty, and sentenced to be shot ; in consequence, however, 
of his advanced age and his distinguished services during 
the Revolution he was pardoned by the President, but his 
name was stricken from the rolls of the army. 

On the 17 th of July the garrison at Mackinac, consist- 
ing of fifty-seven effective men, under Lieut. Hanks, who 
knew nothing of the declaration of war, was surprised and 
captured by a mixed force of British, Canadians, and In- 
dians, amounting to upwards of one thousand men. 

A fort had been erected at the mouth of the Chicago 
River in 1804. It was garrisoned at the outbreak pf the 
war by a force of about eighty men, under command of 
Capt. Heald. It was known as " Fort Dearborn." The 
commander had been apprised of the declaration of war by 
dispatches received through the hands of Winnemeg, a 
friendly Pottawattomie chief. The dispatches included 

* Brock was killed at Queenstown, near Niagara, in the following 

orders from Gen. Hull to evacuate the p<^st, if practicable, 
after distributing the property among the Indians. The 
chief who brought the message strongly urged the rashness 
of any attempt to march through the wilderness to Fort 
Wayne, the nearest United States post, and the subordinate 
officers were unanimous against it. The fort was provi- 
sioned for six months, and could easily have been held 
against the whole force of the savages. But the com- 
mander foolishly construed his orders into an imperative 
command to evacuate the post, and made arrangements 

Capt. Heald was deaf to all advice, and with an infatua- 
tion little short of insanity destroyed all his surplus ammu- 
nition, and began his fatal march on the morning of the 
15th of August, 1812. The sequel is well known ; they 
were attacked within a mile or two of the fort, and after a 
most gallant defense were all killed or taken prisoners. The 
killed, among whom were Captain Wells, the famous Miami 
chief, Ens. lionan, and Dr. Yan Vorhees, amounted to about 
fifty-five, including two women and twelve children. The 
Indians engaged in this massacre were Pottawattomies, 
though some of their chiefs, notably Winnemeg and Black 
Partridge, were friendly to the whites. The prisoners were 
mostly distributed among the Indians, and subsequently 
brought to Detroit and redeemed. Capt. Heald and lady, 
both badly wounded, were taken to the mouth of the St. 
Joseph Biver, from whence they went to Mackinac in a 
canoe, where they were paroled by the British commander.")* 
On the 17th of September, 1812, Gen. Harrison was 
appointed commander-in-chief of the Northwestern army. 
His first step was to relieve Fort Wayne, hotly besieged by 
the confederated Indians, which he successfully accom- 
plished. He then with a force of two thousand men recon- 
noitered the Maumee Valley, and returned to Fort Wayne 
on the 20th of September. 

Gen. Winchester, a Kentucky officer, little known, ad- 
vanced late in the autumn with a force of about two thou- 
sand men to Fort Defiance, at the mouth of the Auglaize, 
where he intended to winter. 

In November and December of this year occurred the ex- 
pedition of Col. Campbell against the Mississinnewa towns 
on the Wabash, which was entirely successful, though the 
troops suffered severely from the inclemency of the weather. 
All the towns were destroyed, and a large number of In- 
dians killed and taken prisoners. The campaign of 1812 
closed without any special advantages on the whole to the 
American cause, though the expeditions against the Indians 
had been fairly successful. 

The American forces in the beginning of 1813 were 
facing north in three grand divisions. The right under 
Harrison lay at Upper Sandusky, the left under Winches- 
ter had advanced to the Maumee Rapids, and the centre 
under Gen. Tupper was at Fort Mc Arthur. 

On the 17th of January a portion of Gen. Winchester's 
command, amounting to five hundred and fifty men, under 
Col. Lewis, was pushed forward to the river Raisin, and 
Col. Allen soon after followed with another detachment 
of one hundred, and ten men. 

f See Chapter XIII. 



On tbe 18th the enemy were driven out of the little vil- 
lage of Frenchtown (now Monroe, Mich.), and the Ameri- 
cans took possession. Winchester arrived on the 19th 
with two hundred and fifty additional troops. The consoli- 
dated force was attacked on the 2 2d by a strong British 
force from Maiden under Gen. Proctor, and, after a most 
obstinate battle, was induced to surrender by promises of 
good treatment. But, notwithstanding his promises, Proc- 
tor allowed the Indians to commit a most inhuman mas- 
sacre of prisoners on the following day. Out of about 
eight hundred men under Winchester at the beginning of 
the battle, only about forty men remained after the massa- 
cre of the 23d. 

On the 1st of February, Harrison advanced to the 
Rapids, and commenced the construction of a strong fort, 
or rather an intrenched camp, on the south side of the 
river, which he named Fort Meigs, in honor of the Gov- 
ernor of Ohio.* Here, on the 28th of April, Harrison was 
besieged by a strong British force under Proctor, who had 
come by water up the Maumee. The whole force amounted 
to about two thousand two hundred men, including nearly 
one thousand Indians under Tecumseh, who had joined the 
British at the opening of the war. The siege was remark- 
able for disasters and successes on both sides. Col. Dudley, 
at the head of eight hundred Kentuckians, captured the 
British batteries on the north side of the Maumee, but, 
lured too far in his pursuit of the enemy, fell into an am- 
buscade devised by Tecumseh, and lost his life and nearly 
his entire command. Col. Miller made a successful sortie 
against the British position on the south side of the river, 
capturing the guns and dispersing the detachment with 
severe loss. Finding his guns made no impression on the 
American works, Proctor withdrew on the 9th of May and 
returned to Maiden. 

In July a second British and Indian force attacked Fort 
Meigs, but accomplished nothing, and again fell back down 
the river. On the 3 1st of July, Proctor appeared with a 
fleet and a powerful force at Lower Sandusky, where Fort 
Stephenson was held by Col. George Croghan, with a gar- 
rison of about two hundred men and one six-pounder field- 
piece. Proctor's force amounted to about three thousand 
men and a battery of six pieces of artillery. 

The battery was planted and the work bombarded until 
the 3d of August, when an attempt was made to carry it 
by assault. The column, under Col. Short, was repulsed 
with great loss, when Proctor hastily embarked his force 
and withdrew. The British account of this affair states 
that the force only amounted to about seven hundred men 
with two six-pounder guns. Their loss is stated at about 
one hundred men. 

In the mean time a strong fleet was being constructed 
and equipped at Erie, under the supervision of Commodore 
Oliver Hazard Perry. The fleet left the harbor on the 4th 
of August, and on the 10th of September, 1813, gained 
a complete victory over the British fleet under Commodore 
Barclay, near the Bass Islands, to the northward of San- 
dusky, capturing the entire British squadron. This naval 
engagement, one of the most memorable in the history of 

* Return Jonathan Meigs. 

the country, was probably fought within the limits of the 
State of Michigan. 

Upon learning the result of the naval engagement, Proc- 
tor abandoned Maiden, and fell back to Sandwich, intending 
to retreat towards the northeast via the valley of the river 
Thames. On the 27th of September the army of Gen. 
Harrison, having been reinforced, crossed the river and 
found Maiden in ashes. 

The American commander immediately pushed on in 
pursuit of Proctor, whom he overtook on the 5th of Octo- 
ber, well posted and prepared for battle, which Harrison 
at once delivered, completely destroying or capturing the 
British army, and putting the Indian contingent under 
Tecumseh to a disastrous rout, with severe loss, including 
their great chieftain, who was killed in the action. This 
ended the war so far as Michigan was concerned, and since 
that time there has been no danger from foreign foes. 

On the 13th of October, 1813, only eight days after the 
defeat of Proctor, Col. Lewis Cass was appointed the sec- 
ond Territorial Governor of Michigan, which office he held 
until he was called to a seat in the cabinet of President 
Andrew Jackson, in 1831.f Under his able administra- 
tion Michigan may be said to have commenced her career 

of prosperity. 


The ordinance of 1787, by its ninth article, expressly 
prohibits slavery or involuntary servitude (except for crimes 
committed) in the Northwest Territory ; yet, singular as it 
may seem, an attempt was made as early as 1796 to intro- 
duce it into what was then Indiana Territory by four men 
at Kaskaskia, 111., who petitioned Congress to that effect. 

In 1803 the subject was again brought forward, when it 
was strongly opposed by John Randolph, of Virginia. 

In 1804 it was a third time introduced, and a resolution 
was drawn up suspending the ninth article of the ordinance 
of 1787, thereby permitting and, in fact, establishing sla- 
very in the Territory under certain regulations ; but it was 
laid over or postponed for future consideration until 1807, 
when it was finally disposed of by the Senate, which de- 
clared it inexpedient. Thus by a hair's breadth did Mich- 
igan escape the perils of a system which has cost the nation 
untold treasure in life and property, and brought a condi- 
tion upon a large moiety of the republic which many gener- 
ations may not see obliterated. 

The first county organized, as we have seen, was Wayne, 
in 1796. It was re-established and organized by procla- 
mation of Governor Cass, Nov. 21, 1815. Monroe fol- 
lowed in 1817, Macomb and Mackinac in 1818, Oakland 
in 1820, St. Clair in 1821, Chippewa, Washtenaw, and 
Lenawee in 1826, and Cass and St. Joseph in 1829. 
These were all that preceded Kalamazoo, which was or- 
ganized in 1830. 


The origin of the system of subdividing the unsold lands 
of the United States into townships and sections dates 

f His original appointment as Governor was made by Gen. Harri- 
son, and it was subsequently confirmed by the general government. 



from an act passed by Congress on the 20th of May, 1785. 
The particular sections or clauses bearing upon this subject 
are as follows : 

" The surveyors, as they are respectively qualified, shall proceed to 
(divide the said territory into townships of six miles square, by lines 
Tunning due north and south, and others crossing these at right angles 
as near as may be. . . . 

" The geographer shall designate the townships, or fractional parts 
<of townships, by numbers, progressively, from south to north,* always 
beginning each range with No. 1 ; and the ranges shall be distin- 
guished by their progressive numbers to the westward, the first 
range, extending from the Ohio to Lake Erie, being marked No. 1. 

" The plats of the townships, respectively, shall be marked by sub- 
divisions into lots of one mile square, or six hundred and forty acres, 
in the same direction as the external lines, and numbered from one 
to thirty-six, always beginning the succeeding range of the lots with 
the number next to that with which the preceding one concIuded."f 

By this act also lot No. 16 of every township was re- 
served for the maintenance of public schools. This sjstem 
was first introduced on the east line of Ohio, and has since 
been continued throughout all the Territories of the Union. 
Surveys under this act probably began in 1786 or 17 87. J 

All good maps of Michigan show a base line and a prin- 
cipal meridian, from which the townships and ranges are 
numbered. These lines were established, as necessary pre- 
liminaries to the survey, in 1815. 

The base line starts from a point on Lake Michigan, 
near South Haven, and runs thence due east to Lake St. 
Clair, forming the dividing line between the counties of 
Allegan, Van Buren, Barry, Kalamazoo, Eaton, Calhoun, 
Ingham, Jackson, Livingston, Washtenaw, Oakland, Wayne, 
and Macomb. 

This line is in about 42° 28' north latitude, and the dis- 
tance from one lake to the other along it is about one hun- 
dred and seventy-three miles. 

From this line the townships are numbered both north 
and south ; on the north reaching No. 47, § and on the 
south No. 8. 

The principal meridian is exactly on the meridian of 
the Sault St. Marie, and divides the lower peninsula a little 
east of the centre, terminating on the Ohio line, between 
the counties of Lenawee and Hillsdale. The length of this 
line approximates three hundred and thirty miles. In 
crossing the Strait of Mackinac it touches the eastern 
extremity of Bois Blanc Island. The distance across the 
strait on this line is about twenty miles. 

The extreme northernmost town on Keweenaw Point, in 
Lake Superior, is numbered fifty-nine, making the length of 
the State, in a direct line north and south, not including 
Isle Royale, in Lake Superior, four hundred and two miles, 
provided the Congressional townships are each exactly six 
miles square. 

The ranges reach No. 17 east on the St. Clair River, at 

* This arrangement was subsequently modified in the West, and the 
ranges are numbered east and west from the meridian, and sometimes 
the townships are numbered both north and south from the base line, 
as is the case in Michigan. 

f Annals of the West. 

% Gen. W. H. Harrison has been credited with the origin of this 
system while a delegate in Congress from the Northwest Territory, but 
the ordinance was passed fifteen years previously. 

§ 47 is the northernmost number at the Sault St, Marie, but on Ke- 
weenaw Point the numbers run to 59. 

Fort Gratiot, and No. 21 west at New Buffalo, on Lake 
Michigan. About three-fifths of the lower peninsula lie 
on the west side of the meridian. Between townships 20 
and 21 north is a correction line. 

Kalamazoo County comprises ranges 9, 10, 11, and 12 
west of the meridian, and townships 1, 2, 3, and 4 south 
of the base line. 

The first surveys of public lands in the State were made 
in the vicinity of the Detroit River, in 1816, and lands 
were first offered for sale in 1818, at the Detroit land-office. || 
In 1822 the Detroit land district was divided, and a second 
office established at Monroe, at which latter office all lands 
lying west of the principal meridian were entered previous 
to 1831. 

The lands were first offered at public sale, and when 
competition seemed to be exhausted, applications and bids 
were opened and examined, and pending action thereupon, 
the office was closed, which proceeding caused much delay 
and expense to bona fide settlers. It was also charged that 
speculators, or u land-sharks," as they were appropriately 
named, took advantage of the arrangement to reap a rich 
harvest from those who came to purchase homesteads.^ 

For some years after the lands were open to entry the 
price per acre was fixed at two dollars, one-fourth of which 
was required to be paid down, and the remainder in three 
annual installments. The land was subject to forfeiture 
if the payments proved delinquent. A discount of eight 
per cent, was allowed if the whole payment was made in 
advance. About 1832 a change was made, fixing the price 
per acre at one dollar and a quarter, and requiring the 
whole amount to be paid in advance. Under this arrange- 
ment everything worked satisfactorily. 

In 1831 a land-office was established at White Pigeon, 
in St. Joseph County, for the sale of lands lying west of 
the meridian. In 1834 this office was removed to Kala- 
mazoo, and in 1838 an office was opened in Ionia. 

The following table shows the amount of lands disposed 
of in the Kalamazoo land district from 1831 to Jan. 1, 
1838, inclusive, and including sales at White Pigeon and 
Kalamazoo : 

Years. Acres. Amount Received. 

1831 93,179.36 $117,128.26 

1832 74,696.17 98,060.23 

1833 95,980.25 123,465.25 

1834 128,244.47 160,321.85 

1835 745,661.34 932,076.64 

1836 1,634,511.82 2,043,866.87 

1837 313,855.15 394,316.77 

Totals 3,086,128.56 $3,869,235.87 

It will be seen that by far the greater transactions were 
at the Kalamazoo office, in the years 1835 and 1836. The 
office at Kalamazoo was continued until about 1858, when 
its affairs were closed, the lands in the district having been 
disposed of. The sales for the last fifteen or twenty years 
were comparatively small. (See history of Kalamazoo 

|| The Detroit land district, according to A. D. P. Van Buren, was 
established in 1804. 

f The first legal conveyance of land within the limits of the lower 
peninsula of Michigan was made in 1707, by Antoine de la Motte 
Cadillac to " Francois Ifafard Delorme," 




Congress, on the 6th of May, 1812, passed an act re- 
quiring that two million acres of government lands should 
be surveyed in the then Territory of Louisiana,* a like 
quantity in the Territory of Illinois north and west of the 
Illinois River, and the same amount in the Territory of 
Michigan, — in all, six million acres, — to be set apart for 
the soldiers of the war with Great Britain. 

The lands were surveyed and set apart, under the act, in 
Louisiana and Illinois, but the early surveyors reported 
that there were no lands in Michigan fit for cultivation.")* 
The following are extracts from the surveyor-general's 
report : 

" The country on the Indiana boundary line, from the mouth of the 
Great Auglaize River, and running thence north for about fifty miles, 
is (with some few exceptions) low, wet land, with a very thick growth 
of underbrush, intermixed with very bad marshes, but generally very 
heavily timbered with beech, cottonwood, oak, etc.; thence continu- 
ing north, and extending from the Indian boundary eastward, the 
number and extent of the swamps increases, with the addition of 
numbers of lakes, from twenty chains to two and three miles across. 

"Many of the lakes have extensive margins, sometimes thickly 
covered with a species of pine called * tamarack/ and in other places 
covered with a coarse, high grass, and uniformly covered from six 
inches to three feet (and more at times) with water. The margins of 
these lakes are not the only places where swamps are found, for they 
are interspersed throughout the whole country, and filled with water, 
as above stated, and varying in extent. 

" The intermediate space between these swamps and lakes — which 
is probably near one-half of the country — is, with very few exceptions, 
a poor, barren, sandy land, on which scarcely any vegetation grows, 
except very small, scrubby oaks. 

" In many places that part which may be called dry land is com- 
posed of little, short sand-hills, forming a kind of deep basins, the 
bottoms of many of which are composed of marsh similar to the above 
described. The streams are generally narrow, and very deep com- 
pared with their width, the shores and bottoms of which are (with 
very few exceptions) swampy beyond description; and it is with the 
utmost difficulty that a place can be found over which horses can be 
conveyed in safety. 

" A circumstance peculiar to that country is exhibited in many of 
the marshes, by their being thinly covered with a sward of grass, by 
walking on which evinces the existence of water, or a very thin mud, 
immediately under their covering, which sinks from six to eighteen 
inches under the pressure of the foot at every step, and at the same 
time rises before and behind the person passing over it. The margins 
of many of the lakes and streams are in a similar condition, and in 
many places are literally afloat. On approaching the eastern part of 
the military lands, towards the private claims on the straits and lake, 
the country does not contain so many swamps and lakes, but the ex- 
treme sterility and barrenness of the soil continue the same. 

" Taking the country altogether, so far as has been explored, and 
to all appearances, together with information received concerning 
the balance, it is so bad there would not be more than one acre out of 
a hundred, if there would be one out of a thousand, that would in any 
case admit of cultivation."! 

This report, as can be seen, applied to the eastern part of 
the State, but at the same time the character of the country 
appeared to grow worse towards the interior, and Congress, 
taking the report to be substantially correct, on the 29th of 
April, 1816, passed an act repealing so much of the law of 
1812 as related to Michigan, and providing for locating an 
additional one million five hundred thousand acres in Illi- 
nois, and five hundred thousand in the Territory of Missouri 
in place of the two million acres located in Michigan. 

* Purchased of the first Napoleon in 1803, by Mr. Jefferson, 
f Tuttle's History of Michigan. J Ibid. 

The report operated both in an injurious and a beneficial 
way, strange as the statement may seem. At first it de- 
terred many from seeking homes in the State, who, under 
a more favorable report, would have filled up the country 
rapidly, but as an offset to this it might be said to operate 
beneficially in keeping out the horde of speculators who 
would be sure to monopolize many of the soldiers' warrants, 
and thus throw the country, at least for a time, into non- 
resident hands. 

But notwithstanding this unfavorable report, a few ad- 
venturers, who desired to see for themselves what the face 
of the country might be, penetrated the borders of Oakland 
County in 1818, and the discoveries which they made soon 
brought immigration to the eastern portion of the State, 
though it was not until several years subsequently that a 
true knowledge of the country began to people the interior 
with busy pioneers. A Territorial road was surveyed from 
Detroit to Chicago about 1823. At Ypsilanti it divided, 
one line being run southwestward, through Lenawee, Hills- 
dale, Branch, and other counties, the other nearly west 
through Ann Arbor, Jackson, Battle Creek, and Kalamazoo. 
The opening of these roads, giving increased facilities, soon 
brought plenty of settlers, and from this time forward the 
population increased rapidly. 


Among the Western Indians who joined the English in 
the war of 1812-15 were the three powerful nations, Ot- 
tawaSj Ojibwas, and Pottawattomies, and these, by all ordi- 
nary rules of warfare, were entitled to very little lenity 
when the struggle closed. But the American government 
generously buried the past and entered into amicable rela- 
tions with them. 

Before the close of the war, in July, 1814, a treaty was 
entered into at Greenville, Ohio, between Gen. Harrison 
and Governor Cass, on the part of the government, and 
those bands of the Wyandots, Delawares, Shawanese, and 
Senecas who had remained faithful to the Americans, by 
which peace was also made with the Miamis, Weas, and 
Eel River Indians, and the terms were extended to portions 
of the Pottawattomies, Ottawas, and Kickapoos. 

About the middle of July, 1815, after the war had closed, 
a treaty was made with various tribes at Portage des Sioux, 
on the Mississippi River, a few miles above the mouth of 
the Missouri. The first mentioned are the Pottawattomies. 
All injuries or acts of hostility on the part of either party 
were to be forgiven, all prisoners given up, and all former 
treaties and contracts recognized and confirmed. Similar 
treaties were made with all the Indians west of the lakes, 
excepting Black Hawk's band of the Sac nation, who pro- 
claimed themselves British subjects, and went to Canada to 
receive presents. 

In September, 1815, Gen. William Henry Harrison, 
Gen. Duncan Mc Arthur, and John Graham, Esq., on be- 
half of the United States, held a council at Spring Wells, 
near Detroit, with the Ottawas, Pottawattomies, and Ghip- 
pewas (or Ojibwas), and on the 8th of the month a treaty 
was concluded by which peace was granted to them, and the 
government agreed to restore to them all the possessions, 
rights, and privileges which were theirs previous to the year 



1812. The former treaties at Greenville and other places 
were also confirmed. 

In October, 1818, Gen. Cass held a council with the 
Pottawattomies, at which they ceded lands on the Wabash 
and Tippecanoe Rivers, lying mostly within the bounds of 
the present State of Indiana. 


Soon after the close of the war of 1812 it became ap- 
parent that the region of the lower peninsula of Michigan 
was destined to fill up speedily with settlers, provided the 
Indian titles could be extinguished, and the far-seeing mind 
of Governor Casg was quick to comprehend the necessary 
legislation. He at once set himself to the work of securing 
an additional cession from the Indians, as he foresaw that 
the tract of country ceded in 1807 would soon be too cir- 
cumscribed for the immigration which was sure to follow. 

Being ex-officio Indian Commissioner for the Territory 
of Michigan, he laid the matter before the President, and 
received authority and instructions under which he could 
proceed to the extinguishment of Indian titles to the de- 
sired tract of country. 

A grand council with the Chippewa and Ottawa nations 
was called to be held at Saginaw, where they assembled in 
September, 1819 ; and where, on the 24th of the same 
month, a treaty was signed by which one hundred and 
fourteen chiefs and principal sachems (mostly Chippewas) 
ceded to the United States a tract of country estimated to 
include about six million acres, and bounded as follows, in 
the words of the treaty : 

" Beginning at a point in the present Indian boundary line (iden- 
tical with the principal meridian of Michigan), which runs due north 
from the mouth of the Great Auglaize River, six miles south of the 
place where the base line, so called, intersects the same; thence west 
sixty miles j* thence in a direct line to the head of Thunder Bay 
River; thence down the same, following the courses thereof, to the 
mouth; thence northeast to the boundary line between the United 
States and the British province of Upper Canada; thence with the 
same to the line established by the treaty of Detroit, in the year 
1807 ; and thence with the said line to the place of beginning." 

This boundary, as will be seen, included two towns of 
Kalamazoo County within the cession, Ross and Richland. 
Whether the Chippewas and Ottawas had any just claim 
upon the territory lying south of Grand River is problemat- 
ical ; at all events, the Pottawattomies did not recognize it 
in the treaty of Chicago, in 1821. 

This treaty was concluded by Governor Cass, of Mich- 
igan, and Hon. Solomon Sibley, associated with him as 
United States Indian Commissioner, at Fort Dearborn (now 
Chicago), on the 29th of August, 1821, with the Chippe- 
was, Ottawas, and Pottawattomies. The latter were the 
principal nation interested, the others signing as auxiliaries 
and friends. The three nations were represented by their 
chiefs and principal men as follows: Pottawattomies, by 
fifty-five ; Ottawas, by eight ; and Chippewas, by two. 
The boundaries of the tract ceded at this treaty, which in- 
cluded between seven and eight thousand square miles in 
the southwestern portion of Michigan, were described as 
follows : 

* This point is the northeast corner of Kalamazoo township. 

" Beginning on the south bank of the St. Joseph River of Michi- 
gan, near { Pare aux Vaches ;'f thence south to a line running due 
east from the southern extremity of Lake Michigan ; thence along 
that line to the tract ceded by the treaty of Fort Meigs, in 1817, or, 
if that tract should be found to lie entirely south of the line, then to 
the tract ceded by the treaty of Detroit, in 1807 ;% thence northward 
along that tract to a point due east of the source of Grand River; 
thence west to the source of that river; thence down the river on the 
north bank to its junction with Lake Michigan ; thence southward 
along the east bank of the lake to the mouth of the St. Joseph River; 
and thence up that river to the place of beginning. "$ 

This large tract included the counties of Cass, St. Jo- 
seph, Branch, Hillsdale, Calhoun, Kalamazoo, Van Buren, 
Allegan, Barry, Eaton, most of Ottawa and Berrien, and 
parts of Kent, Ionia, Ingham, and Jackson, and comprised 
nearly eight thousand square miles, or five million one hun- 
dred and twenty thousand acres. Its geographical centre 
was not very far from the site of Kalamazoo village. From 
these lands five tracts were reserved, among which was the 
one known as the Match-e-be-nash-e-wish\\ reservation, which 
included nine square miles, or five thousand seven hundred 
and sixty acres, where Kalamazoo village now stands. 

It was described as the village of " Matchebenashewish, 
at the head of the Kekelamazoo Biver," meaning at the 
head of navigation. 

In 1819, Michigan was granted a delegate in Congress. 
In the previous year steam navigation had been introduced 
upon Lake Erie. The first steamer was named " Walk-in- 
the- Water," but whether as a compliment to the Wyandot 
(or Huron) chief of that name, or as indicative of her own 
powers, is not quite clear. With the bringing of lands 
into market, and the opening of steam navigation, came a 
rapid influx of immigration to the new lands of the West. 


In the spring of 1820 an expedition was fitted out for 
the exploration of the northern and western portions of the 
Territory, which were then comparatively little known. It 
was under the control of Governor Cass, and accompanying 
it were Alexander Woolcott, physician ; Capt. D. B. Doug- 
las, engineer; Lieut. A. Mackay, commander of escort; 
James Duane Doty, secretary; Maj. Bobert A. Forsyth, 
Governor's secretary ; and Henry B. Schoolcraft, geologist 
and topographer. A detachment of thirty regular soldiers 
formed the escort, and the entire party numbered sixty-six 
persons. Under instructions from the War Department at 
Washington, the commanders of military posts were re- 
quired to extend every facility to the expedition. 

The expedition left Detroit on the 24th of May, 1820, 
in bark canoes manned by voyageurs and Indians. They 
kept along the western shore of Lake Huron, visiting the 
prominent points, and halting for a considerable time at 
Mackinac. At the Sault St. Marie, at the foot of Lake 
Superior, Governor Cass held a council with the Indians. 
This point was chosen for the location of a military post. 
The Indians objected to its establishment, and were insolent 

f The cow pasture. J The principal meridian. 

$ This boundary includes nearly two thousand square miles ceded 
at the treaty of Saginaw, in 1819. * 

|| Judge Wells states that the common name of this reservation in 
the early days was " Mick-asau-ba" or "Mich-a-8aw-bah" 



and hostile ; but the bold course pursued by the Governor 
overawed them, and a treaty was signed by which they ceded 
a tract of country four miles square around the Sault. The 
expedition visited the shores of Lake Superior, the upper 
Mississippi River, and Lake Michigan, making valuable 
discoveries and taking notes of the country and its wonder- 
fully varied resources. Mr. Schoolcraft subsequently pub- 
lished an account of the voyage.* 


The first bank in the Territory was chartered in 1817, as 
the Bank of Michigan.f The second was the Farmers' and 
Mechanics' Bank of Michigan, chartered in 1828, with a 
branch at St. Joseph. 

In 1823 a Legislative Council for the Territory was au- 
thorized, to consist of nine members, to be appointed by 
the President of the United States. In- 1825 the number 
of the Council was increased to thirteen, and made elective 
by the people. In the same year, also, all county officers, 
excepting those belonging to the judiciary, were made elect- 
ive by the people, and the appointments remaining in the 
hands of the Executive were made subject to the approval 
of the council. The Governor and Council were also au- 
thorized to divide the Territory into townships and incor- 
porate them, and provide for the election of officers. The 
right of appeal was also granted in the same year from the 
Territorial to the United States Supreme Cqurt. 

In 1825 the great Erie Canal between the Hudson River 
and Lake Erie was opened, giving continuous water navi- 
gation from the Atlantic seaboard to the Western lakes. 
This gave a fresh impetus to immigration. 

In 1827 the electors of the Territory were authorized to 
choose a number of persons corresponding with the council, 
and these, together with the original council, constituted a 
Territorial Legislature, which was empowered to enact any 
necessary laws, provided they did not conflict with the ordi- 
nance of 1787. They were to be subject to revision by 
Congress, and to the absolute veto of the Territorial Gov- 
ernor. A judiciary system was also established, and the 
militia were organized. 

Gen. George B. Porter, of Pennsylvania, succeeded Gov- 
ernor Cass in July, 1831, and entered upon the duties of 
his office in September following. 

It was during the administration of Governor Porter 
that the Black Hawk war occurred. It was confined 
wholly to the region west of Lake Michigan, and only in- 
directly disturbed the people of Michigan. Some account 
of the part taken by local companies will be found in an- 
other chapter. Governor Porter died of cholera on the 5th 
of July, 1834, and the Secretary of the Territory, Stevens 
T. Mason, by the provisions of the organic act, became 
Governor in his stead. Mr. Mason was succeeded, in 1835, 
by John S. Horner, who was the last Territorial Governor. 

* In 1826, Governor Cass made a voyage to the head of Lake Supe- 
rior, in canoes, to make treaties with the northern Indians. 

f A branch of this bank was established at* Bronson by act of the 
Legislative Council, passed in March, 1834. 



Constitutional Conventions — The "Toledo War" — Mexican War — 
War of the Rebellion — Population — Governors under Three Na- 
tionalities — Other State Officers. 

The ordinance of 1787 provided that the Northwest 
Territory might be divided into not less than three nor 
more than five States. Down to 1818 three States had 
already been formed, viz., Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois. By 
that ordinance, and subsequent acts of Congress conferring 
upon the Territory the benefits of its provisions, Michigan 
was entitled to apply for admission into the Union whenever 
-her free white population should number sixty thousand 

In 1834, Michigan took the preliminary steps to secure 
for herself the rights to which she claimed to be entitled. 
On the 6th of September, in that year, the Legislative 
Council passed an act directing a census to be taken. J The 
returns showed a free white population of eighty-seven 
thousand two hundred and seventy-three inhabitants. At 
the session of the Council in January, 1835, an act was 
passed authorizing a convention to be held at Detroit on 
the second Monday of May following, for the purpose of 
framing a State constitution. This convention was com- 
posed of eighty-nine delegates, who met upon the day spec- 
ified, and continued in session until the 24th day of June. 

A constitution was formed and submitted to the people 
in October following, and adopted. At the same election 
State officers and a Legislature were also elected to act under 
the new constitution. This Legislature met in November 
following, and the State government went into operation. 

Hon. Stevens T. Mason, former secretary of the Territo- 
rial government and acting Governor, was elected Governor 
of the new State.§ 

The constitution adopted in 1835 remained the funda- 
mental law of the State until the adoption of the revised 
constitution, in 1850. 


The following synopsis of the history of the famous 
" Toledo War" is condensed from a pamphlet history of 
the same by Hon. W. V. Way, of Perrysburg, Ohio. We 
find it in the columns of the Detroit Advertiser : 

"The famous ordinance of 1787 authorized the formation by Con- 
gress of one or more States out of that portion of the Northwestern 

J On the 29th of June, 1832, a statute was passed to call an election 
on the first Tuesday of October, to determine " whether it be expedient 
for the people of this Territory to form a State government." The re- 
sult was in the affirmative by a large majority. [Campbell.] There 
seems to have been no further action taken at this time. 

$ The area of the State, in square miles and acres, as given in 1838, 
is as follows : 

Sq. Miles. Sq. Acres. 

Lower Peninsula 39,856 25,507,840 

Upper Peninsula 20,664 13,224,960 

Totals 60,520 38,732,800 

Water surface — Lake Michigan 11,592 

Lake Superior 15,660 

Huron, St. Clair, and 
Erie 9,072 

-Agg re g a te 96,844 



Territory lying north of a line drawn east and west through the 
southerly bend or extreme of Lake Michigan.* When, in 1802, Ohio 
applied for admission to the Union, the convention which formed her 
constitution, not knowing but that this line would come so far south 
as to cut them off from Lake Erie, placed in the instrument the pro- 
viso that, Congress consenting, if the line through the southerly bend 
of Lake Michigan should be found not to strike Lake Erie, or to strike 
it east of the mouth of the Maumee River, that then the northern 
boundary line of the proposed State should be altered so as to inter- 
sect the most northerly cape of Maumee Bay. Congress admitted 
Ohio Feb. 19, 1803, without any allusion to the boundary. On Jan. 
11, 1805, the bill was passed organizing the Territory of Michigan, 
and establishing as the southern boundary the old line running east 
and west through the head of Lake Michigan. The Territorial gov- 
ernment at once exercised jurisdiction as far south as this line. Ohio 
appealed to Congress, and in 1812 a resolution was passed ordering 
a survey of the line indicated in the Ohio constitution. The war of 
1812 breaking out at this juncture, the line was not surveyed, and it 
was not until 1817 that the requirements of the resolution were finally 
complied with. On Jan. 29, 1818, the Ohio Legislature adopted the 
line so run as the northern boundary of their State, but Congress took 
no action in the matter until after the conflict of 1835. The disputed 
territory extended the whole length of the north line of Ohio, and 
was about five miles wide at its west end, and eight at its east. It 
was chiefly valuable as embracing the harbor at the mouth of the 
Maumee River, and the site of the present city of Toledo. At first 
the residents of this tract preferred the dominion of Michigan to that 
of Ohio, but with the prospect of Toledo being made the terminus of 
the canal connecting the Maumee with the Ohio, they suddenly 
changed their views and petitioned Governor Lucas to extend the 
laws of Ohio over them. This was in 1835. Governor Lucas pre- 
sented the matter to the Legislature, and on February 23d a law was 
again passed declaring the disputed strip to belong to Ohio. For thirty 
years Michigan had held possession, and attempts to collect taxes 
under Ohio laws had been successfully opposed. The Ohio act of 1835 
provided for the re-survey and re-marking 6i the line claimed by 
that State, and also for the subdivision of the disputed territory into 
townships and their immediate organization. Meanwhile the Legis- 
lative Council of Michigan, upon learning what the Ohio Legislature 
was intending, anticipated their action by a law passed February 
12th, prohibiting any one from exercising any official functions within 
the Territory of Michigan by virtue of any commission or authority 
not derived from the Territorial Government or from the United 
States, under penalty of fine not exceeding one thousand dollars, or 
imprisonment not exceeding five years, or both, at the discretion of 
the court. The people of the disputed tract were now divided between 
the two allegiances, some taking sides with Michigan, others with 

* The following are the clauses of the ordinance referring to the 
number of States and their boundaries : 

" There shall be formed in the said Territory not less than three nor 
more than five States ; and the boundaries of the States, as soon as 
Virginia shall alter her act of cession and consent to the same, shall 
become fixed and established as follows, to wit : The western State 
in the said territory shall be bounded by the Mississippi, the Ohio, 
and Wabash Rivers ; a direct line drawn from the Wabash and Post 
St. Vincent's* due north to the Territorial line between the United 
States and Canada; and by the said Territorial line to the Lake of the 
Woods and Mississippi. 

" The middle State shall be bounded by the said direct line, the 
Wabash from Post St. Vincent's to the Ohio ; by the Ohio, and by a 
direct line drawn due north from the mouth of the Great Miami to the 
said Territorial line. The eastern State shall be bounded by the last- 
mentioned direct line, — the Ohio, Pennsylvania, and the said Territo- 
rial line j Provided, however, and it is further understood and declared, 
that the boundaries of these three States shall be subject so far to 
be altered, that if Congress shall hereafter find it expedient, they shall 
have authority to form one or two States in that part of the said Ter- 
ritory which lies north of an east-and-west line drawn through the 
southerly bend or extreme of Lake Michigan."! [Annals of the 

* Vincennes, Indiana. 

f The States of Michigan and Wisconsin, with certain modifications, have 
been formed from this portion of the Territory. The latitude of the southerly 
extreme of Lakt Michigan is about 41° 48/ north. 

Ohio. Determined to maintain the peace and dignity of the Territory 
of Michigan, Acting Governor Stevens T. Mason, on the 9th of March, 
ordered Gen. Joseph W. Brown, in command of the 3d division of 
Michigan militia, to be on the alert to meet any invasion of the Ter- 
ritory. On the 31st, Governor Lucas, of Ohio, with his surveyors and 
about six hundred militia, fully armed and equipped, reached Perrys- 
burg, on their way to re-mark the boundary line, as ordered by the 

"About the same time Governor Mason marched into Toledo, with 
a force of from eight hundred to twelve hundred men. Governor 
Lucas was contemplating an attack on him there, when fortunately 
there arrived on the ground two commissioners, sent from Washington 
to settle the dispute. These were Hon. Richard Rush, of Philadelphia, 
and Col. Howard, of Baltimore. After several conferences, it was 
proposed by the commissioners that the Governor of Ohio should be 
permitted to re-mark the line, and that the people should be left to 
obey whichever government they preferred until the close of the next 
session of Congress, before which time it was hoped that some per- 
manent arrangement would be concluded. Governor Mason promptly 
declined the proposal. Governor Lucas accepted, and claimed that 
the agreement was now complete, Governor Mason's assent not being 
necessary, as he, being only Governor of a Territory, was only subor- 
dinate to the President of the United States, whom Governor Lucas 
assumed was represented in the negotiation by Commissioners Rush 
and Howard. Governor Lucas accordingly proceeded to disband his 
forces, and Governor Mason partially followed his example. President 
Jackson now referred the matter to Attorney-General Butler, who 
reported that the President had no grounds for interference ; that the 
Michigan laws were in accordance with the United States Constitution 
and acts of Congress, and that it was proper for the officers of the 
Territory to enforce them. Governor Lucas, however, relying on the 
assumed agreement or truce, in the latter part of April attempted to 
carry out the order of the Legislature by running the boundary line. 
The surveyors started from the northwestern corner of the State, 
closely watched by Gen. Brown's scouts. No sooner had they entered 
Lenawee County, than William McNair, under-sheriff of the same, 
with a posse of thirty men, armed with muskets, attempted the arrest 
of the party. The Ohioans were armed with rifles and horse-pistols, 
and, on the appearance of the Michiganders, took up a position in a 
log house, where they securely barricaded themselves. The sheriff's 
party advancing upon them, they speedily abandoned their defenses 
and fled to the woods, without, as it seems, firing a shot. They were 
hotly pursued by the Michigan men, who discharged their muskets 
over their heads, to the great increase of their panic. Nine persons 
were captured, the rest escaping and reaching Perrysburg next morn- 
ing, in a woful plight, and with the most fearful tale of a ferocious 
attack, all of which Governor Lucas promptly reported to Washing- 
ton. The prisoners were taken to Tecumseh, where two were dis- 
missed for want of evidence, six admitted to bail for trial at the next 
Circuit Court, and one, refusing to give bail, was permitted to go at 
large on parole of honor. Matters were now becoming serious. An 
extra session of the Ohio Legislature was called, and most of its action 
pertained to the dispute with Michigan. It met on the 8th of June, 
and its first act was one to prevent the forcible abduction of citizens 
of Ohio, and its next to establish the county of Lucas in the disputed 
territory, with Toledo as its county-seat. It also provided that a 
session of the Circuit Court should be held there on the 7th of Sep- 
tember ensuing. Another act was one in which Michigan was ignored 
altogether as a party to the dispute, and the United States made the 
responsible party. An appropriation of three hundred thousand dol- 
lars was made for the carrying on of the war, and the Governor was 
authorized to borrow three hundred thousand dollars more. Above 
ten thousand volunteers were at once enrolled. The people of Mich- 
igan now became furious with indignation, and the partisans of Ohio 
were harassed without mercy. Arrests and imprisonments were made 
daily, but only one case of bloodshed occurred, and that of no serious 
character. Governor Lucas now sent three commissioners to Wash- 
ington, to confer with the President upon the boundary difficulties. 
Gen. Jackson, on July 3d, promised to advise the Michigan authori- 
ties to observe the Rush and Howard treaty until Congress should 
convene ; but if this promise was fulfilled it accomplished but little 
good, for the persecution of Ohio sympathizers continued unabated. 
August 29th, Governor Mason was notified of his removal, and of the 
appointment of Mr. Schaler, of Pennsylvania, as his successor; but 
Mr. Schaler declined the appointment, and Mason continued in office. 



The reason given for the removal was undue zeal, and want of moder- 
ation and forbearance necessary to the public peace. Governor Lucas 
was at the same time urged by Secretary of State John Forsyth to 
abstain from pressing the claims of Ohio until Congress could meet, 
being assured that his case should not be jeopardized thereby. The 
7th of September now approached, the time fixed by the Ohio Legis- 
lature for holding court in the new county of Lucas. Gen. Brown, 
with a large force of men, — it was reported twelve hundred, — en- 
camped at Mulhollan's, near Toledo, to watch and frustrate any effort 
thus to confirm Ohio jurisdiction. The Ohioans resorted to a shrewd 
expedient for carrying out the law, and, at the same time, avoiding 
a conflict. Assembling the officers of the court at Perrysburg, with 
an escort of twenty men, they rode in the dead of night to Toledo, and 
at one o'clock on the morning of the 7th, in a school-house in the 
suburbs of the village, went through the form of opening and adjourn- 
ing court. The clerk placed the records in his hat, and the party 
hastened back to Perrysburg to breakfast. Gen. Brown being thus 
outwitted, disbanded his army. Shortly thereafter Governor Mason 
was superseded by John S. Horner, a compromise was effected between 
him and Governor Lucas, the line was run in November without mo- 
lestation, and on June 15th following (1836) the question of boundary 
was forever settled by the admission of Michigan into the Union, with 
the boundary line as claimed by Ohio, but with a very large addition 
of territory in the Upper Peninsula, which it has always been claimed 
was granted by Congress as an offset for the strip given up to Ohio." 

After the adoption of the constitution, Michigan pre- 
sented the anomaly of a region of country having both a 
State and a Territorial form of government at the same 
time ; for while Governor Mason was exercising the func- 
tions of chief executive of a State, John S. Horner was 
acting as Territorial Governor.* 

The act of Congress of July 1, 1836, admitting Arkansas 
and Michigan as States of the Union, was passed with the 
proviso, that it should 

"not take effect until the State of Michigan shall be admitted into 
the Union according to the provisions of the act entitled ' An Act to 
establish the northern boundary of the State of Ohio, and to provide 
for the admission of the State of Michigan into the Union on certain 
conditions/ " 

The Legislature of Michigan directed an election for a 
convention to be held at Ann Arbor, on the fourth Monday 
of September, to consider the terms. This convention met 
and rejected them. In this condition of affairs a people's 
convention was called at Ann Arbor, on the 14th of Decem- 
ber. This was popularly known as the " Frost-bitten Con- 
vention," from its illegality, and the fact that it met in cold 
weather ; but it nevertheless proceeded at once to formally 
comply with the conditions of Congress, and forwarded a 
record of its proceedings to Washington. There was much 
debate in Congress over the question, but a bill of admis- 
sion was finally passed, and Michigan became a State on the 
26th of January, 1837. The State was recognized as hav- 
ing existed since November, 1835, when the State officers 
and representatives in Congress had come into office. 

of 1837-38 did not seriously disturb the people of Michi- 
gan, though there was considerable sympathy shown the 
malcontents, and secret lodges, known as " Hunter Lodges," 
were organized by the sympathizers. The military of the 
State were called out to protect the arsenal at Dearborn, be- 
low Detroit, and a few companies and bands crossed the 
border to aid the " Patriots," though they were mostly 
driven back or captured, and some of their leaders were 

* Mr. Horner soon afterwards removed to Wisconsin. 

banished. The need of a regular garrison at Detroit, which 
had been discontinued since 1827, was seen in this emer- 
gency, and the place has not been left without military oc- 
cupation since. 


During the war with Mexico, in 1846-47, Michigan fur- 
nished one volunteer regiment of infantry, commanded by 
Col. Thomas B. W. Stockton, and one independent company 
of cavalry, recruited at Detroit by Capt. A. T. McReynolds. 
There were also three companies recruited in the State for 
the Fifteenth Regular Infantry, U. S. A., to wit : Company 
A, Capt. Samuel E. Beach, recruited at Pontiac ; Company 
C, Capt. Isaac D. Toll, a prominent citizen of St. Joseph 
County ; and Company G-, Capt. Winans, raised in Monroe 



Upon the breaking out of the great Rebellion, in April, 

1861, Michigan responded enthusiastically to the calls of 

the government, and during the continuance of the contest 

furnished an aggregate of ninety thousand seven hundred 

and forty-seven men to the Union armies. These served 

in every arm of the military and naval forces, and forty-six 

commissioned officers and thirteen thousand and fifty-nine 

men laid down their lives in defense of a common country, 

on the battle-field or in the hospitals, and in the prison-pens 

of the Confederacy. 

" On Fame's eternal camping-ground 
Their silent tents are spread, 
And Glory guards with solemn round 
The bivouac of the dead." 

A history of the company from Kalamazoo which served 
during the Mexican war, and of the various organizations 
from the county serving in the war of the Rebellion, will 
be found in another portion of this work. 


The population of Michigan, not including Indians, at 

various periods has been about as follows : 

In 1760 (estimated) 2,500 

In 1796 (estimated) 3,000 

In 1800 3,200 

In 1810 4,762 

In 1820 , 8,896 

In 1830 31,639 

In 1834 87,273 

In 1840 212,267 

In 1850 397,654 

In 1854 (State census) 507,521 

In 1860 (United States census) 749,113 

In 1864 (State census) 803,661 

In 1870 (United States census) 1,184,282 

In 1874 (State census) 1,334,031 

The rate of increase within recent years would indicate 
a population in 1880 of about 1,750,000. 

1612-35.f — Samuel de Champlain. 
1635. — Marc Antoine de Chasteaufort. 
1636. — Charles Huault de Montmagny. 
1648. — Louis D'Aillebout de Coulonges. 
1651. — Jean de Lauson. 
1656. — Charles de Lauson-Charney. 
1657. — Chevalier Louis D'Aillebout de Coulonges. 
1658. — Pierre de Voyer, Viscount D'Argenson. 
1661. — Pierre du Bois, Baron D'Avangour. 

f From 1629 to 1632 the country was in the possession of the Eng- 
lish, and in 1632-33, Emery de Caen was Governor. 



2563. — Chevalier Augustin de Saffrey-Mesey. 

1663. — Alexandre de Prouville, Marquis de Tracey. 

1665. — Chevalier Daniel de Remy de Courcelles. 

1672. — Louis de Buade, Count of Paluan and Frontenac. 

1682. — Antoine Joseph Le Febvre de la Barre. 

1685. — Jacques R6ne de Brisay, Marquis de Denonville. 

1689. — Louis de Buade, Count of Paluan and Frontenac. 

1699. — Chevalier Louis Hector de Callieres. 

1703. — Phillippe de Rigaud, Marquis de Vaudreuil. 

1725. — Charles Le Moyne, Baron de Longueuil. 

1726. — Charles, Marquis de Beauharnois. 

1747. — Rolland Michel Barrin, Count de la Gallissonniere. 

1749. — Jacques Pierre de Taffanel, Marquis de la Jonquiere. 

1752. — Charles Le Moyne, Baron de Longueuil. 

1752. — The Marquis Duquesne de Menneville. 

1755. — Pierre Francois, Marquis de Vaudreuil Cavagnal. 


1760. — Sir Jeffrey Amherst, Commander-in-chief. 

1765. — Sir James Murray, Governor of Quebec. 

1766. — Paulus Emilius Irving, President. 

1766. — Sir Guy Carleton, Lieutenant-Governor and Commander-in- 

1770. — Hector Theophilus Cramahe, Commander-in-chief. 

1774. — Sir Guy Carleton, Governor-General. 

1778. — Sir Frederick Haldimand, Governor-General. 

1784. — Henry Hamilton, Lieutenant-Governor. 

1785. — Henry Hope, Lieutenant-Governor. 

1786. — Lord Dorchester, Governor-General. 

1792. — Col. John Graves Simcoe, Lieutenant-Governor of Upper 


1787. — Gen. Arthur St. Clair, Governor. 

1796. — Winthrop Sargent, Secretary and acting Governor. 

1800-5. — Gen. William Henry Harrison. 


Gen. William Hull, from March 1, 1805, to August 16, 1812. 

Gen. Lewis Cass, from Oct. 13, 1813, to Aug. 1, 1831. 

During Gen. Cass' administration the Secretary, William Woodbridge, 
was acting Governor at various periods. 

James Witherell, Secretary and acting Governor, from Jan. 1, 1830, to 
April 2, 1830. 

Gen. John T. Mason, Secretary and acting Governor, from Sept. 24, 
1830, to Oct. 4, 1830; and from April 4 to May 27, 1831. 

Stevens Thomson Mason, Secretary and acting Governor, from Aug. 
1, 1831, to Sept. 17, 1831. 

Gen. George B. Porter, Governor, Aug. 6, 1831. 

Stevens Thomson Mason, Secretary and acting Governor at various 
periods from Oct. 30, 1831, to Feb. 7, 1834. 

Stevens Thomson Mason, ex-officio Governor as Secretary of the Terri- 
tory, July 6, 1834, to Aug. 29, 1835. 

Charles Shaler, appointed Secretary but declined, Aug. 29, 1835. 

John S. Horner, Secretary and acting Governor, Sept. 8, 1835. 

Stevens T. Mason, Nov. 3, 1835, to April 13, 1838. 
Edward Mundy (Lieutenant-Governor and acting Governor), April 

13 to June 12, 1838; Sept. 19 to Dec. 9, 1838. 
William Woodbridge, Jan. 7, 1840, to Feb. 23, 1841. 
James Wright Gordon (Lieutenant-Governor and acting Governor), 

Feb. 24, 1841, to Jan. 3, 1842. 
John S. Barry, Governor, Jan. 3, 1842, to Jan. 5, 1846. 
Alpheus Felch, Jan. 5, 1846, to March 3, 1847. 
William L. Greenly (Lieutenant-Governor and acting Governor), 

March 4, 1847, to Jan. 3, 1848. 
Epaphroditus Ransom, Governor, Jan. 3, 1848, to Jan. 7, 1850.f 
John S. Barry, Governor, Jan. 7, 1850, to Jan. 1, 1852. 
* Which included Michigan. 

f Governor Ransom was first president of the State Agricultural 
Society, in 1849. 


Robert McClelland, Governor, Jan. 1, 1852. 

Andrew Parsons (Lieutenant-Governor and acting Governor), March 

8, 1853, to Jan. 3, 1855. 
Kinsley S. Bingham, Governor, Jan. 3, 1855. 
Moses Wisner, Governor, Jan. 5, 1859. 
Austin Blair, Governor, Jan. 2, 1861. 
Henry H. Crapo, Governor, Jan. 4, 1865. 
Henry P. Baldwin, Governor, Jan. 6, 1869. 
John J. Bagley, Governor, Jan. 1, 1873. 
Charles M. Croswell, Governor, Jan. 3, 1877, and present Governor, 



Edward Mundy, Washtenaw County, 1835-39. 
James Wright Gordon, Calhoun, 1840-41. 
Thomas J. Drake, Oakland, acting, 1841. 
Origen D. Richardson, Oakland, 1842-45. 
William L. Greenly, Lenawee, 1846-47. 
Charles P. Bush, acting, Livingston, 1847. 
William M. Fen ton, Genesee, 1848-51. 
Calvin Britain, Berrien, 1852. 
Andrew Parsons, Shiawassee, 1853. 
George R. Griswold, acting, Wayne, 1853. 
George A. Coe, Branch, 1855-58. 
Edmund B. Fairfield, Hillsdale, 1859-61. 
James Birney, Bay, 1861. 
Joseph R. Williams, acting, St. Joseph, 1861. 
Henry T. Backus, acting, Wayne, 1862. 
Charles S. May, Kalamazoo, 1863-64. 
Ebenezer O. Grosvenor, Hillsdale, 1865-66. 
Dwight May,J Kalamazoo, 1867-68. 
Morgan Bates, Grand Traverse, 1869-72. 
Henry H. Holt, Muskegon, 1873-76. 
Alonzo Sessions, Ionia, 1877-80. 

Of the Speakers of the House of Eepresentatives since 
the admission into the Union two have been citizens of 
Kalamazoo County, viz. : Edwin H. Lothrop,§ 1842-44, 
and Gilbert E. Read, 1865. 

Kalamazoo County was not represented by any of her 
own citizens in either of the six Councils of the Territory 
which formed the legislative branch of the Territorial gov- 
ernment from 1824 to 1835. 

In the Constitutional Convention of 1835, Kalamazoo, 
which then formed the eleventh district, was represented by 
Lucius Lyon, William H. Welch, and Hezekiah G. Wells. 

In the first Convention of Assent to the proposition of 
Congress for the admission of Michigan into the Union, 
held at Ann x\rbor in September, 1836, this County was 
represented by Joseph A. Smith and William H. Welch. 

In the second Convention of Assent, nicknamed the 
" Frost-bitten Convention/' the county was represented by 
Samuel Percival, Ira Lyon, Isaac W. Willard, and Ambrose 
Searle. This convention was also held at Ann Arbor, on 
the 14th of December, 1836. 

In the Constitutional Convention convened at Lansing 
June 3, 1850, the delegates from Kalamazoo County were 
Hezekiah G. Wells, Samuel Clark, and Volney Hascall. 

The Constitutional Convention which met at Lansing for 
the purpose of framing a new constitution, in May, 1867, 
included as delegates from "the county of Kalamazoo Marsh 
Giddings, Delamore Duncan, and Milton Bradley. The 
constitution was rejected by a vote of one hundred and ten 
thousand five hundred and eighty-two against seventy-one 
thousand seven hundred and thirty-three. * 

% Died Jan. 28, 1880. 

§ Speaker pro tern, in 1842-43. 



Another convention for amending the constitution met 
at Lansing on the 27th of August, 1873, and continued in 
session until October 16th following. The proposed consti- 
tution was rejected by a vote of one hundred and twenty- 
four thousand and thirty- four to thirty-nine thousand two 
hundred and eighty-five, notwithstanding that in most of 
its provisions it was an improvement upon the present con- 
stitution. The convention consisted of two commissioners 
from each Congressional district, appointed by the Governor, 
under an act of the Legislature of April 24, 1873. 

The member from Kalamazoo County was Hon. H. G. 


Horace H. Comstock, 1835-38; David E. Deming, 1841-42; Lewis F. 
Starkey, 1843-44; Nathaniel A. Baleh, 1847-48; David S. Wal- 
bridge, 1849-50; Frederick W. Curtenius, 1853-54; E. Lakin 
Brown, 1855-56; Lafayette W. Lovell, 1857-58; Stephen F. 
Brown, 1861-62; Elijah 0. Humphrey, 1863-64; Stephen F. 
Brown, 1865-66; Frederick W. Curtenius, 1867-68; Delos Phil- 
lips, 1869-70 ; James M. Neasmith, 1871-74 ; Thomas S. Cobb, 
1875-76; Gilbert E. Read, 1877-78; E. Lakin Brown, 1879-80. 

Cyren Burdick, Edwin H. Lothrop, 1835-36 ; Caleb Eldred, Edwin H. 
Lothrop, 1837; Anthony Cooley, Stephen Vickery, 1838; David 
E. Brown, Andrew G. Hammond, 1839; David E. Brown, Joseph 
Miller, 1840; E. Lakin Brown, Joseph Miller, 1841; Edwin H. 
Lothrop,* Charles E. Stuart, 1842 ; Edwin H. Lothrop, Stephen 
Vickery, 1843-44; Fletcher Ransom, Stephen Vickery, 1845-46; 
Evert B. Dyckman, Horace Mower, 1847; Edwin H. Lothrop, 
Stephen Vickery, 1848; Barney Earl, Marsh Giddings, 1849; 
Delamore Duncan, Hiram Moore, 1850; Barney Earl, Salmon C. 
Hall, 1851-52; George W. Lovell, Epaphroditus Ransom, 1853- 
54; George W. Lovell, Henry Montague, 1855-56; Stephen F. 
Brown, Allen Potter, 1857-58 ; Foster Pratt, Stephen F. Brown, 
1859-60; Ezra C. Adams, Gilbert E. Read, 1861-62; James B. 
Cobb, Orville H. Fellows, Gilbert E. Read, 1863-64; James B. 
Cobb, Orville H. Fellows, Gilbert E. Read,f 1865-66 ; Orville H. 
Fellows, Enos T. Lovell, Anthony L. Mason, 1867-68; Alexander 
Cameron, Enos T. Lovell, John Walker, 1869-70; Alexander 
Cameron, Eli R. Miller, John Walker, 1871-72; Thomas S. Cobb, 
Eli R. Miller, John Walker, 1873-74 ; Simpson Howland, God- 
frey E. Knight, Abraham T. Metcalf, 1875-76; Simpson How- 
land, Jonathan Parsons, 1877-78 ; John F. Oliver, Jonathan 
Parsons, 1879-80. 

Lucius Lyon, 1833-35. 

Lucius Lyon, 1836-40 ; Charles E. Stuart, 1853-59. 

Lucius Lyon, 1843-45 ; Charles E. Stuart, 1847-49 ; William Sprague, 
1849-50; Charles E. Stuart, 1851-53; Samuel Clark, 1853-55; 
David S. Walbridge, 1855-59; Julius C. Burrows, 1873-75; 
Julius C. Burrows, 1879. 

= James M. Neasmith, 1879; Henry S. Sleeper, deputy, 1879. 

Dwight May, 1869-734 

Frederick W. Curtenius, 1855-61. 

* Speaker pro tern. Speaker in 1844. 
t Died Jan. 28, 1880. 

f Speaker. 


Orrin N. Giddings, 1865-67. 

Stephen S. Cobb, 1873-77. 

Epaphroditus Ransom, 1843-48. 


Epaphroditus Ransom, 1848. 

Ninth District — John L. Hawes, Judge. 

Hezekiah G. Wells, 1840 ; Hezekiah G. Wells, 1860 ; Marsh Giddings, 
1864; Delos Phillips, 1876. 

President of the Board of Agriculture, Hon. Hezekiah G. Wells, 1879; 
Gen. E. 0. Humphrey, Andrew Y. Moore, 1879. 

Secretary of the Board of Trustees, Hon. James M. Neasmith, 1879. 

Homer O. Hitchcock, M.D., 1879. 

Committee of Historians, Hon. Hezekiah G. Wells, 1879. 

The civil list, and all matters pertaining to the history of 
the county proper, will be found in the succeeding chapters. 
The military chapters contain histories of the various or- 
ganizations which have gone out in any of the wars of the 
past, together with complete rosters of soldiers of the war 
of the Rebellion, and as full and accurate ones of other 
organizations as could be procured. 



The county of Kalamazoo§ lies in the southwestern part 
of the Lower Peninsula. It is centrally distant from Lan- 
sing, southwest by west, sixty miles ; from Detroit, nearly 
due west, one hundred and thirty miles ; from the south 
line of the State, thirty-three miles ; and from Lake Michi- 
gan, due east, forty-four miles. || 

The county lies approximately between 42° 7' and 42° 
27' north latitude, and 8° 20' and 8° 48' longitude west 
from Washington. The court-house in Kalamazoo is in 
north latitude 42° 17' 25", and west longitude 85° 35' 5" 
from Green wich. 1 !" 

It is bounded on the north by the counties of Allegan 
and Barry, which are separated from it by the base line of 
the State surveys ; on the south by St. Joseph County ; on 
the east by Calhoun County; and on the west by Van 
Buren County. The county is composed of the Congres- 

g From the Pottawattomie word Ke-Kenamazoo, signifying the 
boiling-pot, or where the water boils like a pot. 

|| Air-line measurements on a sectional map of the State, 
% United States Lake Survey. 



sional townships Nos. 1, 2, 3, and 4 south of the base line, 
and of ranges Nos. 9, 10, 11, and 12 west from the princi- 
pal meridian, making it four townships square, or twenty- 
four miles on each side of the quadrangle. Theoretically, 
it contains five hundred and seventy-six square miles, or 
three hundred and sixty-eight thousand six hundred and 
forty square acres ; but the convergence of range lines and 
imperfect surveying make the actual area somewhat differ- 
ent from these amounts, — a few hundred acres less. 


Five-eighths of the county are drained by the Kalamazoo 
River, and about three-eighths by the St. Joseph River. 
The townships of Ross, Richland, Cooper, Alamo, Kala- 
mazoo, Comstock, most of Charleston and Portage, and por- 
tions of Oshtemo, Texas, and Pavilion are within the 
water-shed of the Kalamazoo ; while Climax, Wakeshma, 
Brady, Schoolcraft, and Prairie Ronde, small portions of 
Charleston, Portage, and Texas, and most of Pavilion are 
drained by branches of the St. Joseph River. 

The water surface of the lakes and ponds of the county 
is about 10,000 acres, divided among the several towns, ap- 
proximately, as follows : Ross, 1600 acres ; Richland, 850 ; 
Cooper, 40 ; Alamo, 350 ; Oshtemo, 160 ; Kalamazoo, 200 ; 
Comstock, 200 ; Charleston, 550 ; Climax, 50 ; Pavilion, 
1000 ; Portage, 1800 ;' Texas, 1200 ; Prairie Ronde, 400 ; 
Schoolcraft, 1100 ; Brady, 800 ; Wakeshma has no lakes, 
at least they are not shown on the maps. 

The larger of these lakes show about the following areas : 
Gull, 2000 acres ; Austin, 1300 ; Indian, 700 ; Long, 610 ; 
Rawson,400 ; Gourd-Neck, 370 ; Eagle, 350 ; West, 300 ; 
Paw Paw, 170; Crooked, 150; and Howard, 150.* 

The Kalamazoo Riverj" rises in Hillsdale and Jackson 

* These estimates are made from careful computations, based upon 
the original and latest surveys, and the county maps. Bodies of water 
are invariably overestimated, unless measurements are from reliable 
surveys. Gull Lake is about four and a half miles in extreme length. 

f Mr. George Torrey, in his history of Kalamazoo, published in 
the directory of the village for 1867, gives the following regarding the 
origin of the name Kalamazoo : 

"On Toland's Prairie there had once been a village, and it was 
here that the name of the river ' Kalamazoo,' originated. A friend, 
Mr. A. J. Sheldon, to whom the writer is indebted for many incidents 
and historical notes regarding the Indians, writes me : ' There is no 
reason to doubt the truth of this story, as I took great pains among 
the Indians to ascertain the true meaning of the word. Schoolcraft 
and other authorities say its etymology is Kih-Kalamazoo, — * It 
boils like a pot/ or the ' boiling-pot/ from the numerous small eddies 
on its surface. This is the true Indian tradition : ' Many moons ago, 
Toland Prairie was the site of a small Indian village. One pleasant 
day a wager was made that an Indian could not run to a certain point 
on the river and return ere the water, then boiling in a little pot on 
the fire, should have boiled out. The race was made, and thus the 
beautiful river received its name of Kalamazoo, or i where the water 
boils in the pot,' and which name has been applied to the whole stream, 
though originally designating only a small portion of its banks. The 
sweet sylvan tide of the Kalamazoo has oft reflected upon its fair 
bosom the ' cone-like cabins' of the original possessors of the soil, and 
its murmurs made music for their sports upon the green sward. Their 
Might canoes' have skimmed its glassy surface, and re-echoed back 
the sound of mortal combat; yet, though the one who named it Kala- 
mazoo is forgotten, the stream will ever bear its title, — 

" 'It matters not his rank or name, or whence his baptism came, 
While thy swift waters lave their banks, shall live thy Indian 
name.' " 


Counties, and flows in a general direction, northwest by 
west, to its embouchure into Lake Michigan. It drains about 
two thousand two hundred square miles, and flows with a 
gentle current, except in a few places where there are 
" rifts" or slight rapids. Its whole course is through the 
alluvium, which is characteristic of many of the Michigan 
streams. Its total fall is probably in the vicinity of three 
hundred feet, which, estimating its winding course at one 
hundred and fifty miles, would give an average fall of two 
feet per mile. Its volume is exceedingly uniform, and it 
neither gets very low in times of drouth, nor devastates its 
banks in times of flood. Its rise and fall at Kalamazoo 
may be measured within the compass of six feet. This 
uniformity is produced by the many perennial springs 
which feed its flow ; by its passage among numerous lakes 
and marshes, which serve as equalizing reservoirs ; and by 
the comparatively level country through which it passes. -^ 

The lower fifty miles of its channel, from Lake Michi- 
gan to Kalamazoo, were in the early days, and down to the 
advent of railways, considerably used for purposes of navi- 
gation ; the water craft employed for merchandise and pas- 
sengers being mostly flat-boats, barges, and canoes.J This 
stream in its passage through the county intersects the 
towns of Ross, Charleston, Comstock, Kalamazoo, and 
Cooper. From Ross to Kalamazoo its course is west south- 
west, and from thence nearly north. 

The principal affluents of the Kalamazoo within the 
county are Augusta Creek, in Ross township ; the outlet 
of Gull Lake, in Ross and Charleston ; Portage Creek, in 
Portage and Kalamazoo ; and Spring Brook, in Richland 
and Cooper. Several of these furnish considerable water- 
power, notably at Augusta, Galesburg, and Kalamazoo. 
A considerable stream rises in the southeastern part of 
Alamo, and flows into the Paw Paw River in Van Buren 
County. The Big and Little Portage and Bear Creeks 
drain the southeast portions of the county, and two consid- 
erable streams flow south from Schoolcraft and Prairie 
Ronde. These streams furnish more or less motive-power 
at Vicksburg and other points. Springs are very numer- 
ous, and some of them of a mineral character ; one on sec- 
tion 27, in the town of Cooper, has made an immense 
deposit of calcareous tufa. 


The surface of the county, while exhibiting the general 
characteristics of a level region, at the same time shows 
considerable variety, the leading features of which may be 
classed under the headings of timbered lands, oak-openings, 
prairies, river bluffs, and marshes. 

The timbered lands originally covered the greater portion 
of the county, probably three- fourths. The timber con- 
sisted of a great variety of deciduous trees : oak, several 
varieties ; hickory, two varieties ; elm, several varieties ; 
beech, maple, varieties of each ; basswood, black-walnut, 
butternut, or white- walnut, black-cherry, ash, tulip, syca- 
more, sour gum,§ birch, larch, etc., with some cedar and 
very little pine. 

J Steam navigation has been experimented upon at times, but not 
with satisfactory results. 

\ This tree is commonly known under the name " pepperidge." 



The lands known as " oak-openings" were principally 
level tracts sparsely timbered with burr-oak, though, in 
some cases, lands covered with a scattering growth of other 
varieties may have been so designated. The site of the vil- 
lage plat of Kalamazoo was originally a fine example of the 
Michigan openings, and the people have exhibited more 
than ordinary taste and judgment in preserving the primi- 
tive growth in streets and inclosures. The burr-oak always 
grows in a rich soil, generally a sandy loam. 

The prairies of Michigan are generally small, as compared 
with those of Illinois and the country west of the Missis- 
sippi, and comparatively few in number. Those found 
within the limits of Kalamazoo County are Prairie Ronde, 
Gourd-Neck, Gull, Climax, Grand, Toland's, Genesee, and 


Of these Prairie Ronde is the most considerable, and 
claimed to be the most extensive in the State. Its area 
has been vastly overestimated, however, by almost every 
writer, from James Fenimore Cooper, in the " Oak-Open- 
ings," to the present time. The highest estimates have 
been from twenty-five thousand to thirty thousand acres. 
A careful computation upon a sectional map, giving nearly 
its exact outlines, shows an approximate to thirteen thou- 
sand acres. This estimate is confirmed by Mr. Hodgman, 
county surveyor, who is familiar with the county. Gull 
Prairie comes next with about two thousand eight hundred 
acres; Gourd-Neck, with two thousand five hundred; Cli- 
max, with eight hundred; Grand, with eight hundred; 
Galesburg, or Toland's, with five hundred ; Genesee, with 
four hundred ; and Dry Prairie, with three hundred, mak- 
ing an aggregate of twenty-one thousand one hundred acres, 
or something less than the area of a Congressional township. 
In tabular form, — 


Prairie Ronde 13,000 

Gull Prairie 2,800 

Gourd-Neck Prairie 2,500 

Climax Prairie 800 

Grand Prairie 800 

Galesburg, or Toland's Prairie 500 

Genesee Prairie *00 

Dry Prairie 300 

Total 21,100* 

These figures will no doubt surprise many citizens of the 
county, but they have been made after careful study, and 
largely upon information obtained from Mr. Hodgman ; and 
we have little doubt that an accurate survey would show 
them approximately correct. Prairie Ronde extends a short 
distance into St. Joseph County, but we have estimated only 
the portion lying in Kalamazoo County. 

The origin of these " natural meadows" has been attrib- 
uted to many causes. The immense prairies farther west 
have been considered as the beds of ancient seas or fresh- 
water lakes, long since (probably in the carboniferous 
period) permanently elevated above the receding waters. 
Periodical burnings are supposed to have prevented the 
growth of forest-trees, and the constant accumulations of 

* The " Indian Fields," a tract of land of about one hundred acres, 
cultivated by the Indians, located in Portage township, will be found 
described in the history of that town. It is not strictly prairie. 

vegetable remains and ashes are the probable sources from 
whence the rich black surface mould is derived. 

Some writers believe that the prairies of Michigan have 
been produced by the combined action of whirlwinds and 
fire. The study of these phenomena of nature is an ex- 
ceedingly interesting one, and worthy the deepest research. 


These form the more or less precipitous escarpments of 
the margins of the river valleys, and vary in height only in 
a slight degree in Kalamazoo County, increasing somewhat 
as they trend towards the lake. The highest elevation in 
the county is said to be in the township of Oshtemo, which 
is stated at over two hundred feet above the river, and 
about three hundred and fifty feet above Lake Michigan. 
The highest elevation of Prairie Ronde is given at two hun- 
dred and seventy-eight feet above the lake, and eight hun- 
dred and fifty-six feet above the sea. The village of Kal- 
amazoo is stated at one hundred and fifty-four feet above 
Lake Michigan, and seven hundred and thirty feet above 
the sea.f The general level of the country is from eighty 
to one hundred and fifty feet above the bed of the Kala- 
mazoo River. 

The valleys of the streams, eroded from a former general 
level of the peninsula, date from the Champlain era, which 
followed the subsidence of the vast continental glacier, whose 
irresistible onward movement towards the south and south- 
west strewed the whole region between Lakes Michigan and 
Huron with the shattered and worn debris of the crystal- 
line and sedimentary rocks of the upper peninsula and 

With the melting of the glacial masses qame powerful 
currents of fresh water, which, in their rapid movement 
towards the level of the lakes, excavated and gave character 
to the various river-beds of the peninsula. As the frozen 
accumulations slowly disappeared under the rising tempera- 
ture the streams diminished, and at different stages and 
levels new beds were formed, and from each in turn was 
excavated the^new and regularly-narrowing channel, leav- 
ing the curious terraces which invariably mark the changes 
in the volume and level of the streams. The flowing 
water of the post-glacial days was enormous in quantity, as 
compared with that of the present day, and the Kalamazoo 
undoubtedly at one period filled the valley indicated by the 
upper terrace from bluff to bluff in a broad, shallow stream. 

These cover quite an extensive area, and include large 
tracts around the margins of the lakes, and others which 
are no doubt the beds of former lakes, drained by the cut- 
tings of the water-courses within a comparatively recent 
geological period. The area of the marsh-land in the 
county is difficult of determination, and is constantly being 
reduced by the clearing away of timber, and by drainage 
and cultivation. The soil is exceedingly rich, being com- 
posed of black muck, in places approaching the consistency 

f The railroad survey of the Michigan Southern road makes Kala- 
mazoo two hundred and ten feet above the lake, and seven hundred 
and seventy-five feet above the sea. If this statement is true, it ma- 
terially changes all the elevations given by some other authorities. 






of peat, and generally underlaid with a heavy, compact 
marl. The marsh-lands lying south of Kalamazoo village, 
under the hand of intelligent industry, are fast becoming 
prolific gardens, and a few acres, well cultivated, return an 
astonishing profit on the cost of the land and the labor of 
reclaiming it. Immense crops of celery are grown on these 

An approximate estimate of the present area of marsh- 
lands within the county may be placed at fifteen thousand 
acres ; but a half-century hence will see them nearly all 
under cultivation and the most valuable of any. 


These may be generally classified as sandy and gravelly 
loam, clayey uplands, and alluvial bottom-lands. Small 
areas are found too sandy or gravelly for farming purposes, 
but by far the greater portion of the county is susceptible 
of profitable cultivation, and the cultivatable portion is in- 
creasing each year in economic value and area. Clays suit- 
able for the manufacture of brick are abundant, and potter's 
clay is also found in certain localities. Nearly every variety 
of grain and grass found in the northern temperate zone 
is grown in great profusion, and no State in the Union pro- 
duces the great staple, wheat, in greater perfection than 
Michigan. Indian corn and other grains also do well. The 
soil is finely adapted to the growth of fruit and vegetables, 
— every kind of garden product yielding abundantly, — and 
apples, pears, peaches, grapes, and smaller fruits rivaling 
both in quantity and quality the finest productions of New 
Jersey and Delaware. 

Under a general system of drainage and a scientific cul- 
tivation of her soils, Michigan must, in the near future, 
become a beautiful and a highly- prosperous agricultural 


The lapse of time since the earth's crust first began to 
cool and harden, and the subsequent time required for the 
formation of the crystalline and sedimentary rocks of the 
globe, cannot be estimated, but science has divided it into 
ages, periods, and epochs, for the sake of simplifying and 
systematizing the study of geology.* The various sub- 
divisions, as arranged and classified by Dana, are as follows : 
I. — Archaean Time, including two subdivisions, the 

dividing line (not well established) being the dawn 

of life. 

1. Azoic Age (without life). 

2. Eozoic Age (earliest life). 

II. — Paleozoic Time (old life), divided into three 

1. The Age of Invertebrates, or Silurian. 

2. The Age of Fishes, or Devonian. 

3: The Age of Coal-Plants, or Carboniferous. 
III. — Mesozoic Time (middle life), including only one 
1. The Age of Reptiles. 

* This word signifies a discourse upon the structure and mineral con- 
stitution of the earth. Most of the statements and deductions found 
in the following paragraphs have been drawn from information ob- 
tained in the report of Professor C. Rominger, in charge of the State 
Geological Survey. 

IV. — Cenozoic Time (later or recent life) , divided into 
two periods. 

1. The Tertiary, or Age of Mammals. 

2. The Quaternary, or Age of Man. 

As shown on the diagram (page 60), Mesozoic time, or 
the age of reptiles, and the Tertiary, or age of mammals, 
are not represented by rock formations in Michigan. This 
last epoch includes the Cretaceous, Jurassic, and Triassic 
periods of Europe, which are not conspicuously represented 
on the American continent. 

It is almost certain that the earliest vegetable and ani- 
mal forms of life existed in the rock structure of Michigan, 
as they are found in the Archaean of Canada and Massa- 
chusetts, and in Bavaria and Norway in Europe. Sea-weeds 
and lichens probably existed in the Lauren tian age, and a 
supposed Rhizopod — a kind of coral-making species — has 
been found in Canada. It is named in the books Eozoon 

The forms of life belonging to Paleozoic and Cenozoic 
time are abundant, more especially in the rocks and drift 
of the lower peninsula. In Silurian days the lower penin- 
sula, and a considerable portion of the upper, constituted 
an immense ocean bay, bounded on the north, east, and 
west by the Archaean formations of Canada and Wisconsin ; 
and during the deposition of the Devonian strata it was 
still an ocean bay, almost land-locked by the Silurian for- 
mations, which had become dry land in Canada, Wisconsin, 
Ohio, Indiana,, and Illinois. 

In the Carboniferous age, and perhaps later, it seems to 
have been an oscillating basin, possibly covered by a great 
inland salt-water sea or lake. During the deposition of the 
salt formation, it was probably still a great bay of the main 
ocean, but so nearly surrounded by land that its waters 
were not affected to any great extent by ocean currents. 

According to the State geologist, the sedimentary rocks 
underlying Michigan are mostly in nearly horizontal posi- 
tions, with probably a slight dip towards the centres of the 
lower peninsula and Lake Superior. Proceeding from the 
lowest or primitive formation towards the surface, the en- 
tire series are named as follows : Laurentian, Huronian, 
Acadian, Potsdam Sandstone, Calciferous Sand-rock, Tren- 
ton Limestone, Hudson River Shales, Niagara Limestone, 
Onondaga Salt Group, Helderberg Limestone, Hamilton 
Shales, Black Shales, Waverly Group (sandstone and 
shales), Carboniferous, divided into upper and lower meas- 
ures, and, above all, the Quaternary, composed of bowl- 
ders, coarse sand, clays, etc. This last includes the Glacial, 
Champlain, and Terrace periods. 

A brief enumeration of the formations of the upper 
peninsula is all we can give in this connection. 

The Laurentianf out-crops in Baraga, Marquette, and 
Ontonagon Counties, in which it covers an aggregate area 
of two thousand square miles. No minerals other than the 
ordinary constituents of the, earlier crystalline rocks are 
found in this formation. Its constituent elements are 
quartz, mica, feldspar, hornblende, pyroxene, etc. The 
varieties of rock, according as these ingredients are com- 
bined, are granite, syenite, gneiss, hypersthene, schists, etc. 

f So named from its fine development near the St. Lawrence River. 




The following diagram, constructed especially for this work, shows all the important formations of the 
State, according to the most recent report of Professor C. Rominger, State geologist. The Tnassic, Ju- 
rassic, and Tertiary formations do not exist in Michigan. 



Age of Man. 




Su b-carbonife rous. 

Waverly Group. 

Traverse Bay. 
Petosky Group. 

Mackinac and 
Bois Blanc. 


S ft ,M 

.3 < © 

Straits of Macki- 

St. Ignace. 

North shores of 
Lakes Huron 
and Michigan. 

St. Joseph Island, 
Green Bay. 

Green Bay 

St. Joseph Island. 

South shore Lake 


Champlain and Glacial Periods. 

Fine Sands and Clays. 
Conglomerate, Coarse Gravel. 

Upper Coal-Measures. 

Lower Coal-Measures. 

Millstone Grit. 
Carboniferous Limestone. 
Thick-bedded Sandstones. 
Sandstones and Shales. 

Black Shale. 


Upper Helderberg.* 

Lower Helderberg* 

Onondaga Salt Group. 

Niagara. ^ 

Clinton, f Niagara Limestone. 

Medina. J 

Hudson Biver Shales. 

i ' SJLM l m n i J I T| i i i m » » * ii 

, i ri i « 1 1 < m < 1 1 1 1 i ? 1 1 1 r r 1 1 ir 


mi in ntlrrn? 

! ! II ' i m n n n i r 



Keweenaw and Isle Royale. 

Marquette County. 

Marquette and 


r 1 1 1 r i m ii 
i 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 r 

mil rF" 

III I ' I • * » 


V If * VVYYYYYVisi/ 
v V \svif *• l/tr f vms- 



:^2W>- r > 

Trenton Limestone. 
Calciferous Sand-Bock. 

Potsdam Sandstone. 


Copper-bearing. (Trap.) 



* There may be a layer of the Oriskany sand-rock intercalated between these formations, as in New York, and both the sandstone and 
lower beds of the Helderberg may be wanting. 



The Huronian, classified by the State geologist as next 
in order, is by some scientists classed as Upper Laurentian. 
It also belongs to the crystalline formations, but of a sup- * 
posed later date than the Laurentian, or Old Laurentian, 
first named. It is the surface rock over a large area in the 
counties of Marquette, Baraga, Houghton, and Menominee, 
equivalent to about two thousand square miles. It is com- 
posed of nearly the same materials as the lower formation, • 
and the two often blend insensibly into each other. In 
addition to the constituents found in the earlier rocks, this 
formation abounds in iron ore, jasper, chlorite, clay, slate, 
mica, and hornblende schists, several varieties of limestone, 
including magnesian limestone and marble, quartzite, con- 
glomerate, etc. 

Probably the richest iron region in the world is found in 
this formation about Marquette and Lake Michigamme. 
On the Michigamme River, a few miles south of the little 
lake of the same name, is a wonderfully rich bed of ore, 
in a belt of the Huronian formation about two miles in 
width. It is bounded closely on both sides by the primitive 

Following this, under the same classification, comes the 
"copper-bearing" series, known as "greenstone," " trap," 
diorite, etc. It is of volcanic origin, and its constituent 
elements are hornblende, feldspar, etc. It is a very fine- 
grained, granular, or crypto-crystalline rock, and exceedingly 
hard and tough. It sometimes assumes the forms of basal- 
tic columns, at other times it is arranged in steps, and hence 
the word " trap," from the Swedish word " trappa," a step. 
It also assumes the form of porphyry. The copper de- 
posits are closely affiliated with this formation. In the Lake 
Superior region, and in the Connecticut Valley, it has been 
poured out in the form of molten rock through immense 
fissures in the underlying strata and the red sand-rock. It 
always cools in a position perpendicular to the cooling sur- 
face. Bordering Lake Superior are the richest copper de- 
posits in the world.* 

This formation out-crops throughout the whole extent of 
Keweenaw Point or peninsula, and extends west into Wis- 
consin. It also appears in Isle Royale, Michipicoten Island, 
in the eastern part of the lake, and on the north shore. 
The proximate area occupied in Michigan is thirteen hun- 
dred square miles. 

The next formation in the series proper is the Potsdam 
sandstone, which in the State survey is divided into two 
subdivisions, St. Mary's and Pre-Silurian. It received its 
name from its fine development about the town of Potsdam, 
St. Lawrence Co., N. Y. 

Of this formation are the celebrated " Pictured Rocks" 
of the southeastern coast of Lake Superior. Its out-crop 
follows nearly the entire coast from the Sault St. Marie to 
within less than twenty miles of Keweenaw Point. The 
exceptions are a few miles about Marquette, and near Hu- 

* This formation, placed between the Laurentian and the sandstone 
by Professor Rominger, is referred to a more recent period by some. 
Professor Pumpelly, in charge of the survey of the copper region, 
considers it as having been thrown up through the crystalline rocks 
before the deposition of the lowest of the Silurian formations. The 
dip towards the northwest is fifty degrees or more. Silver is also 
found in connection with the trappean rocks. 

ron Bay. A lateral branch trends to the south from the 
neighborhood of Marquette to the Menominee River, on 
the Wisconsin line. Everywhere its margin, overlapping 
the Laurentian, follows the shore of the ancient Silurian 
sea, in whose waters its beds were slowly deposited from 
erosions of the earlier rocks. Its maximum thickness is 
supposed to be several thousand feet. The beds consist of 
conglomerates, thick layers of fine-grained stone, and mixed 
varieties, showing different textures and colors. Their area 
in Michigan is probably about three thousand five hundred 
square miles. The formation affords fossils sparingly. The 
dip of this rock is slightly towards the centre of Lake Su- 
perior. It affords excellent building stone, and is quarried 
and shipped in large quantities to the Western cities.f 

Lying conformably upon the last named is the calcif- 
erous sand-rock, or siliceous limestone, which covers an 
extensive region in Northern New York. In the upper 
peninsula of Michigan it out-crops in a long, narrow belt, 
parallel with the Potsdam, and extending from the river 
St. Mary's, in an elliptical curve, around to the Menominee 
River, on the Wisconsin line. Its average width is not 
more than five miles, and the surface area occupied is 
equivalent to about one thousand square miles. The thick- 
ness of this formation is something less than one hundred 
feet. It is generally a coarse-grained sandstone, alternated 
with calcareous cement, and dolomitic and oolitic limestone 
beds. Its fossils are characteristic but not numerous. 

Succeeding this, and overlapping it upon the south, is 
the Trenton limestone, so extensively distributed in the 
lime-impregnated seas of the Silurian age. Its thickness is 
much less than in Canada and the St. Lawrence Valley, but 
is still considerable, reaching probably about one hundred 

This formation stretches in a broad belt, parallel with the 
other Silurian rocks, from St. Mary's River to the Menom- 
inee, in its widest part, about seventy-five miles across, and 
covers probably an area of three thousand square miles, 
though the demarkation line between it and the Hudson 
River shales is not well defined, being mostly buried under 
drift. It occurs in isolated patches in a few localities out- 
side these limits. In the State survey, the following com- 
prehensive general description is given of this formation : 

"The lowest beds of this limestone formation are prevalently are- 
na ceo-calcareous shales, of a dusky-green or bluish color, and contain- 
ing numerous fossils. 

"The middle strata are thin-bedded, nodular limestones, with shaly 
intercalations, also of darkish color, like the strata below, and equally 
abounding in fossils. 

"The upper strata are light-colored, brittle limestones, splitting in 
uneven, wedge-shaped slabs by exposure or under the stroke of the 
hammer. They are likewise well stocked with fossils." 

It is not sufficiently compact for fine building material, 
but answers well for rough, uncut work. 

f Professor Rominger divides it into two formations, the upper of 
which consists of light-colored, almost white, friable sandstone; while 
the lower section is composed of very red-colored, thick- bedded, and 
compact strata, from which is quarried an excellent building ma- 

J The Trenton series are one thousand feet thick in New York, 
eight hundred feet in Canada, and are estimated by Lesley in Penn- 
sylvania at two thousand feet. 



This formation, which is the same as the Cincinnati 
group of Ohio, out-crops in a narrow band, next to and 
overlying the Trenton limestone, and extending from St. 
Mary's River to the point of the peninsula between Great 
and Little Bay de Noquette. It covers perhaps seven or 
eight hundred square miles of surface, though the line be- 
tween it and the Trenton series is somewhat obscure. The 
formation in Michigan is made up of thin limestone beds, 
interstratified with arenaceous shales, and abounds in fos- 
sils. Its thickness is sixty feet or more, and it has a slight 
declination towards the southeast. 


This group of rocks covers an extensive area lying along 
the northern coasts of Lakes Huron and Michigan. The 
rocks extend from the point of the peninsula between Big 
Bay de Noquette and Lake Michigan to Drummond's 
Island, in Lake Huron, and the belt has an average width 
of about twenty miles. The area occupied by the forma- 
tion is something more than two thousand square miles. 

This formation is divided by the New York geologists 
into three parts : first, at the bottom, shales, sandstones, and 
conglomerates of the Medina group ; second, next above, 
limestones and shales of the Clinton group; and above these, 
the solid dolomitic limestones of the Niagara group. These 
subdivisions are not well represented in the Michigan for- 
mations, and the State geologist hardly deems it necessary 
to undertake to subdivide them. The thickness in Michi- 
gan is stated by Dana at about one hundred feet. It 
abounds in fossils. Portions of the rock are used for flux 
in iron furnaces, and for building stone. This rock, in 
the neighborhood of Chicago, is heavily charged with 



The rocks of this period crop out over a small area in 
the little peninsula around St. Ignace, covering an area of 
forty or fifty square miles*. They also appear on Mackinac 
Island, underlying the Helderberg limestone, and on the 
islands in St. Martin's Bay. This formation abounds in 
gypsum and variegated marls. It must not be confounded 
with the rocks of the Michigan salt formation, for it lies 
(geologically) several hundred feet below the horizon of 
the latter. 

Next in order above the Onondaga comes this formation, 
which, in New York, is divided into upper and lower beds, 
between which are found the Oriskany sandstone and the 
Schoharie and Shawangunk grit. It is not certainly ascer- 
tained that the lower beds, or the intervening sandstone 
and conglomerates, are present in Michigan. 

This rock occurs both in the upper and lower peninsulas, 
and appears to be the first of the concentric geological for- 
mations which so curiously surround and underlie the 
lower peninsula, and which have been likened by Prof. 
Winchell to a nest of wooden dishes, one within another. 
The area covered by the Helderberg about the Straits of 
Mackinac, including Bois Blanc Island, is altogether about 
three hundred square miles ; and the total in the State, in- 
cluding the last named, and the area in Wayne and Monroe 

Counties, is about fifteen hundred square miles. Its 
total thickness is about two hundred and fifty feet. The 
beautiful and picturesque scenery of Mackinac Island is 
owing to the eroded, brecciated rocks of this period. From 
this formation have been derived the beautiful bowlder 
specimens of brecciated rock so common in the drift of 
Kalamazoo County, and frequently seen on the lawns and in 
the ornamental grounds of the Kalamazoo people. This 
rock abounds in chert and hornstone nodules, and is not 
very valuable for quick-lime ; but some of its thicker beds 
are utilized for caps, sills, and door-steps. It produces 
water-lime to a considerable extent. This rock is remark- 
able for the great number of troughs and " sink-holes" 
which abound in its surface in the southeastern part of the 
State, and in Lucas Co., Ohio. It is fossiliferous to a con- 
siderable extent, abounding especially in corals. In a deep 
boring at the State-prison, in Michigan City, Ind., the 
drift was found to be one hundred and seventy feet deep 
(exclusive of the sand-hills). Below this was seventy-six feet 
of black shale, and next below was the Helderberg lime- 
stone. Prof. Winchell represents this as the surface-rock 
over quite a large area in the southwestern part of the 
State, but borings do not confirm the statement. 

This group extends in a broad band across the northern 
part of the lower peninsula, curving elliptically from Thun- 
der Bay, of Lake Huron, to Sleeping Bear Point, on Lake 
Michigan. It varies in width from one to thirty miles, 
and covers an area of about two thousand square miles. It 
also forms the surface-rock of the Manitou Islands, in Lake 
Michigan, and the smaller islands about Thunder Bay. Its 
total thickness is stated in the survey at five hundred feet* 
It is composed, in Michigan, largely of limestone, with a 
subordinate development of shale. Borings in this rock 
at Alpena and Thunder Bay strike salt brine, and at the 
latter point a bed of rock salt was encountered at a depth 
of ten hundred and twenty-five feet. It is probable that 
this is in the Onondaga group, and that the drill penetrated 
both the Hamilton and Helderberg formations. In places 
there are eighty feet of black shales developed. Fossils 

are abundant. 


Overlapping the Hamilton, in a wide, parallel belt, next 
comes the black shale, which also extends across the penin- 
sula, in an elliptical, curving direction, from Lake Huron to 
Lake Michigan, with an average width of twenty-five miles. 
The same formation is also concentric, and a long, narrow 
belt out-crops in the southeastern part of the State from 
Port Huron to the southwest corner of Hillsdale County.f 
The width of this latter belt varies from five to twenty 
miles, and the total area occupied by the formation in the 
State approximates four thousand square miles. 

These shales are generally considered the equivalent of 
the Genesee shales of New York, and, like them, rest on 
the Hamilton beds, at least in the northern portion of the 

* Borings at Thunder Bay indicate a thickness for the Hamilton 
series of six hundred and fifty feet, and for the Helderberg of five 
hundred feet, 
f A very narrow band also extends across the southern margin of 
. Berrien County. 



peninsula. In the south they would seem to lie directly 

upon the Helderberg group. Prof. Winch ell gives this 

formation the name of Huron shales. They are exposed 

in the northern section at Pine Lake and south of Petosky, 

on the head-streams which fall into Black and Mullett 

Lakes ; and on the south branches of Thunder Bay River. 

In the southeastern part of the State they are mostly buried 

under drift. 


This formation is altogether the most important in the 
lower peninsula, not only because of its greater develop- 
ment, but on account of its economic value, for it is the 
reservoir of the vast accumulation of salt brine, and fur- 
nishes almost the only good building stone in the peninsula. 
It is also the quarry rock from which comes the excellent 
u Huron grindstones," known throughout the country. 

It extends in a circular belt around the centre of the 
lower peninsula, with a varying width of from twenty to 
eighty miles, and covers fully one-half the peninsula, or an 
equivalent of twenty thousand square miles. 

The out-crop of this formation, like the others, is mostly 
hidden by drift. The best places to study its surface struc- 
ture are along the beach of Lake Huron, in Huron County. 
About Port Austin are extensive grindstone-quarries. Its 
maximum thickness in Michigan is not far from twelve 
hundred feet. Many salt wells are located in the eastern 
part of the State, and in their deep borings are afforded the 
best means of studying its component parts. Borings at 
Port Hope, Huron County, show the following : 


Drift 16 

Greenish micaceous sandstone 6 

Blue arenaceous shale, with sand-rock seams 510 

Stratum of gray hard rock 1 

Dark blue shales 154 

Arenaceous shales 29 

Coarse, whitish sandstone 71 

Total 787 

Artesian wells at White Rock, five hundred and fifty-five, 

and seven hundred feet in depth, show similar results. 
The following table exhibits the formations penetrated at 

Tawas, in Iosco County : 


n - f . f Sand 30 

nnn {Yellow clay 20 

Whitish sandstone 60 

Red sandstone 15 

Gray sandstone 5 

Red sandstone 40 

Light-colored shale 10 

Red arenaceous shale 30 

Light-colored shale 5 

Red arenaceous shale 88 

Blue shale 35 

Red sandstone 40 

Light-coloredhard shale 60 

Red sandstone 5 

White shale 15 

Red sandstone 5 

Light-colored hard shale 40 

Red sandstone 5 

White shale 3 

Light-colored shale 3 

White hard shale, with brine 164 

Gray sandstone 195 

Blue shale 10 

Total 883 

* Named from a locality on the Ohio River where the formation is 
finely exposed. It is assigned by Dana and Winchell to the carbon- 
iferous period, but the State geologist locates it in the upper part of 
the Devonian. 

Wells in the same county, from one thousand to twelve 
hundred and twenty-five feet in depth, give results sub- 
stantially the same. 

At Hillsdale two artesian wells of thirteen hundred and 
fifty and fifteen hundred and fifty feet, respectively, cor- 
roborate the results in Huron County. 

At the depth of about twelve hundred feet a white lime- 
stone, fifty feet in thickness, was found, and below this a 
soft calcareous rock. At this point it would seem as if the 
black shales were almost entirely wanting, and that the 
Waverly rocks were bedded immediately upon the Helder- 
berg limestone. 

The Waverly out-crops in the counties of Jackson, Hills- 
dale, Branch, Calhoun, Berrien, and Ottawa, in the south 
part of the State, and in Antrim County, in the north. 
Between this line of out -crops in the south and the Traverse 
Bay region, so far as known, the rock does not appear upon 
the surface, though the whole western border of the penin- 
sula is supposed to be underlaid with it beneath the drift. 

The western part of the city of Battle Creek stands upon 
this rock, though in the eastern part seventy feet of drift 
overlies it. Borings at this point passed through forty-three 
feet of sand-rock and three hundred and twenty-six feet of 
blue shale. 

At Muskegon borings have penetrated to a greater depth 
than at any other point in the State, the deepest reaching 
two thousand six hundred and twenty-seven feet below the 
surface. The rock character in this deep well is partly ex- 
hibited by the following table : 


Drift 235 

Light and dark shales 450 

Blue shales with hard seams..., «|75 

Soft blue shale 150 

Red shale 150 

Lime-rock with shaly seams 300 

Salt-bearing sand-rock 50 

Gypsum beds and limestone 195 

This formation is supposed to be thickest in the northern 
and central portions. The upper division is mostly a sand- 
rock, with inferior beds of shale, to the depth of three 
hundred or three hundred and fifty feet. The lower strata 
are mostly composed of shales, and are more abundant in 
fossils than the upper measures. The formation is perme- 
ated throughout with salt brine ; but it is generally stronger 
in the lower beds, though sometimes this order is reversed, 
as at Saginaw, where the upper portions afford the strongest 

The Waverly rocks would be the first encountered in 
borings beneath the surface in Kalamazoo County. The 
depth of the superincumbent drift can only be determined 
by borings or cuttings. The bed of the Kalamazoo has no- 
where been cut down to rock in siturf and it is probably at 
least two hundred feet beneath the highest elevations, and 
possibly much more. J The thickness of the Silurian and 
Devonian formations, which lie between the surface and 
the Laurentian or granitic formations, under Kalamazoo 

f We have seen statements to the effect that the river has cut down 
to the underlying rock in Cooper township, but we do not find them 

J There is no coal beneath Kalamazoo County, but salt brine would 
probably be found at a depth of from twelve hundred to fourteen 
hundred feet. 



County, is probably from four thousand to five thousand 
feet ; though the same in the Appalachian region reach the 
enormous (maximum) thickness of forty-two thousand feet. 


This series of rocks out-crops in a narrow, but not con- 
tinuous, belt around the margin of the coal formation. It 
lies immediately upon the Waverly sandstones. It is de- 
veloped about Jackson and in the northeast part of Cal- 
houn County, and is finely exposed in Kent County, in the 
neighborhood of Grand Rapids, where it contains immense 
beds of gypsum, more commonly known as u plaster." * 

At Alabaster City, on Lower Saginaw Bay, there are 

extensive deposits of gypsum, which lie under a shallow 

covering of drift, and have been much eroded by glacial 

action. About Bay City and Kawkawlin gypsum is found 

at depths varying from four hundred to seven hundred feet 

below the surface. The Grand River beds cover an area in 

Kent County of some seven or eight square miles, and are 

extensively worked. The analysis of the non-fossiliferous 

rock in this locality gives the following result : 

Carbonate of lime... , 48 

Carbonate of magnesia 27 

Hydrate of iron, oxide, and alumina ; 4 

Argillaceous residue 18 

Analyses in other localities give : 

Carbonate of lime 96. 

Carbonate of magnesia 1.0 

Hydrate of iron oxide... 0.5 

Insoluble residue 1.5 


Carbonate of lime , 56. 

Carbonate of magnesia 23. 

Ir#li oxide hydrate and alumina 5.5 

Siliceous residue 9. 


Gypsum consists of sulphuric acid, lime, and water, in the 
proportions respectively of 46.51, 32.56, and 20.93. The 
limestone of this formation is used extensively at Grand 
Rapids for manufacturing quick-lime. The total thickness 
of the carboniferous rocks is found by borings to be one 
hundred and sixty feet. 


This formation, overlying the carboniferous lime-rock, 
consists of a complex formation of sandstones and shales, 
with intermediate seams of coal, all comprehending a thick- 
ness of something more than three hundred feet. It is the 
latest in the series of rock formations which underlie the 
lower peninsula. 

The workable coal is mostly confined to one seam of 
about four feet in thickness. The supposed area, for it is 
not well determined on the north, is about eight thousand 
square miles, occupying a circular district in the central 
portions of the peninsula, and partly underlying Saginaw 
Bay. The nearest approach of this formation to Kalamazoo 

* A mass of carboniferous limestone is located in the western part 
of the township of Alamo, according to good authority, but whether 
it is rock in situ or a fragment of drift has not been satisfactorily 
determined. If of the latter character it is of large dimensions ; if 
fixed rock, it probably belongs to the carboniferous formation under- 
lying the coal measures. The same rook exists in Cass County, prob- 
ably in 9itu. 

County is about ten miles from the northeast corner of the 
county. The records of borings show a general approximate 
to the following measurements : 


Sandstone 30 

Fire-clay 5 

Black shales 20 

Coal 4 

And below, hard white sandstone. 

The amount of workable coal is small in comparison with 
the numerous beds of Illinois and Ohio, and still less as 
compared with the coals of Pennsylvania. The principal 
mines are in the vicinity of Jackson. This and the carbon- 
iferous limestone lying below, with an aggregate thickness 
of four hundred and fifty to five hundred feet, constitutes 
the carboniferous formation of Michigan.^ Between the 
coal-measures and the Quaternary age the formations are 
all lacking, including the Reptilian and Mammalian ages. 


These are the subdivisions of the Quaternary age, at 
some period of which man is supposed to have made his 
appearance on the earth, though there are doubtful evi- 
dences of his existence in the preceding age, the Tertiary ; 
but if this is proven it will not make him an inhabitant of 
the State of Michigan, for the formations of this and the 
Reptilian age are wholly wanting. It may be claimed that 
the deposits of these epochs have been swept away by gla- 
cial action, but this is hardly probable, though not im- 

The drift deposits covering the lower peninsula vary in 
thickness from a few inches to many hundred feet. In a 
few places the rocks in situ are uncovered, but nearly the 
whole area is buried under the accumulated sands, clays, 
gravels, and bowlders of the ice period.J 

The surface rocks of Michigan, in common with those of 
all portions of the North American continent lying east of 
the hundredth meridian and north of the fortieth parallel 
of latitude, wherever uncovered, show deep groovings and 
scratchings, the effects of some heavy pressure long con- 
tinued, and moving in a southerly direction. 

These peculiar phenomena can best be explained by the 
generally adopted theory of a vast continental glacier, cover- 
ing the northern portions of the continent east of the 
Rocky Mountains, and gradually spreading southward from 
its central portions ; supposed to have been the water-shed 
dividing the valley of the St. Lawrence from the northern 

Professor Gunning, in a lecture at Kalamazoo, furnished 
a theory, based upon astronomical knowledge, as explaining 
the causes of this glaciated condition of the Northern hemi- 
sphere. He said, " The orbit of the earth has been calcu- 
lated through a period of 4,000,000 years,— 3,000,000 
years past and 1,000,000 to come. These calculations 
show that 250,000 years ago the winters of our hemisphere 
were thirty days longer than at the present time, and oc- 
curred when the earth was 14,000,000 miles farther from 
the sun than it is now. Other things being equal, this 

•f The fine-grained red sandstone of Ionia, extensively used for 
building purposes, occurs in the upper measures of this formation. 

J Deposits of bog-iron ore occur in some localities in the drift for- 
mation, as is the case within the limits of Kalamazoo village. 



would have made our winters 28° colder than now, which 
is the temperature of the glacial bound Greenland. If we 
can trust these astronomical methods, the last ice-period 
was nearly 50,000 years in coming on ; it endured for 
50,000 years, and was about 50,000 years in passing off. 
In about 950,000 years the orbit will be greatly elongated 
again, and either the Northern or Southern hemisphere will 
be glaciated/'* 

These are long periods of time, but they teach us that, 
as compared with the life of man upon the globe, the pro- 
cesses of nature are exceeding slow in their operation, and 
that the time required for the cooling of the earlier rocks, 
the deposition of the sedimentary strata, and for the 
changes which have taken place, even in the surface mate- 
rials, has been immense, almost incalculable. 

A hundred thousand years of constant grinding and 
plowing by a tremendous mass of snow, ice, gravel, and 
bowlders, would produce astonishing changes upon the 
earth's surface. While upon this subject we may be per- 
mitted to quote a few paragraphs from Prof. J. S. New- 
berry, in explanation of the origin of the great Western 
lakes : 

" Lake Superior lies in a synclinal trough,f and its mode of for- 
mation, therefore, hardly admits of question, though its sides are 
deeply scored with ice-marks, and its former area may have been 
somewhat modified by this agent. 

" Lake Huron, Lake Michigan, Lake Erie, and Lake Ontario are ex- 
cavated basins, wrought out of once continuous sheets of sedimentary 
strata by a mechanical agent, and that ice or water, or both. That 
they have been filled with ice, and that this ice formed great moving 
glaciers, we may consider proved. The west end of Lake Erie may 
be said to be carved out of the corniferous limestone by ice-action, as 
its bottom and sides and islands — horizontal, vertical, and even over- 
hanging surfaces — are all furrowed by the glacial grooves, which are 
parallel with the major axis of the lake. 

"All the great lakes are probably very ancient, as, since the close 
of the Devonian period, the area they occupy has never been sub- 
merged beneath the ocean, and their formation may have been begun 
during the coal epoch." 

There have been variations of level in the lake-region, 
as is proven by the fact that the four upper lakes once 
drained through the Wabash and Illinois Rivers into the 
channel of the Mississippi. 


It is probable that the Champlain period was the grand 
distributing epoch of the Quaternary age. The melting of 

* Another theory, and one quite generally adopted by scientists, is 
that during the ice period (or the latest one) the northern portions of 
the continent were sufficiently elevated to carry them into the region 
of perpetual snow, which would produce corresponding phenomena. 
A general subsidence subsequently brought the elevated portions below 
the frigid line, and the glacier, as a natural consequence, disappeared ; 
precisely as the approach of warm weather in the spring dissolves 
and carries away the moisture held in a frozen condition through the 
winter months. 

This theory is substantiated by strong evidence, and none more so 
perhaps than that furnished by the wonderful channel of the Saguenay 
River, which forms the outlet of Lake St. John, in the province of 
Quebec. This channel, it is said, shows an excavation in the Lauren- 
tian rocks reaching, at the present time, from two thousand to five 
thousand feet below the level of the sea, which fact would indicate a 
very great subsidence. 

f A deep valley, produced by upheavals upon either hand, leaving 
the depression between. The upheavals being mostly produced by 
volcanic agency, we may fairly assume them as the originating cause 
of this lake, covering a territory larger than the ancient kingdom of 

the great glacier must have left an immense deposit of 
bowlders, coarse gravel, sand, and clay, unevenly scattered 
in vast heaps and moraines over the surface of the penin- 
sula. The melting of such enormous ice masses set free 
powerful streams, which swept in all directions towards the 
surrounding lake-levels, and'made a more equal distribution 
of the debris. In this period the channels of all the prin- 
cipal streams were begun, and their steadily-diminishing 
waters have been cutting them deeper and deeper from that 
day to this. 

The Champlain period may be properly divided into two 
subdivisions, — the Diluvial epoch, or one of depositions 
from the melting glacier, and the Alluvial epoch, — during 
which the rushing waters subsided, and the finer and later 
depositions of sand and clay were made. These later de- 
posits are more or less plainly stratified. 


These have been gradually forming since the subsidence 
of the glacier, and mark the stages of the continually-di- 
minishing waters ; each new formation being narrower and 
on a smaller scale than the preceding. In the valleys of 
the Connecticut and other large streams of the older regions 
of the continent, the terrace formation is more prominent 
and oftener repeated than in the newer (geological) regions 
of the more level West. 

The Kalamazoo, no doubt, once had for its bed the level 
of the highest terrace, and the narrower and more recent 
ones plainly indicate its steady diminution. Its present 
volume is but a tithe of that which, in the diluvial days 
succeeding the disappearance of the glacier, swept with 
great force along its wide-spreading bed. Most of the val- 
leys have been slowly formed in this manner, and the pro- 
cess still continues on a diminutive scale, or about in the 
proportion which the local glaciers of the Alps and the 
Rocky Mountains bear to the vast continental glaciers of 
the early Quaternary period.J 



The Stone Age — Mounds — Garden-Beds — Relics. 

There is abundant evidence of the long- continued occu- 
pation of the North American continent by a semi-civilized 
people, who preceded the red Indian race found occupying 
the country in the beginning of the seventeenth century. 
By some writers it is supposed that the country was occu- 
pied by at least three distinct races, and these may have 
been contemporary or successors of each other during many 
hundreds and, possibly, thousands of years. They have 
been subdivided into, first, a race who are supposed to have 
been the progenitors of the Eskimo§ (or Esquimeaux) and 

t There are a number of very good private collections of fossils in 
the county, among which that of Mr. Tyler, in Cooper township, de- 
serves notice for its beauty and variety. Mr. A. H. Stoddard also 
has a fine collection, and there are several in Kalamazoo village. 

g The theory is advanced by some that the progenitors of the Es- 
kimo occupied the continent as far south as latitude 35°; that they 



kindred people, the Mound-Builders, and the earliest In- 
dians, or Hunter Race. 

It is also claimed that there is evidence of the existence 
of the human race in America prior to the last glacial 
epoch. Remains of ancient implements, of stone or metal, 
and stumps of trees, evidently cut down with a sharp in- 
strument, together with charcoal and other evidences of 
human life, have been found nearly a hundred feet below 
the surface, in the drift deposits of the Champlain period. 
Within a few years (about 1857) human skulls have been 
found in California, buried, along with the bones of the 
mastodon and elephant, beneath one hundred and fifty to 
one hundred and eighty feet of lava, volcanic tufa, and 
auriferous gravel. They are assigned by Professor Whit- 
ney and Dr. Winslow to the Pliocene period, and antedate 
any similar relics found in any other quarter of the globe. 

If the existence of man previous to the last glacial epoch 
be established, the lapse of time since his earliest appear- 
ance has been very great. The gorge of the Niagara River 
from Lewiston to the falls, about seven miles in extent, is 
generally admitted to have been excavated since that epoch, 
and the time required to cut this deeply-grooved passage 
through the limestone and shale of the Silurian formations 
has been variously estimated at from thirty-one thousand 
to three hundred and eighty thousand years. The conclu- 
sions differ enormously, but the shortest period greatly ex- 
ceeds the generally accepted estimate of man's existence on 
the earth. 

Evidences of the occupation of the lower peninsula of 
Michigan by a race preceding the Indians are quite abund- 
ant, principally in the form of mounds, " garden-beds," as 
they have been well named, stone and copper implements, 
pottery, etc. 


The human race (or races, if you please) has its periods 
of childhood, manhood, and old age, the same as its indi- 
vidual members ; and the Stone Age may with great pro- 
priety be called the child-age of mankind. 

It would, of course, be useless to undertake the task of 
giving a description of either the physical or mental condi- 
tion of the earliest human beings. It has often been done. 
Every nation of antiquity — and we may also include the 
modern American savages — has had its ethnographical 
chapter, wherein has been minutely given the history of its 
origin (always ascribed to supernatural agency). 

But the critical investigations of modern science have 
shown the majority of these statements to be almost wholly 
fabulous. Sufficient has been determined to establish the 
fact that the human race has come up from inferior con- 
ditions, and gradually (with many retrogressions) arrived 
at its present physical and intellectual development. 

The. birthplace and early habitat of the race has been 
located in many different regions of the earth. The 
Bible cosmogony fixes it somewhere in Western Asia; 
the Hindoo or East Indian mythology ascribes it to some 

were driven southward by the glacial accumulations, and in turn, upon 
the retreat of the glacier towards the north, followed it to their present 
abode. They may originally have lived in a warm or temperate cli- 
mate, but thousands of years of frigid temperature have completely 
changed their physical conditions. 

other region. The traditions of the nations of Southern 
America place it in Bolivia, about Lake Titicaca, and 
in Brazil. The Central American peoples tell of a vast 
continent called " Atlantis," submerged thousands of years 
ago beneath the waters of the Atlantic Ocean, where the 
earliest human beings appeared, and which became the 
cradle of the arts and sciences ; and the early traditions of 
the Greeks and Romans in a great measure confirm these 
mysterious legends of the vanished continent. 

Many in late years accept the theory of a diversity of 
original nationalities, and believe that human beings came 
into existence in various portions of the earth, wherever and 
whenever the conditions were favorable, in the same way 
that plants and the lower animals made their appearance, 
though all the processes and gradations of human life can 
only be conjectured, as the earlier ages of its existence are 
shrouded by the impenetrable veil of ignorance and super- 

Abundant evidence exists upon all the continents and 
islands of the sea that every portion of the earth has had 
its Stone Age, some nations even now being no farther 
advanced in intelligence than the skin-clad savages of the 
prehistoric period. The history of this universal age of 
stone cannot be found in written records ; it is buried in 
the surface-formations of the earth, and its curious relics 
are turned up to the sunlight by the farmer's plow, and 
thence gathered as curiosities into the private collections 
and the great museums of the country. These relics, in- 
cluding spear- and arrow-heads of stone and copper, axes, 
hatchets, chisels, gouges, ornamental trinkets, household 
utensils, fragmentary pottery, beads, mica ornaments, etc., 
are found in all parts of the continent. 

These implements and utensils were manufactured from 
several substances. The spear- and arrow-heads are mostly 
of flint or chert, sometimes of quartz, and we have seen 
arrow-beads made from the shaly portions of the Connecti- 
cut sandstone formation. The axes, hammers, gouges, and 
plumb-bobs are generally of greenstone, or syenite, though 
sometimes of other materials. Some articles are wrought 
from obsidian, others from porphyry and red pipe-stone, 
and in some instances common granite and gneiss have been 
utilized. The peculiar forms which greenstone, or trap- 
rock, assumed in cooling rendered it well fitted for the 
manufacture of axes, and its compact and solid structure 
made it exceeding durable. Evidently the ancient people 
were connoisseurs in the line of selecting material, equal 
perhaps, in their day, with our present workers in iron 
when examining the various grades of ore, with a view to the 
best combinations for the production of marketable goods. 

From the common pebble the primeval man gradually 
changed to the use of something which his own hands had 
partially shaped, and so on, step by step, through all the 
gradations to the most perfect form of implement which 
the material employed was capable of producing. 

The display of stone implements and relics of the early 
ages of the human race upon the American continent at 
the Centennial Exposition, in Philadelphia, showed at a 
glance the workmanship, no doubt, of many generations ; 
and the ponderous axe of syenite, weighing twenty pounds, 
was proof positive that " there were giants in those days." 



It was no doubt as true an aphorism in the early ages 
as now that u necessity is the mother of invention," and 
the dark-minded and almost brutal Autochthon was per- 
haps driven by hunger or the presence of some implacable 
human enemy to work out the spear and bend the bow. 

At length — it may have been after the lapse of thousands 
of years — man had progressed in intelligence to that condi- 
tion where he stood upon a higher plane of knowledge and 
mechanical skill, and we find him employing the metallic 
minerals. Remains of gigantic labors are found among 
the copper regions of Lake Superior, and the unknown 
race which worked the mines must have had a knowledge 
of naval architecture and navigation beyond anything 
which the subsequent Indian possessed, for we find that 
the copper deposits of Isle Royale were visited, and this 
compelled a sea voyage of from fifteen to forty-five miles, 
according as it was made from the northern or southern 
shore, the nearest part of Keweenaw Point being nearly 
fifty miles away. The passage of either channel was one 
of peril at any season of the year, and it is hardly prob- 
able that it was attempted in light canoes, except possibly 
from the Canadian shore. 

The native copper was no doubt transported to a more 
southern region, to be transformed into the various imple- 
ments which are found in surface deposits and entombed 
with human remains in the mounds of the vanished race. 

There are evidences that in the neighborhood of the 
present cities of Rock Island and Moline, 111., there once 
existed a great prehistoric manufacturing centre. Remains 
of extensive canals, connecting the Mississippi with Rock 
and Green Rivers, can be traced, though long since buried 
beneath the debris and sediment of the great river. Im- 
mense deposits of flint-chips and broken arrow-heads are 
found beneath the sand and mould of the river-bottoms ; and 
there, evidently, once stood a great manufacturing city where 
the flint and pipe-stone and copper were brought from far-off 
regions to be fashioned into the various implements of war, 
of the chase, and of household economy. 

The canals would indicate that there was an extensive 
system of navigation employed, or they may be evidence of 
the use of hydraulic power. 


Whether a Bronze Age, separate and distinct from the 
Stone Age, or as its successor, existed in America we have 
no positive means of knowing. Copper implements are 
frequently found, and in widely separated localities, but 
they are everywhere accompanied by stone implements. 
It is probable that the two classes of implements were in 
use at the same periods, or, at least, that the stone imple- 
ments continued to be used after the others had been intro- 
duced. In the opinions of some writers the great valley of 
the Mississippi was occupied by different races or nations, 
contemporaneously, and in this way they account for the 
variety of utensils, and the various degrees of intelligence 
which are supposed to have existed during the same periods. 
This theory may be correct, but from the standpoint of to- 
day we cannot determine whether different degrees of civil- 
ization existed together, or whether a higher succeeded a 
lower in regular gradation. 

It is probable that like changes in races and in degrees 
of intelligence have occurred on the American as on the 
antipodal continent. Geologically, the American is prob- 
ably the elder of the continents, and the earliest forms of 
life probably appeared here ; and we know of no good 
reason why it may not have been first peopled with human 
beings, as well as with plants and lower animals. The 
problem is perhaps unsolvable.* 


There are said to be sixty thousand mounds of the pre- 
historic ages in the United States. The largest of these 
was the great mound of Cahokia, in Illinois, nearly opposite 
St. Louis, Mo. This was an immense parallelogram, seven 
hundred by five hundred feet in dimensions at the base, 
and ninety feet in perpendicular height. It covered a trifle 
over eight acres of ground. Other extensive ones are in 
Ohio, West Virginia, and Arkansas. The greatest display 
of combined mounds and earthworks was at Newark and 
Marietta, Ohio, where the ruins in each instance covered an 
area equal to several square miles. One of the best speci- 
mens of conical mounds in the country is the one at Grave 
Creek, near Wheeling, W. Va., which is seventy feet in 
height and three hundred and fifty feet in diameter at its 

The lower peninsula of Michigan was undoubtedly occu- 
pied by the " mound-builders," and remains and relics of 
the race are quite abundant in Kalamazoo County. There 
are no remains which indicate the presence of any kind of 
dwellings, but this is easily accounted for from the fact that 
they were probably constructed of wood or other perishable 



The mounds of the early people are not found in abun- 
dance, but still there are enough to prove the occupation of 
the country and to serve as samples of the work of the 
strange people. The best-known mound in the county is 
probably the one in Bronson Park, in Kalamazoo village. 
It stood, when the country was first settled, in the midst 
of a plain, which was covered with a scattering growth of 
burr-oak, known in the parlance of the Northwest as " oak- 
openings." According to Mr. Henry Little, its dimensions 
are as follows : diameter at base, fifty-eight feet ; height, 
four feet nine inches.f It is a perfect circle. Its solid 
contents Mr. Little ascertained to be equal to three thousand 
nine hundred and ninety-four cubic feet, or one hundred 
and forty-seven and twenty-five-twenty-sevenths cubic yards. 

There have been many reports in circulation concerning 
relics found in this mound, but we cannot find much cor- 
roborative testimony on the point. The following letter 
from Hon. E. Lakin Brown is certainly reliable evidence : 

"Schoolcraft, Nov. 23, 1873. 
" Henry Little, Esq. 

" Dear Sir, — In reply to your note of the 21st, I have to say that, 
in the summer of 1832, Cyrus Lovell and I made some examination of 
the mound at Kalamazoo, — that is, we began an excavation near the 
top of the mound and sunk it to near, or quite, the level of the sur- 

*For most valuable information upon the ancient people we would 
refer the reader to Prof. Foster's Prehistoric Races of the United 

f Its original height was somewhat greater. 



rounding plain, — perhaps not quite. We discovered nothing what- 
ever, — no bones, no pottery, no implements or relies of any kind. A 
little charcoal was all. The earth removed was a dark soil, apparently 
the surface soil of the adjacent plain. I don't think we derived any 
impressions or formed any conclusions on the subject, except that, 
possibly, had we dug deeper we might have found some relics ; but 
we were tired of the work and quit it." 

Yarious examinations have been made, and statements 
have gone abroad that human bones, arrow-heads, and beads 
have been found in the mound ; but the statements cannot 
be satisfactorily verified. It was opened on the 4th of 
July, 1850, by Mr. A. J. Sheldon, with no other result 
than as stated by Mr. Brown ; and it remains an open 
question to-day, What does the mound contain ? The Pot- 
tawattomies, who had a principal village on the site of 
Kalamazoo, could give no information concerning it ; but 
there is no doubt of its being the work of a vanished race. 
The material would appear to have been taken from the 
vegetable mould of the surrounding plain, and so evenly 
from a large area as to leave no depressions or other evi- 
dences of having been taken from any particular locality.* 


Mr. Little states that when the country was settled there 
was a mound situated on Climax Prairie, less than a mile 
east of the Corners, of about two-thirds the dimensions of 
the Kalamazoo mound. A dwelling was subsequently 
erected on its site, and it was largely cut away, but no 
relics were found. Situated to the south of this mound, in 
the edge of the timber, and on the top of an eminence, 
there was a circular work inclosing about one and a half 
acres of land. The circle included a parapet and ditch, the 
latter being about sixteen to twenty feet in width at the 
bottom, and some two or three feet deep. It has been 
conjectured that this work was a military fortification. 
When discovered by white men it was overgrown by large 
forest- trees, f 


A number of small mounds formerly existed on Gull 
Prairie, but the cultivation of the soil has nearly obliterated 
them. There were two situated near the northeast corner 
of section 15. They were about twenty feet in diameter at 
the base, and apparently perfect counterparts of each other. 
When first seen by the whites they were surrounded by the 
forest. No relics were at any time found in them. 

On the northwest corner of section 14, and near those 
last described, were four mounds, three of which were about 
forty feet in diameter, and the fourth less than twenty feet. 
A part of these were overgrown and surrounded with scat- 
tering timber ; the others were on the edge of the prairie. 

" In 1837, Col. Isaac Barnes, then the owner of the land, 
caused one of these mounds to be entirely removed, to give 
place to the erection of a dwelling. While the man was 
engaged with his spade and wheelbarrow in its removal, I, 
with intense interest, carefully watched the operations from 
day to day. No relics were found, nor discoveries made, 
beyond the fact that the component parts of the superstruc- 

* It appears that for some time previous to 1841 an excavation in 
this mound was UBed as a cellar or root-house. About 1850 the mound 
was repaired and put in its original shape as nearly as possible. 

f See history of Climax. 

ture were all of the surface soil, — neither sand, gravel, nor 
stones. The ground it rested upon was precisely like that 
which surrounded it."J 

There were one or two other small mounds near the 
southern limit of the prairie. 


There is a small mound on section 30, in this township. 
It is about twenty feet in diameter, and situated on tim- 
bered land upon the farm of Mr. A. R. Allen. A few 
years since this mound was opened, with quite remarkable 
results. Human bones (or at least supposed to be such), 
apparently thrown promiscuously together, were found, and 
it is claimed they were of more than ordinary size. 

On section 16, according to Mr. Stoddard, the remains 
of three earthworks or fortifications were found, from which 
large quantities of human bones were taken by the early 
settlers. The residence of A. D. Chappel occupies one of 
these works. Another mound was on the " Governor 
Throop farm," east of the river. Flint spear- and arrow- 
heads were found in the vicinity of these works. 


Mr. A. D. P. Van Buren describes a large mound situ- 
ated on the island in the Kalamazoo River, principally on 
section 22, in Comstock township. It was diamond shaped 
and twenty feet high, and covered, by computation, an acre 
or more. A maple-tree, thirty inches in diameter, stood 
upon it in 1831. Another which he mentions was on sec- 
tion 13, and was first seen by Mr. Ralph Tuttle, upon 
whose land it stood, in 1830. It was circular in form, and 
had an altitude of two and a half feet above the general sur- 
face. It formed the frustrum of a cone, and was about 
twenty-five feet in diameter at the apex. 


Mr. Henry T. Smith, present county register, informs us 
that there was formerly a small mound on the east half of 
the northwest quarter of section 30, in the town of Pavilion, 
and on the southeastern margin of Long Lake. It was 
about four feet in height and from twelve to twenty feet in 
diameter. Mr. Smith opened this mound in 1876, and 
found two human skeletons lying crosswise of each other 
and about eighteen inches apart, the lower one being a little 
below the original surface. Their heads were to the north 
and northeast. Beneath the lower one was found charcoal 
and ashes, upon a bed of coarse gravel, the latter apparently 
taken from the lake margin. The mound appeared to have 
been built over and around the bodies, and bore evidence of 
having once had a ditch surrounding it. An oak-tree, 
eighteen inches in diameter, and a smaller hickory-tree were 
growing upon it when first known to the settlers. The 
skeletons were much decayed, and mostly crumbled upon 
exposure. The skulls were very thick. No other relics 
were discovered. 


These curious evidences of prehistoric occupation do not 
appear to have been plentifully found outside of Michigan. 
They are mentioned in notices of antiquities of Wisconsin, 

kHenry Little. 





Kalamazoo Counts, 

SC/U.E, l6 f£€T f>etf INCH. 




scale 30 reii per inch. 




and, we believe, have been found sparingly in Indiana, 
They abounded in the valleys of the Grand, St. Joseph, 
and Kalamazoo Rivers, and covered sometimes hundreds of 
acres. They have been quite appropriately named u garden- 
beds," from a real or fancied resemblance to the garden-beds 
of the present day. They are of various forms, — rectangular, 
triangular, circular, elliptical, and complex, — and evince, in 
many instances, a remarkable degree of mechanical skill, as 
well as cultivated taste. A large number of those observed 
in Kalamazoo County are laid out in regular parallelograms, 
precisely as a gardener of modern days arranges his beds 
for onions and beets. The questions naturally arise, Were 
they actually garden-beds for the cultivation of vegetables? 
Could they have been extensive plats where flowers were 
raised for the supply of some great city on Lake Michigan 
or in the Ohio Valley? Were they botanical gardens? 
The accompanying diagrams illustrate some of the varieties 
which were found in various parts of Kalamazoo County. 
They have all, or nearly all, disappeared under the white 
man's cultivation. 

Henry R. Schoolcraft was probably the first writer to 
give accounts and descriptions of these peculiar relics of an 
earlier race in Michigan. They were mentioned in a French 
work as early as 1748. 

Schoolcraft gave drawings and careful descriptions of 
them in 1827, and speaks of them as " forming by far the 
most striking characteristic antiquarian monuments of this 
district of country." 

In 1839, John T. Blois, a citizen of this State, published 
in the " Gazetteer of Michigan" detailed descriptions, with 
diagrams, of one variety of the beds. 

Rela Hubbard, Esq., of Detroit, divides the beds into 
eight classes, which he describes as follows : 

"1. Wide convex beds, in parallel rows, without paths, composing 
independent plats. Width of beds, twelve feet; paths, none; length, 
seventy-four to one hundred and fifteen feet. 

" 2. Wide convex beds, in parallel rows, separated by paths of same 
width, in independent plats. Width of bed, twelve to sixteen feet; 
paths, the same; length seventy-four to one hundred and thirty -two 

"3. Wide parallel beds, separated by narrow paths, arranged in a 
series of plats longitudinal to each other. Width of beds, fourteen 
feet; paths, two feet; length, one hundred feet. 

" 4. Long, narrow beds, separated by narrower paths, and arranged 
in a series of longitudinal plats, each plat divided from the next by 
semicircular heads. Width of beds, five feet ; paths, one foot and a 
half; length, one hundred feet; height, eighteen inches. 

"5. Parallel beds, arranged in plats similar to Class 4, but divided 
by circular heads. Width of beds, six feet; paths, four feet; length, 
twelve to forty feet; height, eighteen inches. 

"6. Parallel beds, of varying widths and lengths, separated by 
narrow paths, and arranged in plats of two or more, at right angles 
(north, south, east, and west), to the plats adjacent. Width of beds, 
five to fourteen feet; paths, one to two feet; length, twelve to thirty 
feet ; height, eight inches. 

" 7. Parallel beds, of uniform width and length, with narrow paths, 
arranged in plats or blocks, and single beds, at varying angles. Width 
of beds, six feet; paths, two feet; length, about thirty feet; height, 
ten to twelve inches. 

" 8, Wheel-shaped plats, consisting of a circular bed, with beds of 
uniform shape and size, radiating therefrom, all separated by narrow 
paths. Width of beds, six to twenty feet ; paths, one foot ; length, 
fourteen to twenty feet." 

The area covered by these cultivated plats varied, in 
different localities, from five to as many as three hundred 

acres.* These remarkable " gardens" were found by the first 
settlers about Schoolcraft, on Prairie Ronde, on Toland's 
Prairie, near Galesburg ; on the burr-oak plains of Kala- 
mazoo village, and elsewhere. 

Henry Little, Esq., states that they covered as many as 
ten acres lying to the south of the Kalamazoo mound. 
Among these last were specimens of the wheel form. They 
were overgrown with burr-oak trees, of the same size as 
those scattered over the surrounding plain. 

" On the farm of J. T. Cobb, section 7, town of Schoolcraft, the beds 
were quite numerous as late as 1860. There must have been fifteen 
acres of them on his land. The < sets' would average five or six beds 
each. Neighbors put the number of acres covered with them in 1830, 
within the space of a mile, at one hundred." f 

Hon. E. Lakin Brown corroborates these statements. 
The circular one in the diagram is from information 
furnished by Henry Little and A. T. Prouty, of Kalama- 
zoo. The triangular pointed one is from a drawing by H. 
M. Shafter, of Galesburg. Roswell Ransom, James R. 
Cumings, and A. D. P. Van Buren have also contributed 
interesting information upon this subject. The diagrams 
are copied from the American Antiquarian for April, 1878, 
in an article contributed by Bela Hubbard, Esq. 

Mr. Van Buren furnishes some account of the "beds" 
first found on section 13, Comstock township, on lands pur- 
chased by C. C. White for William Toland, the first settler 
in the township. The beds in this locality covered some five 
acres, and were of the same general description as those 
before spoken of, and included parallelograms, circles, and 
triangles. Mr. Van Buren says J. R. Cumings remembers 
plowing some of these gardens, and says that the beds were 
so high above the intervening paths that the plow in cross- 
ing the latter ran out of the ground. He estimates the 
height from bottom of paths to top of bed, or ridge, at 
eighteen inches. 

The antiquity of these " garden-beds" is a question about 
which there are different opinions. They were found in 
several instances covering the ancient mounds, and from 
this circumstance some waiters have arrived at the conclu- 
sion that they were the work of a people who occupied the 
country long after the " Mound-Builders" had disappeared. 
This hypothesis may be the correct one, but is not necessa- 
rily so. There are people living to-day who have seen 
the burial-places of white men, if not cultivated, at least 
abandoned and turned into pasture lands for sheep and 
cattle. The burial-ground of the Strang Mormons at 
Voree.J Walworth Co., Wis., was occupied, in 1873, as a 
barn-yard. Even if the mounds were the sacred burial- 
places of those who erected them, it is quite possible that 
within a few generations they may have been occupied for 
purposes of agriculture, in common with the surrounding 
fields. But it is quite within the bounds of probability 
that the people who cultivated the " garden-beds" may have 
known as little of the builders of the mounds as the red 
Indians who succeeded them. 

* Statements of Schoolcraft and Blois. 

t Hubbard. The first diagram represents this class. It was fur- 
nished by Messrs. Prouty and Cobb. 

% A Mormon colony planted by James J. Strang after the death of 
Joseph Smith at Nauvoo, 111., about 1846. 



Both classes of antiquities date far beyond the knowl- 
edge of the savages, and were evidently the works of a 
more civilized race. 

In examining human skulls taken from mounds near 
Spring Lake, Ottawa Co., Mich., Professor W, D. Gunning 
advanced the opinion, from the forms of the skulls, the ac- 
companying relics (copper hatchets, needles, broken pottery, 
etc.), and from other evidence, that these remains date back 
two thousand years or more. 

Mr. Bela Hubbard advances the opinion, in reference to 
the " garden-beds," that they may have been cultivated until 
within three or four centuries of the present time, — as that 
period would have sufficed for the growth of the largest 
forest-trees found upon them. It is altogether probable 
that the mounds were first constructed, and that their age 
is not overestimated by Professor Gunning. Nothing re- 
sembling the garden-beds has ever been found, or certainly 
ever described, in the region where the mound-building 
architecture reached its culmination, — though the same 
system may have been in vogue at a much earlier day. 
The Michigan people may have belonged to a later period, 
or they may have been a colony from the central regions of 
the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers. 


These consist of hatchets and spear-heads of stone and 
copper, heavy stone axes, flint spear- and arrow-heads, 
chips of flint and chert, chisels, gouges, plumb-bobs, pottery, 
pipes, and many other things which are picked up in all 
parts of the country. In addition to these are the bones of 
human beings, mingled with fragments of charcoal, burnt 
animal bones, etc., all pointing to a race, or a succession 
of races, which has passed away. 



Nationality and Original Habitat — Removals — Wars — Treaties — Mas- 
sacre at Chicago — The Match-e-be-nash-e-wish Reservation — Vil- 
lages and System of Cultivation — Removal in 1840 — Missions. 

According to the historian George Bancroft, and other 
prominent writers, Francis Parkman among the number, 
the Pottawattomie tribe or nation belonged to the great 

* Of the origin of the Indian races of America no certain account 
can be given. Different nations gave each a different account, and 
each generally claimed to be the most important race of men in the 
world. When asked who they were, the Iroquois were wont to reply, 
" the Ongwe-Honwe," or men superior to all others. The Delaware 
Indians called themselves the Lenni Lcnape, or original men. The 
savages of the vast plains of Illinois when interrogated as to their 
origin answered, "We are Illeni," or men ; as much as to say we are 
the only men,- and a distinguished chieftain of a Wisconsin tribe, 
when the importance of his people was called in question, haughtily 
answered, striking his breast, "lama Menominee !" 
, The Alyonquins called themselves Nethowack; the Athabascans, 
Tinnej the Esquimeaux, Innuit; and the ancient peoples of Central 
and Southern America called themselves "the children of the sun/' 
The Zulus of South Africa say that their national name signifies 
heaven, and they call themselves "the Celestials." The Pottawatto- 
miea ©ailed themselves " Niteh-e-nobbies," and the name, no doubt, 

Algonquin subdivision of the American copper-colored 
race. They were cousins-german to the Ojibwa nation 
(now commonly written Chippewa), who occupied the 
greater part of the upper peninsula of the present State of 
Michigan at the date of the earliest French discoveries. 
Both the Ojibwas and Pottawattomies were met by Charles 
Raymbault and Isaac Jogues in the fall of 1641, at which 
time they visited the northern shores of Lake Huron and 
the country around the Sault St. Marie. 

In 1660 they were again probably encountered by Father 
Rene Mesnard, in his journeyings along the southern coast 
of Lake Superior ; and Father Claude Allouez passed 
through the same region in 1666. In 1668 the first 
permanent mission in the State was founded at the Sault, 
and in May, 1671, was held the great council at this point, 
at which all the Western Indians were ostentatiously taken 
under the protection of France. The Pottawattomies were 
present in force at this council, and occupy a prominent 
position in the records of the event. 

In those early days they are believed to have been located 
in the neighborhood of Green Bay and on the islands at 
its opening into Lake Michigan. They were familiar to 
Marquette, Dablon, and Allouez, who visited them in 
1668-71, and the two last named of whom founded a 
mission among them on Green Bay in 1669-70, called 
St. Frangois Xavier. They were prominent among all the 
nations who came to trade with the French at the Sault 
St. Marie, at Mackinac, at Green Bay, and at Detroit. 
At the great council held at the Sault, in 1671, they rep- 
resented, besides their own nation, the powerful nation of 
the Miamis, who dwelt south of Lake Michigan. They 
befriended Marquette and Joliet on their way to the Mis- 
sissippi in the spring of 1673, and in the next year a band 
of them accompanied Marquette on a visit from Green 
Bay to the country of the Illinois, and remained with him 
in his encampment near Chicago for several months during 
the following winter, 1674-75. 

They welcomed La Salle when, in September, 1679, his 
vessel — the " Griffin" — cast anchor near one of their islands 
in Green Bay, and one of their most famous chiefs became 
the fast friend of the great explorer. The furs with which 
his vessel was loaded for her return trip were no doubt 
largely purchased from them ; and when La Salle and Hen- 
nepin continued their voyage in canoes towards the south- 
ern portion of the great lakes, they found friends among 
the Pottawattomies, from whom they purchased corn and 
other supplies when nearly wrecked and in a starving con- 
dition. This treatment was the more wonderful when we 
consider that the Outagamiesfi whom they found in the 
neighborhood of Milwaukee, were treacherous and hostile. 

When the gallant Tonti retreated from the little fort — 
Crevecoeur — at the foot of Peoria Lake in the spring of 

signified among them what Illeni and Ongwe-Honwe did among the 
savages of Illinois and New York. 

The principal copper-colored races found in North America were 
the Esquimeaux, in the Arctic regions, the Algonquins, in the region 
of the great lakes and the St. Lawrence River, the Dacotahs, in the 
West, and the Mobilian nations, in the South. The belief is gaining 
ground that the American races were indigenous to the soil, but their 
beginnings we can only conjecture. 

•j- The modern Foxes. 



1680, and after passing a terrible experience among the 
Illinois and Iroquois Indians, in the region of Ottawa, 111., 
at length, late in the autumn, reached the Pottawattomie 
villages, sick and nearly starved, he was received in the 
most friendly manner by the chief who had welcomed La 
Salle. The same chief welcomed Hennepin on his return 
from his explorations and captivity. among the Sioux of the 
upper Mississippi in the same year. 

They probably began their migration from Green Bay 
about the beginning of the eighteenth century, and grad- 
ually moved southward to the vicinity of Chicago, and 
thence around the head of Lake Michigan to the region 
subsequently occupied by them in southwestern Michigan, 
which included at least all the country stretching from the 
head-waters of the St. Joseph, Kalamazoo, and Grand 
Rivers to the lake on the west. 

When La Salle first visited the mouth of the St. Joseph 
River, late in the fall of 1679, he found the Miami nation 
in possession of the region, and named the river the " Mi- 
amis" on this account. In 1721, when Charlevoix visited 
the mission of the St. Joseph, he found the Pottawattomies 
occupying the country, from which they were removed by 
the United States authorities in 1840, after an occupation 
of nearly a century and a half. 

At some period, probably succeeding their arrival in 
Michigan, the Pottawattomies formed a sort of quasi con- 
federation with their kindred, the Ojibwas and the Ottawas, 
the latter of whom had been driven fifty years earlier from 
their ancient home on the Ottawa River of Canada. This 
league, while resembling somewhat that established among 
the nations of New York, was of a looser order, and the tribes 
or nations composing it dwelt at long distances from each 
other, — the Ottawas mostly near the Detroit River and 
among the lakes of Oakland County, the Ojibwas in the 
vicinity of Mackinac and the outlet of Lake Superior, and 
the Pottawattomies along Lake Michigan, from Chicago to 
the mouth of Grand River. At times the latter nation 
had several villages in the neighborhood of Detroit, and 
it would seem that when the Mascoutlns, Outag amies , and 
others attacked that post in 1712, one or more of these 
nations were occupying villages in the vicinity, for the 
beleaguered garrison was saved by them from probable 

In 1721 we find M. de Tonti, then in command at De- 
troit, instrumental in uniting the Pottawattomies , Ottawas, 
Chippewas, and Hurons in a league against the savages 
dwelling to the westward of Lake Michigan. The four 
nations mentioned were the fast friends and allies of the 
French down to 1760, when all the French possessions in 
Canada passed into the hands of the English. 

The mission of St. Joseph, at the mouth of the river of 
that name, was probably established by the Jesuits in the 
beginning of the eighteenth century.* When first estab- 
lished it is probable that the Pottawattomies had not yet 
occupied the surrounding region. 

When the Ottawa chieftain Pontiac organized his grand 

* In the Michigan Pioneer Selections it is stated that the Jesuits 
founded, about the year 1700, a mission at the mouth of the river 
and another a mile south of the present city of Niles j and that at 
each place a small fort was erected. 

confederation of Indian nations, the Pottawattomies took 
up the hatchet against the English, and figured conspicu- 
ously during the siege of Detroit. It was probably a band 
of their warriors who captured the post of Ouatenon, on the 
Wabash, in May, 1763, and they may have assisted at the 
capture of Fort Miami about the same time. At the open- 
ing of the siege of Detroit they were present under their 
war-chief, Nin-i-vay, to the number of one hundred and 
fifty. Their chiefs accompanied Pontiac to the famous 
council in the fort at Detroit, and their warriors took part 
in the terrible fight at " Bloody Run," and were the first 
to call a parley to agree upon terms, though they treacher- 
ously broke their promises and engagements afterwards. 

They were present by their chiefs at the great council 
held by Col. Bradstreet, at Detroit, in September, 1764, 
and were among those who transferred their allegiance from 
the French to the English on that occasion. They also 
sent deputies to meet Sir William Johnson at Oswego, in 
July, 1766. During the Revolution they adhered to the 
British interests, and joined in most of the war-parties and 
forays against the border settlements of the Americans from 
1778 to the signal defeat of the confederated Indian tribes, 
at the Maumee Rapids by Gen. Wayne, in August, 1794. 

In 1789 they attended and signed the treaty of Fort 
Harmar. They formed a part of the force which defeated 
Harmar in 1790, and were probably present in force at the 
disastrous defeat of St. Clair, in November, 1791. 

In September, 1792, they made a treaty at Vincennes 
with Commissioner Putnam, on behalf of the United States; 
but this treaty was soon broken, and we find them figuring 
extensively at a council held at the Maumee : Rapids in 
1793, during the advance of Gen. Wayne from- Cincinnati. 
This council accomplished nothing; and we next find the 
Pottaioattomies gathered, with the other Northwestern na- 
tions, about the British post on the Maumee, and ready to 
oppose Wayne's advance. 

On the 5th of June, 1794, the general's scouts, under 
Capt. Gibson, captured two Pottawattomie warriors, be- 
tween whom and Gen. Wayne the following colloquy en- 
sued : 

Wayne. — " When did jour nation receive the invitation from the 
British to join them and go to war with the Americans ?" 

Pottawattomies. — " On the first of the last moon ; the message 
was sent by three chiefs, — a Delaware, a Shawanee, and a Miami." 

Wayne. — "What was the message brought by those Indian chiefs, 
and what number of British troops were at Roche de Bout (fort of the 
Rapids) on the first of May ?" 

Pottawattomies. — " That the British sent them to invite the Potta- 
wattomies to go to war against the United States j that they, the Brit- 
ish, were then at Roche de Bout, on their way to war against the 
Americans; that the number of British troops then there was about 
four hundred, with two pieces of artillery, exclusive of the Detroit 
militia, and had made a fortification around Col. McKee's house and 
stores at that place, in which they had deposited all their stores of 
ammunition, arms, clothing, and provisions, with which they promised 
to supply all the hostile Indians in abundance, provided they would 
join and go with them to war/' 

Wayne. — " What tribes of Indians, and what were their numbers 
at Roche de Bout on the 1st of May ?" 

Pottawattomies. — " The Chippeioas, Wyandots, Shatcanese, Tawasfi 
Delaware*, and Miami's. There were then collected about one thou- 
sand warriors, and were daily coming in and collecting from all thefce 

f Meaning probably the Ottawas* 



Wayne. — "What number of warriors do you suppose were actually 
collected at that place at this time, and what number of British troops 
and militia have promised to join the Indians to fight this army ?" 

Pottawattomies. — " By latest and best information, and from our 
own knowledge of the number of warriors belonging to those nations, 
there cannot be less than two thousand warriors now assembled ; and 
were the Pottawattomies to join, agreeably to invitation, the whole 
would amount to upward of three thousand hostile Indians.* But 
we do not think that more than fifty of the Pottawattomies will go to 
war. The British troops and militia that will join the Indians to go 
to war against the Americans will amount to fifteen hundred, agree- 
ably to the promise of Governor Simcoe." 

Wayne. — " At what time and at what place do the British and In- 
dians mean to advance against this army ?" 

Indians. — " About the last of this moon or the beginning of the 
next they intend to attack the legion at this place. Governor Simcoe, 
the great man who lives at or near Niagara, sent for the Pottawatto- 
mies and promised them arms, ammunition, provisions, and clothing, 
and everything that they wanted, on condition that they would join 
him and go to war against the Americans; and that he would com- 
mand the whole. 

"He sent us the same message last winter, and again on the first of 
the last moon, from Roche de Bout ; he also said he was obliged to us 
for our past services, and that he would now help us to fight, and ren- 
der us all the services in his power, against the Americans. 

"All the speeches which we have received from him were as red as 
blood, all the wampum and feathers were painted red, the war-pipes 
and hatchets were red, and even the tobacco was painted red. 

" We received four different invitations from Governor Simcoe, in- 
viting the Pottawattomies to join in the war; the last was on the first 
of the last moon, when he promised to join us with fifteen hundred of 
his warriors, as before mentioned. But we wished for peace, except 
a few of our foolish young men/' 

"Examined and carefully reduced to writing at Greenville, this 7th 
of June, 1794."f 

It is not certain that any of the Pottawattomies were 
engaged in the battle against Wayne, but it is at least quite 
probable that a small band of their " foolish young men" 

According to the statement of a Canadian who visited 
Wayne's camp at Fort Wayne, Governor Simcoe, Col. 
McKee, and Brant, the celebrated Mohawk chief, arrived 
at Fort Miami on the 30th of September, and the Governor 
invited the chiefs of all the nations to meet him at the 
mouth of the Detroit liiver and hold a treaty. 

According to the statement of Blue Jacket, the Shaw- 
anese chief, the Indians were inclined for peace after the 
defeat on the Maumee, but upon this invitation of the Gov- 
ernor they concluded to meet him. At the council the 
Governor told them not to listen to the Americans, but to 
keep a good heart and propose a truce until the spring, 
when a general gathering would make them strong enough 
to renew the war. Brant also gave them the same advice. 

But the utmost efforts of the British officials could not 
bring the Indians to the agreement. Some were for war 
some were divided, and "the Chippewas and Pottawattomies 
went home, sore from the late action." Wayne's rapid 
movements and skillful fighting were too much for them, 
and they no doubt made up their minds during the follow- 
ing winter that they had best agree upon terms of peace 
with the Americans, and trust to the pleasant words of the 
British no longer. Indeed, on the 28th and 29th of De- 
cember the chiefs of t he Pottawattomies, Chippewas, Otta- 

* This statement would give the Pottawattomies over one thousand 

t From American State Papers, quoted in Albaeh's Annals of the 
West, pp. 640-41. 

was, and Miamis came to Fort Wayne with peace messages 
for Col. Hamtramck, the commander of that post. 

At Greenville, Ohio, on the 30th of July, 1795, was 
finally signed a treaty of peace between the United States, 
represented by Gen. Wayne, and the hostile Indians, by 
which the latter ceded nearly two-thirds of the State of 
Ohio, a considerable portion of Indiana, and a large num- 
ber of small reservations within their remaining territory, 
among which latter were a strip six miles wide along Lake 
Erie and the Detroit River ; the post of Mackinac ; the 
island on which it stood ; the island of Bois Blanc, and a 
piece of land to the north of the straits, six by three miles 
in extent ; a piece six miles square at Chicago ; another of 
the same extent at Fort Wayne ; one of twelve miles square 
at the Maumee Rapids, and various others. The Indians 
were to be allowed the privilege of hunting upon the ceded 
lands, and the government and people of the United States 
were to freely navigate the lakes and streams within the 
Indian territory. 

The consideration which the tribes received from the 
United States was twenty thousand dollars in goods, dis- 
tributed at the treaty equitably among them, and an annuity 
of nine thousand five hundred dollars in goods thereafter 

The annual payments were to be divided among the con- 
tracting nations as follows : to the Wyandots, the value of 
$1000 ; to the Delawares, $1000 ; to the Shawanese, 
$1000; to the Miamis, $1000 ; to the Ottawas, $1000; 
to the Chippewas, $1000; to the Pottawattomies, $1000; 
and to the Kickapoos, Weas, Eel Rivers, Piankeshaws, and 
Kaskaskias, the sum of $500 each. 

This treaty did not materially lessen the territory of the 
Pottawattomies ; their largest cession was probably the six- 
mile tract at Chicago. The Shawanese, Wyandots, and Del- 
awares were heavily mulcted in Ohio, and this, of course, 
compelled them to crowd westward among the-other nations. 

From the date of the treaty of Greenville until the year 
1807 we hear very little of the Pottawattomies. The In- 
dian nations of the Northwest were generally peaceable, 
until the advent of Tecumseh, the great Shawanese chief, 
who began his preparation for a confederation of all the 
Indians as early as 1803, but did not actually come into 
collision with the whites until the fall of 1811. 

In November, 1807, Governor Hull, of Michigan Ter- 
ritory, made a treaty with the Pottawattomies, Ottawas ) 
Wyandots, and Chippewas, at Detroit, by which the coun- 
try lying in the southeastern part of the Territory, bounded 
on the west by the principal meridian and lying south of 
Saginaw Bay, was ceded to the United States. 

In 1808 the Shawanese, under Tecumseh and his brother, 
the prophet, removed from Ohio to a tract of land granted 
them on the Tippecanoe River by the Pottawattomies and 
Kickapoos ; and from this point Tecumseh went forth to 
the various nations of the North and South in the interests 
of his great project. 

It would appear, from a treaty made in November, 1808, 
by Governor Hull, at Brownstown, that the Pottawattomies 
were interested in lands lying along the Maumee and the 
southern coast of Lake Erie, for we find them at that date 
uniting with the Chippewas^ Ottawas, Wyandots, and Sha* 



wanese in the cession of a strip of territory connecting the 
Maumee Valley with the Western Reserve in Northeastern 

With regard to the machinations of Tecumseh and the 
prophet, Gen. William H. Harrison, then Governor of 
Indiana Territory, on the 5th of Juiy, 1809, in a letter to 
the Secretary of War, says, — * 

"The warlike and well-armed tribes of the Pottawattomies, Ottawas, 
Chippewas, Delaicares, and Miamis, I believe, neither had, nor would 
have joined in the combination ; and although the Kickapoos, whose 
warriors are better than those of any other tribe, — the remnant of the 
Wyandots excepted, — are much under the influence of the prophet, I 
am persuaded that they were never made acquainted with their in- 
tentions, if these were really hostile to the United States/' 

In the latter part of 1809, Harrison made additional 
purchases of lands along the Wabash River from the vari- 
ous nations interested, including the Pottawattomies. 

These treaties and purchases were made with the Indians 
at Fort Wayne and Vincennes. They were protested against 
by Tecumseh in the following year. 

At a council between Gen. Harrison and Tecumseh, held 
at Vincennes in 1810, a Pottawattomie chief made a speech, 
declaring that his nation had joined the Shawanese con- 
federacy and would stand by the principles enunciated by 
Tecumseh. From this circumstance it would appear that 
the Pottawattomies had finally been won over by Tecumseh 
and the prophet. 

In 1811, Harrison was frequently in communication 
with the Pottawattomies , a portion of whom were inclined 
to be friendly. 

In the fall of 1811, Harrison, finding the savages bent 
upon war, put his small army of about nine hundred men 
in motion from Vincennes, and on the morning of Novem- 
ber 7th, in that year, fought a desperate night-battle with 
the confederated Indians, under the prophet, in which the 
savages were defeated with severe loss, and their towns 
were destroyed the day following. In this battle a band of 
Pottawattomies were engaged, and lost several warriors and 
one of their principal chiefs. This chief was left on the 
field mortally wounded, but before his death he sent his 
advice to the different tribes, urging them to abandon the 
prophet and make peace.* 

The declaration of war against Great Britain by the 
United States, in June, 1812, at once changed the whole 
aspect of affairs in the West ; and the Indians, instead of 
making peace with the Americans, beholding, as they 
thought, their opportunity for driving the whites beyond 
the Ohio, at once attached themselves to the British cause. 
With the rest went the Pottawattomies, and the next ac- 
count of their movements succeeding the battle of Tippe- 
canoe is their capture and partial massacre of the garrison 
at Chicago, which, as we have seen, was situated on a tract 

* During the war of 1812-15, or at least a portion of the time, the 
British authorities in Canada supported a blacksmithing establishment 
near Kalamazoo, for the benefit of the Pottawattomies and other In- 
dians. At this shop, according to Indian accounts, two men, an Eng- 
lishman and a Frenchman, worked at repairing for the Indians, and 
were paid by the British government. To the Indians the work was 
probably gratuitous. 


ceded to the United States at the treaty of Greenville, in 
1795. A fort had been erected there by the government 
in 1804, and named Fort Dearborn, in honor of Gen. 
Henry Dearborn, at one time commander-in-chief of the 
American army, and also Secretary of War. 

The fort, at the breaking out of the war, was garrisoned 
by a force of seventy-five indifferent troops, under Capt. 
Heald, whose subordinates were Lieut. Helm, Ensign Ro- 
nan, and Dr. Voorhies, surgeon of the post. Winnemac, or 
Winneneg^ a friendly Pottawattomie chief, had brought 
dispatches from Gen. Hull, at Detroit, announcing the dec- 
laration of war, and instructing Capt. Heald, if practicable, 
to evacuate the fort and proceed to Fort Wayne or Detroit, 
as circumstances might determine. The general also or- 
dered the distribution of the government and agency prop- 
erty among the Indians. 

Winnemac advised Capt. Heald to hold the post, and 
not attempt a retreat through the hostile country, now 
swarming with Pottawattomies, Winnebagoes, and others ; 
or, if he must make the attempt, he urged that it be done 
at once, and that everything be left undisturbed in the fort, 
and possibly, while the Indians were busy plundering the 
stores, the garrison might make a safe retreat. But Capt. 
Heald would hear to the advice of neither Winnemac, his 
officers, nor Mr. Kinzie, the trader at the post. 

During the days which elapsed between the arrival of 
Winnemac and the evacuation, an Indian runner arrived 
from Tecumseh, announcing the commencement of hostili- 
ties, the defeat of Van Horn, below Detroit, and urging the 
Western Indians to arm immediately, giving at the same 
time his opinion that Gen. Hull would soon be compelled 
to surrender. This warlike message stirred the Indians 
to the highest pitch of enthusiasm, and from that moment, 
if not before, it was madness to attempt a retreat. A num- 
ber of the Pottawattomie chiefs were inclined to be friendly 
with the Americans, and especially with Mr. Kinzie's fam- 
ily ; but the great majority were for war, and could not be 
controlled. Winnemac was aware of all this, and hence his 
strenuous advice against evacuation. 

On the 14th of August, Capt. Wells arrived from Fort 
Wayne, at the head of fifteen friendly Miamis. Mrs. Heald 
was his sister, and he had made a forced march through the 
wilderness to prevent, if possible, the exposure of the gar- 
rison and the women and children to certain destruction. 
But he arrived too late. The ammunition had been de- 
stroyed and the liquor poured out on the day preceding, by 
Capt. Heald's orders, and nothing remained but to attempt 
the march. The goods and blankets had been distributed 
among the Indians, but they were savagely angry when they 
found the liquor was destroyed, and could scarcely be re- 
strained from a general massacre. 

Among the chiefs were several who, though they partook 
of the general feeling of hostility towards the Americans, 
yet had many friends among the soldiers and families at the 
post, and they exerted their utmost endeavors to allay the 
bloodthirsty feelings of their followers, but in vain. 

Among these was Black Partridge, a distinguished 
chief, who came to the commander, after a second council 

f Called by the whites " Catfish." 



of the Indians had decided upon the massacre, and said, 
" Father, I come to deliver up to you the medal I wear. 
It was given me by the Americans, and I have long worn 
it in token of our mutual friendship. But our young men 
are resolved to imbrue their hands in the blood of the whites. 
I cannot restrain thejn, and I will not wear a token of peace 
while I am compelled to act as an enemy." 

The following paragraphs relating to the Chicago mas- 
sacre are from Albach's " Annals of the West" : 

" The fatal morning of the 15th of August arrived. The sun shone 
out in brightness as it rose from the glassy surface of the lake. The 
atmosphere was balmy, and could the minds of the party have been 
relieved from the most distressing apprehensions, they could have de- 
parted with exhilarating feelings. 

" Early in the morning a message was received by Mr. Kinzie, from 
To-pe-nee-be, a friendly chief of the St. Joseph band {Pottawattomies), 
informing him that the Pottawattomies who had promised to be an 
escort to the detachment designed mischief. Mr. Kinzie had placed 
his family under the protection of some friendly Indians. This party, 
in a boat, consisted of Mrs. Kinzie, four young children, a clerk of Mr. 
Kinzie's, two servants, and the boatmen, or voyageurs, with two In- 
dians as protectors. The boat was intended to pass along the southern 
end of Lake Michigan to St. Joseph. Mr. Kinzie and his eldest son, 
a youth, had agreed to accompany Capt. Heald and the troops, as he 
thought his influence over the Indians would enable him to restrain 
the fury of the savages, as they were much attached to him and his 

" To-pe-nee-be urged him and his son to accompany his family in 
the boat, assuring him the hostile Indians would allow his boat to 
pass in safety to St. Joseph. 

" The boat had scarcely reached the lake when another messenger 
from this friendly chief arrived to detain them where they were. The 
reader is left to imagine the feelings of the mother. She was a woman 
of uncommon energy and strength of character, yet her heart died 
within her as she folded her arms around her helpless infants. And 
when she heard the discharge of the guns, and the shrill, terrific war- 
whoop of the infuriated savages, and knew the party, and most prob- 
ably her beloved husband and first-born son, were doomed to destruc- 
tion, language has not the power to describe her agony. 

" At nine o'clock the troops, with the baggage-wagons, left the fort 
with martial music, and in military array. Capt. Wells, at the head of 
his band of Miamis, led the advance, with his face blackened after the 
manner of the Indians. The troops, with the wagons containing the 
women and children, the sick and lame, followed, while at a little dis- 
tance behind were the Pottawattomies, about five hundred in number, 
who had pledged their honor to escort them in safety to Fort Wayne. 
The party took the road along the lake-shore. 

" On reaching the point where a range of sand-hills commenced 
(within the present limits of Chicago city), the Pottawattomies defiled 
to the right into the prairie, to bring the sand-hills between them and 
the Americans.* They had marched about a mile and a half from 
the fort, when Capt. Wells, who, with his Miamis, was in advance, 
rode furiously back, and exclaimed, ' They are about to attack us; 
form instantly and charge upon them !' 

" The words were scarcely uttered when a volley of balls, from In- 
dian muskets behind the sand-hills, poured upon them. The troops 
were hastily formed in line of battle and charged up the bank. One 
man, a veteran soldier of seventy, fell as they mounted the bank. 
The battle became general. The Miamis fled at the outset, though 
Capt. Wells did his utmost to induce them to stand their ground. 
Their chief rode up to the Pottawattomies, charged them with treach- 
ery, and, brandishing his tomahawk, declared ' he would be the first 
to head a party of Americans and punish them/ He then turned his 
horse and galloped after his companions over the prairie. 

" The American troops behaved most gallantly, and sold their lives 
dearly. Mrs. Helm, the wife of Lieut. Helm, who was in the action, 
behaved with astonishing presence of mind (as did all the other fe- 

* These sand-hills were scarcely worthy of the name j they probably 
never exceeded the height of twenty feet. The high bank of the lake 
is generally meant in this account. The sand was drifted upon the 
top of the bank to a depth of several feet. 

males), and furnished Mr. Kinzie with many thrilling facts, from 
which are made the following extracts : 

" ' Our horses pranced and bounded, and could hardly be restrained, 
as the balls whistled around them. I drew off a little and gazed upon 
my husband and father, who were yet unharmed. I felt that my hour 
was come, and endeavored to forget those I loved, and prepare myself 
for my approaching fate. 

" ' While I was thus engaged, the surgeon, Dr. V., came up ; he was 
badly wounded. His horse had been shot under him, and he had re- 
ceived a ball in his leg. Every muscle of his countenance was quiv- 
ering with the agony of terror. He said to me, a Do you think they 
will take our lives ? I am badly wounded, but I think not mortally. 
Perhaps we might purchase our lives by promising them a large re- 
ward. Do you think there is any chance ?" 

tt < « j) Y y » sa i(j x, " do not let us waste the few moments that yet 
remain to us in such vain hopes. Our fate is inevitable. In a few 
moments we must appear before the bar of God. Let us endeavor to 
make what preparation is in our power." " Oh, I cannot die !" ex- 
claimed he. " I am not fit to die, — if I had but a short time to pre- 
pare, — death is awful !" I pointed to Ensign Ronan, who, though 
mortally wounded, and nearly down, was still fighting with despera- 
tion upon one knee. 

" ' " Look at that man," said I, "at least he dies like a soldier !" 
a t a Yes," replied the unfortunate man, with a convulsive gasp, 
" but he has no terrors of the future, — he is an unbeliever." 

" ' At this moment a young Indian raised his tomahawk at me. By 
springing aside I avoided the blow, which was aimed at my skull, but 
which alighted on my shoulder. I seized him around the neck, and 
while exerting my utmost efforts to get possession of his scalping- 
knife, which hung in a scabbard over his breast, I was dragged from 
his grasp by another and an older Indian. 

" l This latter bore me, struggling and resisting, towards the lake. 
Notwithstanding the rapidity with which I was hurried along, I re- 
cognized, as I passed them, the lifeless remains of the unfortunate 
surgeon. Some murderous tomahawk had stretched him upon the 
very spot where I had last seen him. 

"'I was immediately plunged into the water, and held there with 
a forcible hand, notwithstanding my resistance. I soon perceived, 
however, that the object of my captor was not to drown me, as he 
held me firmly in such a position as to place my head above the water. 
This reassured me, and regarding him attentively, I soon recognized, 
in spite of the paint with which he was disguised, the Black Par- 

" i When the firing had somewhat subsided, my preserver bore me 
from the water and conducted me up the sand-banks. It was a burn- 
ing August morning, and walking through the sand, in my drenched 
condition, was inexpressibly painful and fatiguing. I stopped and 
took off my shoes, to free them from the sand, with which they were 
nearly filled, when a squaw seized and carried them off, and I was 
obliged to proceed without them. When we had gained the prairie 
I was met by my father, who told me that my husband was safe and 
but slightly wounded. They led me gently back towards the Chicago 
River, along the southern bank of which was the Pottawattomie en- 
campment. At one time I was placed upon a horse without a saddle, 
but soon finding the motion insupportable, I sprang off. Supported 
partly by my kind conductor and partly by another Indian, Pee-so- 
tum, who held dangling in his hand the scalp of Capt. Wells, I dragged 
my fainting steps to one of the wigwams. 

" ' The wife of Wau-bee-nee-mah, a chief from the Illinois River, 
was standing near, and seeing my exhausted condition, she seized a 
kettle, dipped up some water from a little stream that flowed near, 
threw into it some maple-sugar, and gave it to me to drink. This act 
of kindness, in the midst of so many atrocities, touched me most 
sensibly, but my attention was soon diverted to other objects. The 
fort had become a scene of plunder, to such as remained after the 
troops had marched out. The cattle had been shot down as they ran 
at large, and lay dead or dying around. 

" ' As the noise of the firing grew gradually less, and the stragglers 
from the victorious party dropped in, I received confirmation of what 
my father had hurriedly communicated in our rencontre on the lake- 
shore: namely, that the whites had surrendered, after the loss of 
about two-thirds of their number. They had stipulated for the pres- 
ervation of their lives and those of the remaining women and chil- 
dren, and for their delivery at some of the British posts, unless ran- 
somed by traders in the Indian country. It appeared that the wounded 



prisoners were not considered as included in the stipulation, and a 
horrible scene occurred upon their being brought into camp. 

" i An old squaw, infuriated by the loss of friends or excited by 
the sanguinary scenes around her, seemed possessed by a demoniac 
ferocity. She seized a stable-fork, and assaulted one miserable victim, 
who lay groaning and writhing in the agony of his wounds, aggravated 
by the scorching beams of the sun. With a delicacy of feeling scarcely 
to have been expected under such circumstances, Wau-bee-nee-mah 
stretched a mat, across two poles, between me and this dreadful scene. 
I was thus spared, in some degree, a view of its horrors, although I 
could not entirely close my ears to the cries of the sufferer. The fol- 
lowing night five more of the wounded prisoners were tomahawked. ' 

"But why dwell upon this painful subject? Why describe the 
butchery of the children, twelve of whom, placed together in one bag- 
gage-wagon, fell beneath the merciless tomahawk of one young sav- 
age ? This atrocious act was committed after the whites, twenty-seven 
in number, had surrendered. When Capt. Wells beheld it, he ex- 
claimed, i Is that their game ? Then I will kill, too !' So saying, he 
turned his horse's head and started for the Indian camp near the fort, 
where had been left their squaws and children. 

"Several Indians pursued him, firing at him as he galloped along. 
He laid himself flat on the neck of his horse, loading and firing in 
that position. At length the balls of his pursuers took effect, killing 
his horse and severely wounding himself. At this moment he was 
met by Winneneg and Waubansee, who endeavored to save him from 
the savages who had now overtaken him; but as they supported him 
along, after having disengaged him from his horse, he received his 
death-blow from one of the party (Pee-so-tum), who stabbed him in 
the back. 

"The heart of Capt. Wells was taken out and cut into pieces, and 
distributed among the tribes. His mutilated remains remained un- 
buried until next day, when Billy Caldwell gathered up his head in 
one place and mangled body in another, and buried them in the 

"The family of Mr. Kinzie had been taken from the boat to their 
home by friendly Indians, and there strictly guarded. Soon after a 
very hostile party of the Pottawattomies arrived from the Wabash, 
and it required all the skill and bravery of Black Partridge, Wauban- 
see, and Billy Caldwell, who arrived at a critical moment, and other 
friendly Indians, to protect them. Runners had been sent by the 
hostile chiefs to all the Indian villages to apprise them of the in- 
tended evacuation of the fort, and of their plan of attacking the 
troops. In eager thirst to participate in such a scene of blood, but 
arrived too late to participate in the massacre, they were infuriated 
at their disappointment, and sought to glut their vengeance on the 
wounded and prisoners. 

" On the third day after the massacre, the family of Mr. Kinzie, 
with the attachees of the establishment, under the care of Francois, a 
half-breed interpreter, were taken to St. Joseph in a boat, where they 
remained until the following November, under the protection of To- 
pe-ne-be and his band. They were then carried to Detroit, under 
the escort of Chandonnai and a friendly chief by the name of Kee- 
po-tah, and, with their servants, delivered up, as prisoners of war, to 
the British commanding officer. 

" Of the other prisoners, Capt. Heald and Mrs. Heald were sent 
across the lake to St. Joseph the day after the battle. Capt. Heald 
had received two wounds and Mrs. Heald seven, the ball of one being 
cut from her arm by Mr. Kinzie, with a penknife, after the engage- 

" Mrs. Heald was ransomed on the battle-field by Chandonnai, a 
half-breed from St. Joseph, for a mule he had just taken and the 
promise of ten bottles of whisky. 

" Capt. Heald was taken prisoner by an Indian from the Kankakee, 
who, seeing the wounded and enfeebled condition of Mrs. Heald, gen- 
erously released his prisoner that he might accompany his wife. But 
when this Indian returned to his village on the Kankakee, he found 
that his generosity had excited so much dissatisfaction in his band 
that he resolved to visit St. Joseph and reclaim his prisoner. News 
of his intention having reached To-pe-ne-bee, Kee-po-tah, Chandon- 
nai, and other friendly braves, they sent them in a bark canoe under 

* Capt. David Wells had been taken prisoner in his childhood and 
had lived among the Miamis, where he married a daughter of Little 
Turtle, the great chief. He left the Indians and joined Gen. Wayne 
in 1794. His descendants still live in Maumee City. 

the charge of Robinson, a half-breed, along the eastern side of Lake 
Michigan, three hundred miles, to Mackinac, where they were de- 
livered over to the commanding officer. 

"Lieut. Helm was wounded in the action and taken prisoner, and af- 
terwards taken by some friendly Indians to the Ausable, and from thence 
to St. Louis, and liberated from captivity through the agency of the 
late Thomas Forsyth, Esq. Mrs. Helm received a slight wound in 
the ankle; had her horse shot from under her; and, after passing 
through the agonizing scenes described, went with the family of Mr. 
Kinzie to Detroit. 

" The soldiers, with their wives and children, were dispersed among 
the different villages of the Pottawattomies upon the Illinois, Wabash, 
and Rock Rivers, and at Milwaukie. The larger portion were taken 
to Detroit and ransomed the following spring." 

Thus ended this memorable episode, the most noted, per- 
haps, in the history of the Pottawattomies, at least so far 
as the whites were concerned. The whole affair thoroughly 
illustrated the prominent, and, in some respects, contra- 
dictory, characteristics of the Indian race. The same de- 
ceitful, wary, bloodthirsty elements ; the profuse promises 
of friendship and protection, while the runners were even 
then on their way to summon the different bands and 
tribes to the bloody banquet ; the same unrelenting and 
unquenchable thirst for slaughter, and the same inhuman 
disposition manifested towards the helpless wounded, and 
the innocent women and children. x\nd in this instance 
they had no immediate reason for this bloody treatment of 
those whom chance and the unpardonable foolishness of the 
commanding officer had placed in their power. The In- 
dians had been well treated by every one at the post, and 
there was no reason for the outrage except the inherent 
bloodthirstiness of the race. There were a few individuals, 
principally chiefs, whose better natures revolted from the 
work ; but they were in a contemptible minority, and could 
do nothing. 

In respect to cultivation and humanity, the Pottawatto- 
mies were no better and no worse than their congeners of 
other tribes and nations. They knew they were able to 
overpower the insignificant band which constituted the gar- 
rison, provided they could prevail upon them to evacuate 
the fort and expose themselves in open ground ; and to this 
end they pursued the same line of policy adopted by Pon- 
tiac, forty-nine years before, at Detroit, — that dictated by 
subterfuge and treachery. To-day, a half-dozen families, 
descendants of the fierce braves who so wantonly imbrued 
their hands in the blood of innocent women and children, 
dwell on the borders of the metropolis (whose half-million 
people outnumber all the Indians of North America com- 
bined), and in dumb helplessness eke out a scanty liveli- 
hood by peddling willow-baskets and the bead-work of the 
dusky squaws. 

Of Capt. Heald there call be nothing said in extenuation 
of his foolish temerity, which cost the lives of three-score 
people, except that a blind subserviency to what he deemed 
a military duty seemed to overturn every reasoning faculty, 
and hurry him on to the inevitable consequences ; and the 
glaring fact will ever stand against him that he refused to 
listen to sound advice, and in a most criminal manner obsti- 
nately led his command to certain death or captivity. 

In the attack upon Forts Wayne and Harrison, both 
within the limits of Indiana, in the same month, there is 
no doubt that the Pottatcattomies acted a conspicuous part. 



Fort Harrison, on the Wabash, was desperately and suc- 
cessfully defended against the combined savages — Shawa- 
nese, Pottawattomies, Kickapoos, and others — by Capt. 
Zachary Taylor, with eighteen men ; and here a future 
President of the United States battled bravely with the 
fiery devils fresh from the massacre of Fort Dearborn. 

In September following, a village of the Pottawattomies, 
on the bluff near the head of Peoria Lake, was destroyed, 
together with a number of its warriors, by a force of three 
hundred and fifty men, partly United States rangers and 
partly Illinois volunteers. 

The Pottawattomies were present in strong force around 
Detroit at the commencement of hostilities with Great 
Britain, or very soon thereafter, though there does not ap- 
pear to be any positive evidence that they were present at 
Hull's surrender. The message received at Fort Dearborn 
from Tecumseh, urging them to come east and join his 
forces, would indicate that they had not yet heard of the 
declaration of war, but were anticipating it. Capt. Heald 
estimates their numbers (warriors) at Chicago, at the date 
of the massacre, at five hundred. 

Their next appearance in force was most probably in 
January, 1813, at the fight of French town, on the river 
Raisin, where the city of Monroe now stands. A Cana- 
dian writer states that at the battle of January 22d, against 
Winchester, there were two hundred Pottawattomies 
present ; and in the disgraceful massacre permitted, if not 
authorized, by the infamous Col. Proctor, of the British 
army, they probably took a full share. To the honor of 
Tecumseh, the Shawanese chief, who was not present at 
this affair, it is said that he upbraided Proctor in most bitter 
terms for his inhumanity. His presence alone stayed the 
hands of the savages from further deeds of blood. 

In the course of Proctor's operations around Fort Meigs 
and Sandusky Bay, the Pottawattomies , no doubt, were 
following the lead of Tecumseh, and in the desperate fight 
with Dudley's Kentuckians, opposite Fort Meigs, when 
Harrison was besieged by Proctor, in May, 1813, they did 
their share of the bloody work. They were also in front 
of Fort Meigs again in July following, and at Fort Stephen- 
son in August of the same year, when Proctor's assaulting 
column received such a disastrous repulse at the hands of 
the youthful Major Croghan. 

A respectable portion of the Pottawattomies participated 
in the battle of the Thames, at the Moravian towns in 
Upper Canada, on the 5th of October, 1813, where the 
British and Indian power in the Northwest was completely 
broken. The fall of Tecumseh disheartened the confeder- 
ated Indians, and the Pottawattomies, in July, 1815, made 
a treaty of peace with the United States. This treaty was 
made at the Portage des Sioux, a few miles above the mouth 
of the Missouri River, and the commissioners on the part 
of the United States were the Governor of Missouri, the 
Governor of Illinois, the superintendents of Indian affairs 
of Missouri and Illinois, and Auguste Choteau, of St. 

By the treaty of Chicago, elsewhere noted, the Pottawat- 
tomies ceded to the government all their lands lying south 
of Grand River, with the exception of five small reservations, 
one of which was in Kalamazoo County, and covered the 

ground now occupied by Kalamazoo village. This was 
designated in the treaty as the " Match- e-be-nash-e-wish 
Reserve." What this Indian title signified, whether it was 
the name of a tribe of the Pottawattomies, of a chief, or 
of a village which stood within the limits of the reserva- 
tion, we have not been able to determine ; neither have we 
been successful in finding out how long the reservation was 
occupied by the Indians, nor to whom and for what con- 
sideration it was disposed of. 

It must have been in the hands of the government when 
the first entries of land were made in Kalamazoo, which 
were in November, 1830, by Stephen H. Richardson and 
Titus Bronson, who purchased the southwest quarter of sec- 
tion 15, which is now in the heart of Kalamazoo village. 
The township (2 south 11 west) was surveyed in 1827 by 
John Muliett, and the reservation, in June, 1829, by 
Orange Risdon. The fact of its being surveyed would 
indicate that it had recently come into possession of the 
government.* Another, known as the Nottawa-Sepee 
Reservation, included one hundred and fifteen sections, 
lying partly in Kalamazoo and partly in St. Joseph County. 
The portion included in Kalamazoo County covered sixty 
sections, including the entire township of Brady, a strip 
two miles wide on the west side of Wakeshma, and a like 
strip on the east side of Schoolcraft township. 

In the month of September, 1833, a treaty was held by 
Governor Porter at the Pottawattomie village which stood 
on the Nottawa-Sepee reservation, within the limits of St. 
Joseph County, at which the chiefs, by the influence of 
trinkets, military trappings, and other articles to the 
amount of about ten thousand dollars in value, were in- 
duced to cede all their remaining lands, which were in- 
cluded in that reservation, to the United States. The 
Indians were to retain peaceable possession of the reserva- 
tion for two years, at the end of which time they were to 
remove to a new reservation west of the Mississippi. When 
the time came (in 1 835), they manifested so much reluct- 
ance and opposition that it was not until five years later 
that they were finally removed. 

The Indians had villages on Gull Prairie, and on To- 
land's Prairie, where Galesburg now stands, and also at 
Kalamazoo, on Prairie Ronde, in the present town of Port- 
age, and in other parts of the county. Some of these were, 
probably, tolerably permanent, while others were of a more 
transient character. 

The village (or villages, for there may have been several) 
located on the site of Kalamazoo was a prominent one, for 
here was perhaps the best fishing-ground within the limits 
of the county. The largest fish of Lake Michigan could 
ascend the river to this point, and in the spring and early 
summer the pastime of taking a supply for future use was 
indulged in by the Indians, with every demonstration of 
rejoicing. Evidence of a large native population at this 
point is in the fact that three considerable burial-grounds 

* From a chapter in the history of Hillsdale County it appears that 
the Indians exchanged, in September, 1827, all their reservations 
made at the Chicago treaty of 1821, for a consolidated reservation, 
called Nottawa-Sepee, in St. Joseph and Kalamazoo Counties, and 
the Matchebenashewiah tract was probably given up at that time. A 
portion of the Nottawa-Sepee reservation was in Kalamazoo County. 



were found within what are now the limits of the village 
of Kalamazoo. 

There were traditions among the Indians of terrible wars 
and exterminating conflicts between the Ottawas and the 
Sioux or Sauhies, on the banks of the beautiful Kekala- 
mazQo, one of which is perpetuated in a poem by V. Has- 
call, a former resident of Kalamazoo, which will be found 
in another chapter of this work. Here, also, the Potta- 
wattomies and Ottawas — for they seem to have been min- 
gled more or less in all this region — held their solemn coun- 
cils, their war-dances, and their annual feasts. 

The Pottawattomies are described as having been more 
domestic than warlike in their habits. They delighted in 
bedecking themselves in finery and gew-gaws, and had a 
great love for ponies, which they caparisoned with all the 
pride of a Bedouin when preparing his Arab barb for the 
field. They were good hunters, and when once fairly en- 
listed in war exhibited the same bravery which rendered 
the Iroquois so renowned. 

The Ottawas, frequently called the Tawas, came origi- 
nally from the great river of Canada which still bears their 
name, from whose rugged and picturesque region they were 
expelled by the terrible Iroquois, about the middle of the 
seventeenth century. They occupied the country, more 
properly speaking, lying in the Grand River Valley of Mich- 
igan, but the lines between the Indian nations and tribes 
who were friendly to each other were not very clearly de- 
fined ; and they occupied the country frequently in com- 
mon, hunting and fishing together. This was particularly 
the case with the Ottawas and Pottawattomies, who dwelt 
amicably together. The former, to whom the great war- 
chief Pontiac belonged, were perhaps the most warlike and 
the finest in physique of all the Indians of Michigan. 
Among the prominent chiefs of the Pottawattomies in later 
days were Bawbeese and Noonday ; the former having his 
principal village within the present limits of Hillsdale 
County, and the last named making his headquarters at or 
near Kalamazoo. It is said that when the county was first 
visited there were no less than sixteen distinct trails con- 
verging at Kalamazoo. This fact alone would be ample 
evidence that here was an important Indian centre. 

Mr. Yolney Hascall in a letter to the Ladies' Library 
Association, written some years since, speaks of a curious 
circle in a grove of trees on Genesee Prairie, where the In- 
dians performed their dances and celebrated their harvest 

They cultivated quite extensive areas of land in various 
parts of the county, notably around Kalamazoo and in the 
adjoining town of Portage. The fields in the last-named 
locality, which are still known as the " Indian fields," cov- 
ered probably a hundred acres? They had been long occu- 
pied by the Pottawattomies for a village and planting-grounds, 
and were cultivated for several years after the arrival of the 
first white settlers. This village is said to have been the 
largest in this region, and the Indians claimed that it was 
selected as a place of secure retreat for their women and 
children during the last war with Great Britain — 1812-15. 
The field labor was all performed by the squaws, as was 
customary with nearly all the tribes on the continent, the 
bucks, or warriors, confining their physical labors to war- 

like pursuits and hunting and fishing. A good story is 
told by one of the early settlers of Northern Illinois, who 
encountered on Fox River the same nation of Indians whom 
the early settlers found occupying the valley of the Kala- 
mazoo. He was preparing his ground and planting his first 
crop of corn. A young but ambitious chief, who watched 
his operations closely, seemed much interested. The settler, 
thinking to do him a kindness, offered to prepare for plant- 
ing and give him all the ground he would personally take 
care of. The chief accepted the generous offer, and ap- 
peared promptly on the ground the following morning with 
a half-dozen squaws armed with the necessary implements 
for planting the corn. The white man saw at a glance that 
the chief had misunderstood his meaning, and proceeded to 
explain to him that he must do the work himself ; where- 
upon the noble son of the forest, drawing himself up 
proudly, answered the nonplussed settler, " Ugh ! Indian 
hunt game; squaw hunt corn !" 

Raising grain and vegetables, taking care of the house- 
hold, or working at any ordinary employment was con- 
sidered, under Indian customs, menial employment, alto- 
gether beneath the dignity of a warrior, and, in fact, utterly 
degrading; and any one among the male members of a 
tribe who gave himself to such pursuits was considered in- 
ferior, and contemptuously called a " squaw" by the plumed 
and painted warriors, who looked upon the bloody business 
in which they delighted as the most respectable and honor- 
able known to the Indian, and one which all should aspire 
to. Cooper, in his " Oak Openings," the scene of which is 
laid in the Kalamazoo Valley, illustrates this feeling finely 
in his character of Onoah, or " Scalping Peter." 

The Indians remained in this part of Michigan until 
1840, when they were removed beyond the Mississippi 
River by the United States government. Hon. H. M. 
Rice, since prominent in Minnesota politics, had charge of 
the removal, and performed his duties with fidelity and the 
utmost kindness to the emigrants, who very reluctantly left 
their homes among the lakes and oak-openings and silver 
streams of Michigan. 

Col. Thomas A. H. Edwards was actively engaged in 
gathering the scattered bands together at Kalamazoo pre- 
paratory to departure. 

On their way westward they encamped for several days 
on the grounds north of the Central Railroad Depot in 
Kalamazoo, where they were visited by many of the inhabi- 
tants, who went to have a last look at the former owners of 
the soil, destined never again to be occupied by the " Hunter 

At Kalamazoo they were joined by other parties of In- 
dians from the north and west, and when all had assembled, 
chiefly Pottawattomies and Ottawas, they took up their 
line of march for the then far West beyond the " Father of 
Waters." Their tents and household goods were loaded on 
the backs of their ponies, of which they had in later years 
become possessed of a considerable number, while the able- 
bodied men, women, and children, accompanied by their 
dogs, followed on foot. The sick and aged were carried on 
the ponies, and the " pappooses" on the backs of the squaws. 
There was great reluctance among them to leaving the 
homes of their ancestors, and even their chiefs and warriors 



were greatly apprehensive of danger from the Sioux in the 
country to which they were going. They were guided and 
guarded by a detachment of United States regulars. 

Upon their departure from Kalamazoo, as they passed 
the dwelling of Judge Ransom, for whom they entertained 
great respect, they all doffed their ornamental head-gear, 
and elevated their right hands in token of a last good-bye. 
A few scattering individuals only remained, and from hence- 
forth the country which once knew them was to know 
them no more forever. Notwithstanding the long and 
bloody history of these wild children of the forest, it is 
with a tinge of sadness that we, even at this day, contem- 
plate their sorrowful departure, for they possessed human 
feelings, and the ties which bound them to this beautiful 
region were deeply rooted. 

" Ye say they all have passed away, 
That noble race and brave ; 
That their light canoes have vanished 
*% From off the crested wave j 
That in your grand old forests 

There rings no hunter's shout, — 
But their name is on your waters, 
Ye may not wash it out." 

In 1874, according to the State census, there were ten 
thousand two hundred and fifty Indians living within the 
State of Michigan, consisting of the following nations : 

Ottawas and Chippewas living together 5,500 

Chippewas of Lake Superior 2,000 

Chippewas of Saginaw, etc 2,000 

Chippewas of Grand Kiver 500 

Pottawattomies 250 

Total 10,250 

The few remaining Pottawattomies are located in Cal- 
houn, St. Joseph, Berrien, and Yan Buren Counties. All 
the tribes have adopted the dress and customs, more or less, 
of the whites, and to a great extent given up the chase. 
A few receive annuities from the government, but by far 
the larger number depend wholly on their own exertions for 
a livelihood. Portions of them are settling down to agri- 
cultural pursuits, and five or six hundred of their children 
attend the public schools. 

There is a small reservation, containing about one hun- 
dred and sixty acres of land, still occupied by the Potta- 
wattomies, in the southern part of Calhoun County. They 
number now about fifty souls. A mission, called the u Notta- 
way Mission," was established at this place in 1840. Hev. 
Mr. M. Hickey was in charge of the mission and school 
attached, assisted by Mr. Crane and Miss Hickey as teachers. 

Old John Ma-gwa-go was chief of this band, and a white 
man named Holcomb, who had married Murchee, a sister 
of the chief, lived with them. An intelligent squaw, 
named Mary, who had been educated at Albion, acted as 
interpreter for the tribe. Her husband's name was Men-ne- 
do-ka. The belle of the tribe was Pont-sig-na, a daughter 
of the wife of Holcomb by a former husband ; she also 
had been educated at Albion. The following notice is 
from the Detroit Post : 

" The Rev. Henry Jackson, the Indian who died at Holland, was 
the government interpreter and business agent of the Pottaioattomies, 
who have a reservation about twenty miles south of Battle Creek, on 
the Nottawa Creek, in Athens township, and was well known to many 
of our citizens. This band of Indians on the Nottawa-Sepe are the 
last of the Pottawattomies of Michigan, and now number about fifty 

men, women, and enildren. Phineas Bamp-ta-nay-by is the present 
chief. Jackson was much thought of by the Pottawattomies, and his 
death is greatly mourned by them. Jackson did not live with the 
Pottawattomies ; only came here when business required. He made 
his home with the Ottawas, at Wayland, Allegan Co. Jackson, whose 
Indian name was Bam-me-no-de-no-kaid, signifying ( Storm Cloud,' 
was a Chippewa, instead of a Pottawattomie, and came here from 
Canada, where he was born, brought -up, and educated as a Wesleyan 
Methodist. He was well educated, and a very intelligent man. He 
once delivered a lecture in the Seventh-Day Adventists' church, in 
this city, upon 'The Manners and Customs of the Chippewas,' which 
drew a large audience, and which proved a highly entertaining and 
instructive lecture. He was probably better acquainted with the his- 
tory and traditions of the Indians of Michigan than any other per- 
son in the State, and it is to be regretted that some of our State 
historians, or the secretary of the State Pioneer Society, did not 
secure these traditions and histories in writing before his death." 

The following paragraphs are furnished by Mr. Van 
Buren : 

" I well remember Jackson, or ' Storm Cloud.' He was a forcible 
speaker, earnest and pathetic in his appeals to his red brethren. His 
English education, and the knowledge which he had gained in his in- 
tercourse with the whites, had aided him much in his labors. One 
Sabbath morning I had gone with a party of young ladies and gen- 
tlemen from the school district north of the Mission, where I was 
then teaching. We arrived at an early hour, and, entering the log 
chapel, seated ourselves and awaited the gathering of the dusky con- 
gregation. Soon a young Indian came in, and, taking down a long 
tin horn, which hung behind the door, he stepped out in front of the 
chapel and wound it so loudly and musically that we could hear the 
twanging notes reverberating through the dim arcades of the sur- 
rounding forest and dying away in the distance. Repeating the 
echoing calls a number of times, he stepped back into the chapel and 
hung up the horn in its place. 

" The children of the forest now began to assemble in their rude 
place of worship. Quietly, with the stealthy Indian tread, old and 
young came in and took their seats. No noise — not even a whisper. 
Nothing but the silence characteristic of their natures. The whole 
gathering was the very impersonation of a hushed and solemn re- 
ligious assembly." 

The following letter* from A. H. Scott, dated St. Joseph, 
Mich., Jan. 9, 1880, is to Mr. Henry Bishop, and is in 
answer to questions touching the Indians in this county at 
an early day. It will be found of great interest to many 
of our readers to whom the aborigines of this section were 
unknown : 

" Your letter, dated December 25th, came to hand, and I have felt 
it a duty to give the information desired in regard to the Indians of 
Kalamazoo County during the years of its first settlement by the 
whites, as far as my memory will serve me. I came to Kalamazoo 
County early in June, 1833, as a member of the family of James 
Smith, in company with his brother, Addison. Hosea B. Huston and 
E. Lakin Brown carried on the merchandising business under the 
name of Smith, Huston & Co., and had two stores, one at Schoolcraft 
and the other at Kalamazoo (or rather at Bronson, as it was then 
called). I soon picked up enough of the Indian language to enable 
me to trade with them. They then owned a reservation of land ten 
miles square, which took in the eastern part of Gourd-Neck Prairie, 
and had a small village or collection of wigwams in the grove just east 
of the prairie, on the farm now <*wned by James N. Neasmith, Esq. 
The wigwams were all built with a frame of poles, covered with elm- 
bark, with the exception of the wigwam of the chief (Sagamaw), 
which was built for him by his friends, the early white settlers, of logs 
and covered with oak shakes. You wish me to inform you ' how they 
received the first settlers, how they lived, and how much they mingled 
with and how they traded with the white man/ 

" 1st. I think as a class they received the early settlers very kindly, 
and were inclined to live peaceably with them. 

" 2d question. How they lived. Deer were plenty in those early 
days, and, as they were good hunters, they had no difficulty the 

i From the Telegraph of Jan. 14, 1880. 



greater part of the year in supplying themselves with meat. They 
also used the flesh of raccoon, muskrats, etc., for food. Fish were 
plenty in the rivers and lakes. They understood how to catch them 
both with spear and hook. They raised some corn on land that some 
of the early settlers plowed and fenced for them. In their season wild 
fruits, such as blueberries, blackberries, etc., were obtained by them 
for food, and also to ' swap* with the white man for flour, salt, sugar, 
etc. 3d question. 'How much they mingled with the white man?' 
In our stores and the dwellings and cabins of their acquaintances 
they made themselves very much at home. The squaws and pappooses 
would come in in crowds and sit down on the floor (never taking a 
chair) till they were so thick that you could hardly find a place to put 
your foot. They turned out en masse on all public days, and at horse- 
races and shows. They were greatly delighted with circuses. Shoot- 
ing-matches and foot-races they took a great interest in. 4th ques- 
tion. How they traded with the white man ? The trade with the 
Indian at that early day was mainly an exchange (or, as they called it, 
swap) of their furs, venison, dressed deer-skins, moccasins, blueberries, 
blackberries, cranberries, etc., for flour, salt, tobacco, powder, lead, 
sugar, and all the articles that the Indians used to clothe themselves 
I never knew an Indian offer to sell to white people any part of the 
carcass of a deer except the ham. The price for a ham of venison 
was always two shillings, no more, no less, no matter how small or 
large it was. Whenever we sold a squaw any goods that had to be 
made up into any of their garments a needle and thread for each gar- 
ment must be given ; only the goods for one garment would be bought 
or swapped for at a time. It required a good knowledge of their ways 
and much patience to be a successful dealer with the Indians. We 
frequently sold them goods on credit, and found them about the same 
kind of paymasters as the ordinary white man j some paid promptly, 
some after a long time, and some never paid. They would have been 
splendid customers if they had been blessed with plenty of money ; 
but they were poor and thriftless, and I may with truth say a i vaga- 
bond race/ and, consequently, their trade was of no great value. They 
received an annual payment from government, which was mainly in 
necessary goods for their use and comfort, and a small amount of sil- 
ver money. The money was very soon gone, and in most cases did 
them no good, but the goods furnished them by government was just 
what they needed, and added greatly to their comfort. 

" In regard to personal characteristics of any noted Indian, etc., I 
would say that the best specimen of an Indian that I ever saw in those 
early days was Sag-a-maw, the chief of all the Pottawattomies in and 
about Kalamazoo County. He was a man of great good sense, of 
noble bearing, of great integrity, and in every way a dignified gentle- 
man. He was called a great orator among his people. He was a true 
friend to the whites. I have heard him make speeches to his people, 
and, although I could not understand him, his manner and voice were 
very interesting, and the effect of his speech on his people was very 
great. He was the only Indian that I ever saw who was polite and 
attentive to his squaw. When they came to the store at School- 
craft to do their trading, he would help her off of her pony, and when 
they were ready to return he would place his hand on the ground by 
the side of her pony, and she would place one foot in it, and he would 
lift her with apparently great ease into her saddle, and no white man 
could have shown more respect and politeness. If he wished for any 
credit at the store, he had it and paid promptly. Any Indian that he 
told us it was safe to trust was sure to pay us. He always told us 
never to trust his son, Cha-na-ba, who was a very worthless fellow. 
... In regard to the number of the Indians that lived in Kalama- 
zoo County and vicinity at that early day, I can make no estimate that 
would be of any value. They were continually coming and going and 
scattered about in little squads. In regard to the effect it had on the 
character of the Indian in his contact with the white race, I have no 
doubt but it was bad. % 

"He seems (as many writers have said) to take in all the vices of 
the white man and reject all his virtues. Whisky (the great demoral- 
izer of the white man) was and is the principal factor in the destruc- 
tion of all that is good in the Indian character, when he comes in 
contact with the white race. The longer the Indians remained here 
among the whites the more worthless tj*ey became. Game became 
scarce, they were too indolent to work, and they became drunkards 
and beggars. The great end and aim of most of them was to get 
whisky to get drunk with, and, as its cost was only about twenty-five 
cents per gallon, they generally got all that they wanted. When they 
purchased whisky they openly announced that they were going to get 

'squinny' (drunk). The quality of the whisky sold to Indians was 
very bad, having been first watered and drugged for their especial use. 
I recollect, in 1833, that some Indians came to Schoolcraft from Kala- 
mazoo and made bitter complaint to Addison Smith about H. B. Hus- 
ton. They said that he put so much ' bish' (water) in his whisky that 
it made them sick before they could get ' squinny' (drunk). As to my- 
self, I sold no whisky to Indians, except during the first two or three 
years after my arrival in Schoolcraft. What I have said about the 
Indians has been mainly about those whose headquarters were near 

"A. H. Scott." 

There were no actual mission stations located within 
the boundaries of Kalamazoo County previous to its settle- 
ment by the whites ; but there were several in its vicinity, 
among which were the Carey mission at Niles, in Berrien 
County, and the Thomas mission at Grand Rapids, in Kent 
County. There was a mission school established at the 
Nottawa-Sepee Reservation, in St. Joseph County. 

In 1817, Rev. Isaac McCoy, a Baptist minister, began 
his labors as a missionary among the Indians in Indiana, 
Illinois, and Michigan. He was stationed in various places, 
— at Fort Harrison, on the Wabash, at Fort Wayne, and 
subsequently at Niles, on the St. Joseph. His labors were 
at first among the Miamis, Weas, Kic7capoos, Piankeshwas, 
and Pottawattomies, at large, and his travels extended over 
most of the States of Indiana, Illinois, and portions of 
Wisconsin and Michigan. 

He opened a permanent school at Fort Wayne, on the 
Maumee River, on the 29th of May, 1820, and continued 
in charge of it until December, 1822, when, with his family, 
he removed to a new mission on the St. Joseph River, on 
the site of the present city of Niles. 

His family was with him most of the time during his 
sojourn at these two stations, and he buried one of his 
children at Fort Wayne. In November, 1826, Mr. McCoy 
established a mission at the point now occupied by Grand 
Rapids, in Kent County. The mission at Niles was named 
Carey, and the one on Grand River, Thomas, both from 
Baptist missionaries who first penetrated Hindoostan. 

The mission at Niles was for the benefit of the Pottawat- 
tomiesj and the one at Grand Rapids for the benefit of the 
Ottawas. By the treaty of Chicago, in 1821, the govern- 
ment had agreed to appropriate a certain sum in aid of the 
schools, and furnish the necessary machinery for black- 
smithing and mill purposes. 

The Rev. Leonard Slater, who had arrived at Carey in 
the fall of 1826, was settled at Thomas mission, on Grand 
River, on the 5th of May, 1827.* Mr. McCoy made his 
headquarters at Carey, but often visited Thomas station, 
and traveled quite extensively among the savages. These 
two missions were kept up until after the settlement of 
the country by the whites. The missionaries had every 
possible opportunity for studying Indian character and 
habits, and Mr. McCoy seems to have been a very careful 
and interested observer. We make some extracts from a 
work, entitled " History of Baptist Indian Missions," pub- 
lished in 1840 : 

" We have always found it difficult to persuade our correspondents 

*At a subsequent period Mr. Slater resided and labored with a 
colony of the Ottawas, who had located in the southern part of Barry 
County. [See biography.] 



among the white people that the Indians were naturally like all other 
human beings, and that the same means which were necessary to im- 
prove society among the whites were necessary among the Indians, 


" If we would form a correct opinion of a people, we must notice 
small matters as well as great. We must contemplate them as they 
are at home. In the summer of 1825, I attended an Indian festival, 
which, according to custom, they accompanied with dancing. These 
festivals professedly partake of a religious character, but in reality it 
seems otherwise. Different festivals have appropriate names. The 
seasons for some occur regularly, but most of them are occasional, as 
circumstances are supposed to suggest or require them. That which 
occurred at this time was one at which singular feats of legerdemain, 
such as taking meat out of a boiling pot with their naked hand, drink- 
ing boiling-hot broth, eating fire, etc., are attempted. Some ignorant 
whites, who have mingled with the Indians, have reported that the 
latter were very dexterous in these feats, but we have never seen any- 
thing of the kind attempted among them that was not very clumsily 

" On the present occasion, a little tobacco was placed in the centre 
of the hall, on the bottom of a new moccasin, with a small bundle of 
cedar sticks, resembling candle matches.f Three large kettles of 
meat, previously boiled, were hanging over a small fire near the cen- 
tre of the house. 

"The aged chief, To-pe-ne-be, led in the ceremonies. He delivered 
a speech of considerable length, without rising from his seat, with a 
grave countenance, and his eyes almost closed. He then sat and 
drummed with one stick, and sang at the same time, while his aid at 
his side rattled the gourd. At length four women appeared before 
him and danced. A while after this he arose, delivered another speech, 
then, drumming and dancing, turned round, and moving slowly around 
the dancing-hall was followed by all the dancing-party. When he 
had performed his part in leading others went through the same cere- 
monies, and these were repeated until every pair had twice led in the 

" These exercises were accompanied with many uncouth gestures 
and strange noises. Occasionally a man would stoop to the kettle and 
drink a little soup. One fellow, assuming a frantic air, attended with 
whooping, lifted out of a kettle a deer's head, and holding it by the 
two horns, with the nose from him, presented it first upwards and 
afterwards towards many of the by-standers, as he danced around, 
hallooing. The droppings of the broth was rather an improvement 
to the floor than an injury, it being the earth, and now becoming 
pretty dusty. At length he tore asunder the deer's head and dis- 
tributed it to others, and what was eatable was devoured with affected 

"At the conclusion, which was after sun- setting, each brought his 
or her vessel and received a portion of the food. Chebass, a chief, 
sent to me and invited me to eat with him, and I having consented, 
he placed his bowl on the earth beside me and said, ' Come, let us eat 
in friendship !' The same dish contained both meat and soup. The 
chief took hold of the meat with one hand, and with a knife in the 
other severed his piece, and I followed his example. After eating, 
another speech was delivered, the music followed, all joined in a dance 
with increased hilarity, and most of them with their kettles of meat 
and broth in their hands, and at length breaking off, each went to his 

The Carey mission was in quite a flourishing condition, 
as the following extract from the semi-annual report made 
on the 1st of October, 1825, will show : 

"Seventy scholars belong to our school, viz., fifty males and twenty 
females; foiirteen of whom have advanced to the study of arithmetic, 
twenty-two others to reading and writing. During the last year four 
have completed their courses, and have left the institution ; two are 
apprentices to the blacksmith's business, and one to the shoemaker's. 
The residue of the males who are old enough labor a portion of the 
time on the farm, and the females spend part of their time at the 
wheel, loom, needle, etc. Two hundred and eight yards of cloth have 
been manufactured the past year." 

In August, 1826, John L. Leib, Esq., government agent, 

* Pottawattomies, 

f Pine splinters. 

visited Carey mission, and among others, in his report to 
the Department of Indian Affairs at Washington, mentions 
the following facts : 

"Two hundred and three acres are now inclosed, of which fifteen 
were in wheat, fifty in Indian corn, eight in potatoes, pumpkins, and 
other vegetable products. The residue is appropriated for pasture. 
There have been added to the buildings, since my last visit, a house 
and a most excellent grist-mill worked by horses. The usefulness of 
this mill can scarcely be appreciated, as there is no other of any kind 
within one hundred miles, at least, of the establishment; and here, as 
benevolence is the predominating principle, all the surrounding popu- 
lation is benefited. 

"Numerous Indian families have, since my last visit, settled them- 
selves around, and have, from the encouragement, countenance, and 
assistance of the missionary family, made considerable progress in 
agriculture. Indeed, a whole village has been formed, within six 
miles of it, under its benevolent auspices and fostering care. I visited 
them, to witness myself the change in their condition. To good 
fences, with which many of their grounds are inclosed, succeed do- 
mestic animals. You now see oxen, cows, and swine grazing around 
their dwellings, without the danger of destroying their crops." 

The following paragraphs concerning a prominent and 
well-known Indian, probably of the Pottawattomie nation, 
were furnished by Mr. Van Buren : 


" We give here some recollections of a somewhat noted Indian chief, 
called Shavehead, that we gathered from those who were acquainted 
with him on Shavehead Prairie, in Cass County. The prairie was 
named after him ; it was his favorite home, and here he spent the 
latter part of his life. He had in his more communicative hours, 'tis 
said, boasted of the white men's scalps he had taken in the battle at 
Frenchtown, on the river Raisin. He wore them as trophies about 
his person. 

" The old Chicago road, where it crossed the St. Joseph River at 
Mottville, was called, as we have said, Grand Traverse, or Portage. 
This road was the great traveled route through the southern part of 
the Territory to Chicago. Here, at Mottville, the old chief Shave- 
head had stationed himself as the Charon to ferry travelers across 
the stream. There being no grist-mills nearer than Pokagon, the 
settlers in this part of the country went by this route to get their 
grinding done. Standing with gun in hand at this portage, Shave- 
head was accustomed to demand toll of every one who wished to cross 
the stream. One day M. 0. Savan, of Centreville, finding the old 
chief off his guard, crossed over the St. Joseph free. But on his re- 
turn, there the old Charon stood, gun in hand, to demand his moiety. 
Savan stopped his team. Shavehead came up and looked into his 
wagon, when the former, seizing him by the soalp-lock, drew him 
close to the wagon, and with his ox-whip gave him a sound flogging. 
Then seizing the old chiefs gun, he fired it off and drove on. Old 
Shavehead never took any more toll from a settler crossing the St. 
Joseph River at Mottville. 

" An old frontiersman, who lived not far from Shavehead Prairie, 
was very fond of the woods, of hunting and trapping. He and Shave- 
head were great friends, and often spent days together on the hunt. 
Their friendship had continued so long that the settler had begun to 
be considered a sort of Leather Stocking companion to the old Indian. 
One day a report reached his ears that Shavehead had said, ' Deer 
getting scarce; white man (pointing towards the settler's home) kill 
too many ; Injun no get his part. Me stop white man shoot deer.' 
His old friend interpreted this ; he knew its meaning but said nothing. 
He and the old chief had another hunt together after this. Time 
passed on, and one pleasant day in autumn the two old friends went 
out on a hunt together, and at night the settler returned alone. The 
old Indian chief was never seen in that region afterwards. 'Twas 
generally believed that the reason Shavehead did not return was be- 
cause he had crossed the river to happy hunting-grounds on the other 
side. And it was genera% conceded that the settler thought he or 
Shavehead would have to cross the river that day, and that he, the 
settler, concluded not to go." 





Causes and Centres of Settlement — Trading- Posts and Traders — Cam- 
pau, Robinson, Hubbard — Early Settlements — Reminiscences — 
Nuts, Fruits, and Flowers — Pioneer Money— Wild-Cat Banks. 

The earliest occupation of the interior of the lower 
peninsula of Michigan by the white people was in connec- 
tion with the fur trade and Christian missions, in a manner 
similar to that pursued by the French explorers of the 
seventeenth century along the outskirts of the territory now 
constituting the State.* 

As a rule, wherever a trading-post was located, a mis- 
sion, either Catholic or Protestant, was established beside 
it. These were in some instances located at the villages 
of the Indians, which were generally on sites well chosen 
for communication by both land and water. The In- 
dian trails by land and the numerous large streams 
which cut the peninsula in all directions, were the 
earliest means of transit, and along these came the first 
scattering immigrants to the rich lands of the interior. 
At Grand Rapids, Kalamazoo, St. Joseph, and many 
other points were located important centres of Indian 
population, and here converged the great trails which 
traversed the country. The first interior county settled 
was Oakland, in 1817. This was on the great Indian 
trail connecting Detroit with the Saginaw Valley. The 
settlement of the counties lying west of the principal 
meridian began about ten years later, and the tide of 
immigration, which gradually grew in volume until 
about 1837, mostly passed over the Washtenaw trail, which 
followed closely the line now occupied by the Michigan 
Central Railroad. 

Along this trail were Indian villages at points now occu- 
pied by the cities and villages of Ypsilanti, Ann Arbor, 
Battle Creek, Gull Prairie, Kalamazoo, Schoolcraft, South 
Haven, and St. Joseph. These points were nearly all im- 
portant centres of savage population, and exceedingly con- 
venient of access by land and water. According to Mr. 
Campau they were mostly occupied by the Pottawattomies. 
The journey into the interior from Detroit, where most 
of the immigrants landed, was long and toilsome, and soon 
after a line of stages had been put in operation it was a 
current joke that the male passengers followed the coach 
on foot, carrying each a rail on his back, wherewith to 
work his passage when the vehicle became fast in the mire. 

Among the prominent trading-posts of the interior was 
the one located near the great bend of the Kalamazoo. 
The pioneer trader at this place is not certainly known, 
but, in this connection, the following letter, written about 
1869, from Louis Campau, an early trader at Grand Rap- 
ids, is interesting : 

" Before and a short time after the war of 1812 there was a line of 
Indian villages from Ypsilanti to the mouth of the St. Joseph River, 
located as follows : At places where are now Ypsilanti, Ann Arbor, 
Jackson, Battle Creek, Gull Prairie, Kalamazoo, Prairie Ronde, South 
Bend, and St. Joseph, — all of the Pottawattomie tribe. There were 

* It has been aptly said by a prominent citizen of Kalamazoo 
County that " Michigan owes her settlement to the traffic in beaver- 


trading-posts at some of these places. At Ypsilanti Mr. Schamber 
had a post; at Jackson, Mr. Baerotiea ; at Kalamazoo, Mr. Lutnai- 
villerf" at Elkhart, Mr. Mordaunt; at South Bend, Mr. Bertrand. 
Messrs. Bennett & Brother were traders at Michigan City. When I 
passed through Kalamazoo, in 1827, there were but two log houses 
there. J "Louis Campau." 

The written statements of the traders who occupied the 
post at Kalamazoo, or were familiar with its history, show 
material discrepancies. Mr. Campau' s letter would indi- 
cate that Lumaiville or Numaiville was the first trader here, 
but the date is not stated. Mr. Robinspn agrees with him 
as to the name of the trader, but fixes the date of the erec- 


tion of the first trading-hut in the fall of 1823. Mr. Gur- 
don S. Hubbard thinks a Frenchman by the name of La- 
framboin built the first trading- house, but gives no date. 
We append interesting letters from Messrs. Robinson and 

"ADA,-Dec. 12, 1866. 
" Dear Sir, — In answer to yours of the 7th instant I will say the 
first little trading-hut erected at Kalamazoo was on the north side of 
the river, and was erected by an old Frenchman by the name of Nu- 
maiville, in the fall of 1823, who traded there that fall and the winter 
of 1824, and in the spring returned to Mackinac. In the fall of 1824 
I caused more substantial buildings to be erected, and employed the 
same old man as clerk to trade for me a number of years, my own 
trading-post being on Grand River., This old Frenchman could not 
read or write a single word, but would keep his .accounts by hiero- 
glyphics or imitation-pictures, and rehearse it to me in the spring 
with almost exact accuracy in the name of the article or the price. 
Thus, for a Mackinac blanket, [Jz|] ; for a cloth blanket, [] j for a 
calico shirt, T ■ for powder, Y: : . ; for balls, ;;; (coarser dots); and so on. 
I continued to occupy the place by different clerks until 1837, when 
I closed up my Indian trade. I generally visited the post once, and 
sometimes twice, during the winter, but never remained there more 
than a day or two at a time. I sometimes kept men there to trade 
the whole year round, .but generally only the fall, winter, and early 
part of spring. In the month of May we generally left in our Mon- 
treal barges for Mackinac, and returned again in October. These 
Montreal barges, in which my goods were brought into the country, 
and furs and pelts taken out, were capable of carrying about eight 
tons in smooth water. They were propelled by oars, sometimes by a 
towline, and sometimes by sails, always keeping near shore, camping 
in the mouth of some river nights, and laying still in rough weather. 
In these barges my goods and peltries were transported to and from 
Mackinac for a number of years, until vessels began to run on Lake 
Michigan, and my freight so bulky I availed myself of larger craft. 
My goo ds and articles fo r trade were furnished me at Mackinac, at 

f This name is written by Mr. Robinson Numaiville. 
I Alluding to the cabins of the traders. 



cost and charges, by the late American Fur Company, they receiving 
my furs in return, under an arrangement between the company and me. 

" The Montreal barges were open boats, and to protect our goods 
and furs from storms we used large oil-cloths. 

" Hoping the above may be of some use to you, I am, very respect- 
fully, " Your Obdt. Servt., 

" Rix Robinson." 

The following letter from Gurdon S. Hubbard, Esq., of 
Chicago, was in reply to a series of questions addressed 
him by Hon. H. G. Wells, and was read by the latter at a 
meeting of the " State Pioneer Society,"- held at Marshall) 
Mich., in August, 1875: 

" 1st. You ask 'as to your coming here (Kalamazoo), and life during 
the winter of 1820 and 1821/ 

" I answer as follows : I was then eighteen years old ,• my second 
charge of a post; vacated by Rix Robinson, who was transferred to 
Grand River. I had five good men ; one ' Cosa,' a pure Indian ; he 
was full of scars ; a desperate fellow when angry ; had a desperate 
fight with him about midwinter; gave him the worst whipping he 
said he ever got, after which had no trouble with him ; he was greatly 
improved by it. We had a strong opposition from traders at Ber- 
trand and Coldwater. My trade was with the Pottawattomiea and 
Ottawas, and we were kept on the go all winter carrying our goods 
on our backs to the Indians' hunting-camps, returning laden with 
furs and peltries. The season was a success ; sold all my goods, and 
got pay for say nineteen-twentieths ; left there early in April, my 
boat heavily loaded, entering Lake Michigan, and reaching Mackinac 
early in May. I had some trouble with a few of the Indians ; all 
was peace after I subdued ' Cosa.' In the fall I had left buried in 
the sand, at the mouth of Kalamazoo River, some heavy articles, 
because of the rapids, my boat being heavily loaded. In March I 
took a perogue (a large wood canoe), and with one of my men went 
for them. We camped at the foot of the rapids in a snow-storm. In 
the morning, still snowing, we with great effort poled up the rapids ; 
had reached the upper end, I in the bow, poling, my man seated, 
with paddle; a tree had fallen into the river; pushing out to round 
it, current still strong, the bow striking the current, my man careless, 
the canoe would have upset, had I not jumped into the river. Telling 
my man to follow me down the rapids, I swam, and reached our 
camping-spot safely, though much exhausted; got dried, and started 
up again, reaching home next day. 

"2d. ' Where was your residence before coming here?' 
"I was a rover; no particular place; after leaving Montreal, April, 
1818, claiming the house of John Kinzie, Esq., Chicago, as my home. 
My journey there was by Mackinac trading-boat, propelled by oars; 
when wind was fair, a small sail. 

" 3d. ' How came you to come, and under what auspices V 
"In 1815 my father removed from Windsor, Vt., to Montreal. In 
1817 I was placed in Mr. John Frothingham's hardware-store. Mr. 
William Matthews came there as the agent of the American Fur 
Company to purchase goods, and hire clerks and men for that com- 
pany. I had a friend, John Dryde, at whose father's house Mr. 
Matthews stayed. John engaged as one of the clerks. I became 
infatuated with the idea of going. My parents would not listen to 
it, but, persevering all winter, at the last moment they consented. 
Mr. Matthews had engaged all the clerks his order called for, and 
declined on that account and my age (sixteen) ; but through the inter- 
cession of my friends, John, his father, and Mr. Gates, he consented. 
I engaged for five years, at a salary of one hundred and twenty dol- 
lars per annum, my father signing the indentures with me. We left 
the 13th of April in Canadian bateaux, thirteen in number, and 
about one hundred and twenty souls, ascended the St. Lawrence to 
Toronto ; we passed our boats overland with oxen eighteen miles to 
Lake Simcoe; thence another portage to Nottawasaga River, and 
down it to Lake Huron, which we coasted, reaching Mackinac on 
the 4th of July. I was detailed to Antoine Dechamp's brigade of 
thirteen boats for the Illinois River, where I wintered the first year. 
The second year I wintered at the mouth of Muskegon, Lake Michi- 
gan, and in Kalamazoo the third winter. This answers your third 
and fourth questions. 

"5th. 'With what tribes of Indians was your trade? What the 
habits of the Indians when you first knew them compared with that 
of a later date V 

" I was a trader with the Indians for twelve years, embracing the 
Pottawattomiea, Ottawas, Kickapoos, Winnebagoes, and Sacks. After 
the expiration of my five years I continued on a salary ; then half in- 
terest in profit or loss. The last three years I bought out the American 
Fur Company between the Illinois and Wabash Rivers, south of the 
Kankakee. The Indians the first two years were not fully reconciled 
to the Americans. Their habits were, wild rovers over the hunting- 
grounds in the winter, and in the summer at their villages, the men 
amusing themselves at games and visiting from village to village till the 
squaws had planted corn and beans. After the first or second hoeing, 
all but a few old men and women would leave, concentrating with other 
villages at a given point for fun and frolic. If they could get whisky 
they had a gay time, as well as fighting and killing each other. Their 
wants were few; they wore hardly any clothing besides blankets, 
painted hideously ; had their war- and medicine-dances, exhibiting 
scalps, recounting their war experiences, making feasts and offerings 
to the good and bad spirits to appease the anger of both. These exhi- 
bitions gradually lessening, and at. the last only occasionally indulged 
in, except when a warrior died ; then a grand pow-pow at burial, re- 
counting the deeds of the deceased. They became more dressy; all, 
with few exceptions, dressed in shirts, and wore expensive clothes 
and silver ornaments, with more ambition for the riches of this 
world, consisting in horses, rifles, and clothing. 

" 6th. ' Did the missionaries (Catholic or Protestant), either, benefit 
the Indians in your estimation ? Who built the trading-house at Kala- 
mazoo ? When ? Did you surrender your agency to Rix Robinson V 

" I think both Catholic and Protestant missions resulted, in the 
end, in good, but the evidence did not show itself for eight or ten 
years. The Protestant missionaries educating the girls and boys, 
and sending them East for college instruction in higher branches, was 
a sad mistake ; they were flattered there by attentions, more out of 
curiosity, I suppose, than any real interest in them. Returning to 
their tribes after a lapse of three or four years,, they were unfitted for 
Indian life, and not cared for by, the few whites they met, nine- 
tenths of them became miserable drunken fellows, a pest both to 
Indians and whites; and not until they were taught cultivation, and 
schools organized in their own villages, did education do them any 
good, but harm. I do not recollect who built the trading-house at 
Kalamazoo. Think it was Mr. Lafromboin. 

" I may have written you that Rix Robinson succeeded me ; if so, 
it was a mistake. I succeeded him ; who succeeded me, if any one, 
I cannot say. 

"7. 'How many persons (whites) were at Chicago when you first 
visited it ?' 

"Outside of Fort Dearborn there was Mr. John Kinzie and his 
family, wife, a daughter of Mrs. K. by her first husband, Mrs. Helm, 
two sons, and two daughters, of whom there is now living but one,— 
Mrs. Gen. David Hunter, of Washington City. He occupied a long 
log cabin ;" a cultivated family, generous and hospitable. There was 
another log cabin occupied by Antoine Autmett, who had an Indian 
wife. A trading-house near Bridgeport, on South Branch, occupied 
by Pierre Crofts, an opposition trade for Conant, of Detroit, with four 
or five Canadian men. These composed the white citizens. Fort 
Dearborn was occupied by one company. The names of the officers 
at that time I cannot give you, but which you can get from the War 
Department. None of them had wives. They were a contented, 
jolly set. They sent two soldiers to Fort Wayne (nearest post-office) 
once a month, carrying mail on their backs. 

" 8. ' How many Indians have you seen assembled at one time ?' 

"On several occasions I have seen from five thousand to six thou- 
sand assembled. At Kalamazoo, while a trader there, I have enter- 
tained twenty to forty. 

" 9. ' Were you present at the treaty held at Chicago by Gen. Cass 
when lands were ceded V 

" I was present here in 1828 and 1830 at the treaties held by Gov- * 
ernor Cass, and at Tippecanoe in 1832, held by Jenkins and others. 
At all these treaties from five thousand to six thousand Indians were 

"10. 'What was Detroit when you first visited it, and whose ac- 
quaintance did you form V 

" My first visit to Detroit was in the fall of 1828. I went alone on 
horseback from Chicago, following the Sack trail; I passed one house 
(Bailey's) near Michigan City, one at White Pigeon, a trader's house 
at Coldwater, and the next one at Ypsilanti. I should say Detroit 
had a population of about one thousand. I made the acquaintance of 





most of the principal men, — Gen. Cass and family, De Garmo Jones, 
Oliver Newberry, Maj. Robert Forsyth, Abbott, Brewster, C. C. Trow- 
bridge, Judge Sibley, and quite a number of others. I returned in 
the schooner ' Napoleon* on her first trip. She was commanded by 
Blake, being then the largest vessel that had navigated Lake Mich- 

"G. S. Hubbard/'* 

From this letter it would seem that Mr. Robinson must 
have been a trader at Kalamazoo previous to 1820, and he 
was there again in 1824 by his own showing. 

The Mr. Laframboin, mentioned by Mr. Hubbard as 
being the first trader at Kalamazoo, must have preceded 
Robinson ; and the Numaiville, or Lumaiville, mentioned 
by Campau and Robinson, was probably earlier still. 

Mr. Campau's statement would convey the understand- 
ing that a post was established here soon after the war of 
1812-15. It is likely that all the posts were at the same 
locality, and it may be that there were seasons during which 
no white man visited the place. The earliest traders may 
have made use of tents, and the first " little trading-hut," 
as stated by Mr. Robinson, may have been the one erected 
by Numaiville in the fall of 1823. Mr. Hubbard gives no 
intimation of the character of the building occupied either 
by Robinson or himself in 1820, and we are forced to the 
conjecture that previous to that date they either made use 
of tents, Indian wigwams, or bark huts. 

The following additional information concerning Hon. 
Rix Robinson is mainly contributed by Mr. A. D. P. Van 
Buren, of Galesburg : ^ 

Rix Robinson left his home at Auburn, N. Y., for the 
frontier, in 1814. He had recently finished an academic 
course, and was then near the close of a course of law 
studies which would have admitted him to the bar as a 
practicing attorney. 

An incident of a personal character determined him to 
abandon the profession for the rough life of the frontiersman. 

He accordingly made his way to Buffalo, then recently 
destroyed by the British, and from thence, after a passage 
of twenty-six days, to Detroit, where he became a partner 
with a Mr. Phelps, sutler to the United States garrison at 
that post. His father had paid him one thousand dollars in 
specie upon his leaving home, and this sum he invested in 
the business, in which he continued for a period of two 
years, sometimes at Detroit, at other times among the fron- 
tier posts and Indians. At the end of the two years he 
withdrew, receiving, as his share of profit and loss, one 
hundred dollars in money, and two thousand five hundred 
dollars in notes, only one of which, given by Michael Dous- 
man, of Mackinac, proved of value. 

With his available funds he purchased a small stock of 
tobacco in St. Louis, and sold it to advantage to the Indians, 
among whom he now resolved to set up business on his own 
account. He accordingly established trading-stations, first at 
Calumet, in Northeastern Illinois, in 1817, among the Pot- 
tawattornies and Kickapoos ; then in succession at a point 
on the Illinois River, twenty-five miles above its mouth, in 
1819 ; at Milwaukee, Wis., in 1820 ; at the mouth of Grand 
River, Mich., in 1821 ; and, according to Mr. Hubbard, at 
Kalamazoo at a still earlier date. He also had trading-posts 

*Mr. Hubbard is at this date, November, 1879, still living in 
Chicago at an advanced age. 

at Ada, twenty or thirty miles above Grand Rapids, and at 
other places. His post at Ada was his principal one.f 

His earlier purchases of goods and sales of furs were 
made in St. Louis. His goods were transported by canoes 
and barges via the lake and the Illinois and Mississippi 
Rivers, making the portage from the waters of the Illinois 
River to Lake Michigan with great labor and delay. When 
Mackinac became the principal depot of the American Fur 
Company for the Northwestern lakes, he transferred his 
patronage thither on account of greater convenience and 
smaller expense. The business with Mackinac was carried 
on by means of bateaux, until the use of large sail craft 
superseded them. 

In the long course of his dealings with the Indians, Mr. 
Robinson learned their language so thoroughly that he 
might with truth have appropriated the statement made by 
Charlevoix, when speaking of Capt. Le Jonquiere, a noted 
interpreter of the days of the old French war of 1755-60 : 
He spoke the Indian language " avec la plus sublime elo- 
quence riroquoise." This perfect command of the native 
tongue made him immensely popular with his copper- colored 
friends, and was of great advantage to him in his business 
relations with them. They looked upon him, as of old the 
Six Nations looked upon Sir William Johnson, as one 
superior to the common grade of white men. 

It is said the Indians had three varieties of language, — 
one for chiefs or rulers, one for warriors and hunters, and 
one used exclusively by the women. J 

Another peculiarity of their language was its lack of 
vulgar expletives; it had^no equivalent for profanity in 
English. This may account for the fact that an Indian 
will learn the profane portion of the common vernacular 
before any other, partly, no doubt, because of its novelty, 
and partly on account of its greater vigor of expression, 
and its adaptability to the guttural manner of expression so 
common among the savages. 

Mr. Robinson, in addition to his remarkable knowledge 
of the Indian language, possessed a dignified and command- 
ing presence, an even temper, and cultivated a just and 
equitable discrimination in all his dealings. These virtues 
added to his renown among the tribes, and gave him an in- 
fluence for good to which may primarily be ascribed the 
ready welcome and kind treatment with which they received 
the first white people who settled in their vicinity. 

This noted trader, after the abandonment of his original 
occupation in Michigan, about 1837, settled permanently at 

f He had posts at Manistee, Pere Marquette, Muskegon, Clay Bank, 
one up the Muskegon River, one at the mouth of the Kalamazoo 
River,-on North and South Black River, at St. Joseph, and one up 
the St. Joseph River. 

J In 1822, Rev. Isaac McCoy established a mission for the benefit 
of the Pottawattomiea, at the place now occupied by the city of Niles . 
and soon after, by the aid of Governor Cass, he opened a seeond school 
at Grand Rapids. In 1826 the Rev. Leonard Slater joined Mr. Mc- 
Coy, and was placed in charge of the mission at Grand Rapids, where 
he also frequently acted as interpreter. It chanced that his first 
knowledge of the Indian tongue was learned among the squaws. 
Upon his first attempt to translate English into Indian he used the 
language of the women. The Indians listened patiently until he had 
concluded, when, after a proper time, one arose and said, "If you 
came here to talk with men, why don't you use the tongue of a man, 
and not speak to us the words of a woman V* Mr. Slater died in Kal- 
amazoo in 1866. 



Ada, in Kent County, where he became a prominent and in- 
fluential citizen, filling various offices of trust and responsibil- 
ity, among others that of member of the Legislature, serving 
in the State Senate in the years 1846, 1847, 1848, and 
1849. He died at Ada, Kent Co., in 1875, at about the 
age of eighty- two years. 

His intelligence, and the purity of private life which dis- 
tinguished him above the ordinary class of " traders," gave 
him prominence when civilization became dominant in the 
West, and his name stands well among those who have 
occupied important and honorable positions in the civil 
government of the State. With inflexible integrity and 
untiring assiduity he nobly fulfilled every trust reposed in 
him, and died, as he had lived, " without fear and without 

Besides Robinson and Hubbard there were several other 
traders stationed at Kalamazoo, either as employees of these, 
or traders on their own account. Among them were Re- 
collet, Peter Coteau, and one Leiphart. A melancholy 
incident in connection with this post is given in the history 
of Kalamazoo, published in the county directory in 1870, 
which we transcribe : 

" Recollet, one of the oldest of the traders at this point, had two 
daughters, who, as they grew up, became more the pride and idols of 
his heart. Year after year they unfolded new graces and new beau- 
ties, and made the wilderness a merry place with their ringing voices 
and inextinguishable happiness. Like the waters of the Ke-Kena- 
mazoo they loved so much, the current of their lives flowed sweetly, 
smoothly on. Fearless as Indian braves, lithe and sinewy as the wild 
deer, tireless as eagles, and sure-footed as the scout, there was not a 
nook, hillside, or streamlet for miles around which they did not ex- 
plore; not a spring, lake, or meadow brook but returned their mock- 
ing glances, laved their Camillian feet, or bubbled up fresh breakers 
to kiss their thirsty lips. But at last the time came when the father, 
who had long wrestled with the thought of separation, yielded to 
what he believed to be his 'duty, and determined that they should be 
educated, and fitted for a better life, — for he held ' the gray barbarian 
lower than the Christian child.' He went with them to Montreal and 
placed them in a convent. They were permitted twice to revisit their 
old home, and finally, their education completed, they started once 
more homeward. But they were destined never to tread the old 
familiar hills. While on a brief visit to Mackinac, they were both 
drowned, the boat in which they were enjoying an excursion, being 
overturned by a sudden storm. When the sad tidings at length 
reached the aged father, he became like one who, by a sudden stroke, 
is deprived of all hope or comfort. He remained here but a little 
time afterwards, and disappeared, none knew whither." 

The stock in trade of these frontier posts, brought from 
Detroit on pack-horses through the wilderness which then 
covered the lower peninsula, or in bateaux from Detroit 
and Mackinac, consisted of ammunition, tobacco, blankets, 
clothing, beads, hats and caps, steel traps, spears, hooks, a 
small assortment of boots and shoes, and a generous supply of 
the white man's " fire-water," which latter article was deemed 
by the Indians, next to ammunition, the most essential of 
all, though it proved the greatest curse that ever spread its 
baneful influence over a savage people. The traders also 
ventured to dispose of a few rifles and shot-guns occa- 
sionally, and this traffic became so considerable, even before 
the war of 1812, that at the breaking out of hostilities 
many of the Indian tribes were principally armed with the 
deadly weapons of the white man. 

Sometimes extensive traders, such as Louis Campau, sold 
ponies to the Indians. The principal articles of exchange 

possessed by them were furs and skins. Many of the 
traders amassed fortunes, and nearly all wielded a wonderful 
influence over the savages. Occasionally they married In- 
dian women, and adopted, more or less, the habits and cus- 
toms of the children of the forest. Many of the traders, like 
Robinson and Campau, continued their business for several 
years after the white settlers began to come in, and enlarged 
their trade to accommodate the increased demand. 

In speaking of the trading-post at Kalamazoo, the writer 
before quoted discourses as follows : 

" There is much interest attached to the old trading-post on the 
Kalamazoo River at this place, though now (1869) there are only a 
few logs to mark its old foundations and associations with primitive 
days in the memories of the earliest settlers. 

" The grounds upon which it stood, and from whence a most beau- 
tiful view of the river and valley is obtained, are now within the in- 
closure of the Riverside Cemetery. From the hills above it the 
first glimpses of this lovely valley and its fair surroundings met the 
eyes of the earliest pioneers. In May, 1826, a young missionary, on 
his way to the Carey mission, on the St. Joseph River, there to begin 
a life-work of teaching the gospel to the Indians, arrived at the 
summit of the hill which rose before the entrance of the old post. It 
was near nightfall, and, tired with his long tramp upon the trail, he 
stopped, laid down his knapsack and staff, prepared for rest, and was 
not long in finding 'tired nature's sweet restorer — balmy sleep.' In 
the morning he arose and pursued his journey, but the glorious scene 
which met his gaze as he turned it westward was never effaced from 
his mind, and years after, when he knew he must soon rest from life's 
pilgrimage, he desired that the spot where he halted on that May eve- 
ning should be his resting-place. And there Leonard Slater sleeps, 
after forty years' devotion to his Master's cause. 

"The surroundings of the place are, both by nature and association, 
in a high degree romantic. It is the ground upon which many a 
scene of love, prowess, council, and battle was enacted. It was the 
home and the burial-place of the most famous of the Indian chiefs. 
It was here the trails all met for the river crossing, and for some time 
it was the fording-place of the pioneers, until Nate Harrison's ferry 
was started, in 1832, which enjoyed a busy and eventful career until 

" The boys used to have a good deal of fun at the post, when this 
colony was small, and there was no public opinion to regulate its 
morals. There are still living here (1869) some of that merry crew 
who delighted to go down to the post, worry ( old Reckly/* drink his 
whisky, hold 'buayaws,' and have a good time generally. On one 
occasion, after being repeatedly tormented, the old Frenchman, seeing 
his friends approaching, barred his doors and refused them access. 
The boys made a vigorous attack, but vain were all their efforts to 
effect an entrance. Finally, they accomplished by strategy what they 
could not compass by force. One of them mounted the roof, crept to 
the chimney, and, by the aid of his companions, closed the aperture 
completely. Then they patiently waited the result. The Frenchman 
held out as long as possible, but finally succumbed, opening his door, 
rubbing his tearful eyes, and cursing with many sacr-r-es and like 
expletives, having been literally smoked out."f 

* Recollet. 

f In addition to what has already been said of the early trading- 
posts, we append the following, compiled from information furnished 
by Dr. Foster Pratt : 

Rix Robinson was an agent of the American Fur Company, at the 
head of which was John Jacob Astor, of New York. In 1823 or 1824, 
Mr. Robinson bought out the Frenchman, Numaiville, as is shown by 
the books of the American Fur Company, at Mackinac, which Dr. 
Pratt examined, and from which it would appear that Numaiville was 
either doing business on his own capital, or as an agent of the British 
Hudson's Bay Company, most probably the latter. The invoice of 
the Frenchman's goods was charged on the company's books to Rob- 
inson, and the furs brought in by him were credited to him. He 
afterwards, probably, engaged in the business on his own account. 

About the 1st of December, 1879, an aged gentleman named 
Meaeham,from Cass Co., Mich., was interviewed at the Burdick House, 
in Kalamazoo, by Dr. Pratt. The old man, who was remarkably pre- 




The earliest settlements of the county of Kalamazoo were 
made on Prairie Konde, within the present limits of the 
town of Prairie Ronde, in November, 1828, by Bazel Har- 
rison ; in Kalamazoo, in June, 1829, by Titus Bronson ; 
in Comstoek, by William Toland, in the fall of 1829; in 
Oshtemo and Texas, in the same year ; in Portage, in 
1830 ; in Richland, on Gull Prairie, by Col. Isaac Barnes, 
in May, 1830 ; and in Ross and Charleston, in 1831. 

In this connection we insert some admirable sketches of 
the " pioneer" days by A. D. P. Van Buren, Esq., a pro- 
lific and interesting writer, and one u who knows whereof 
he affirms." They have mostly been published in the Bat- 
tle Creek and Kalamazoo papers, and are well worthy of 
preservation in the history of the county : 


" Nowadays the old, slow-moving, unobtrusive canal-boat, gliding 
along its narrow, watery way, attracts no attention. But behold 
what a sensation that railway train creates, as it flies with the speed 
of the wind, from city to city, through hamlet and over farm-land ! 
The one is an emblem that represents the good old times past. The 
other is an emblem that represents this fast, stirring, noisy age of 
ours. There was a charm about that old canal-boat, — that migratory 
home, that took you, your family, and your household goods, boarded 
and lodged you, and carried you safely and at a very reasonable 
charge from Albany to Buffalo. That unpretending 'old liner/ into 
which, like muskrats, you must dive for ingress, was yet found pleas- 
ant and homelike within. . The captain was your landlord, and a 
most companionable gentleman. His wife, or a matron in charge, 
was your landlady, who understood the rare art of entertaining her 
guests, and making you feel at ease and at home. There you were 
domiciled, and felt as secure and happy as at a way-side inn ; only 
you were going abroad in it, and secured the delights of travel, not 
to be enjoyed afoot or on wheels. And you had this with none of the 
dangers that often haunt you in modern railway travel. You had 
only to take care of yourself, and enjoy the society of your fellow- 
passengers and the panoramic views of the country that were in all 
their varied beauty, long drawn out. This was the mode of travel 
that gave you the most of the country, the most safety, and the cheapest 
fare. It was full as safe and as cheap as to stay at home. If tired 
of riding, you could spring from the boat to the tow-path, where you 
could hunt, ramble, or ransack in the woods to your heart's content. 
Although De Witt Clinton was at first ridiculed for his efforts in 
carrying out the Dutch idea of travel in this country, yet who shall 
say how much ' his ditch' contributed towards settling the great un- 
known West? 

" It was the only available mode of travel for the emigrant to the 
West at that time. A strong man could walk, but his family and his 
household goods, how was he to transport them to this far country ? 
To fit out an emigrant wagon was too expensive, and the way was too 
untried and too long. At this time traveling on the Erie canal-boat 
was found commodious and cheap, and the emigrants could take all 
they wanted to start new homes with in the wild regions they were 
going to. Hence, really, on ' Clinton's ditch' — 

' Westward the course of empire took its way,' 

and soon the log house, then the thriving settlement, the busy village, 
the crowded city, and the great State arose where late there was but 
an unbroken wilderness. How much Michigan is indebted to the 
magic potency that laid concealed in those four words, ' The old Erie 
Canal/ who can tell ? Could those * old liners' speak, what histories 

served, stated that he crossed the ford on the Kalamazoo River in 
January, 1827, and there was then a single white man's building in 
the valley, and that was the little trading house (built partly of logs 
and partly of bark) in which he found the Frenchman, Numaiville, 
engaged in the fur trade. He located the cabin near the ferry, and 
on ground now included in the southwest corner of the Riverside 
Cemetery. Numaiville was undoubtedly at that date in the employ 
of Robinson. 

they could relate ! Like the ' boat of JEneas/ the ' May Flower' of 
the Pilgrims, the l Half Moon' of Hendrick Hudson, their mission was 
to carry adventurers forth to plant colonies in a new land. 

" My parents, a sister and myself, with the household effects that 
were deemed essential for our future purposes, on the 1st of October, 
1836, left our home at New York Mills, Oneida Co., N. Y., and took 
passage at Yorkville, one-half mile distant, in the line boat ' Magnet/ 
on the Erie Canal, for Buffalo. As we left, we heard the whistle of 
the locomotive, at IJtica, two miles east. Railway travel in New York 
was completed to that city at that time ; the next time we heard that 
' whistle' it was in 1845, in the young and picturesque village of Kala- 
mazoo, Mich. One week's travel on the Erie Canal brought us to 
Buffalo. Here, taking a new and staunch steamer, * United States/ 
we made a speedy trip up the lake to Detroit. The boat was crowded 
with people, mostly emigrants, from various parts of the East, bound 
to various points in the West. Each emigrant family had with them 
all the essential paraphernalia for starting new homes in a new land. 

"My father and his son-in-law, Edwin Dickinson, had the year 
previous visited Michigan, and after making a purchase of lands, re- 
turned. Two of my brothers, Martin and Ephraim, had preceded us, 
going in the spring of 1836 to erect a log house on the new land for 
the family, who were to come in the fall. That time had now arrived, 
and as we stepped off the steamer at Detroit, we found Ephraim, who 
had come in from Milton, Calhoun Co., one hundred and twenty-five 
miles distant, with two yoke of oxen before a lumber-wagon, to take 
the family and their goods to the new home. 

"In August, 1679, De La Salle and Louis Hennepin, French ex- 
plorers, discovered a large village of the Hurons, called Teuchsagronde, 
covering part of the ground where Detroit now stands.* M. deLaMotte 
Cadillac built a fort, a stockade of wooden pickets, in July, 1701, on 
the same spot. But this was not discovering Michigan. The French 
Jesuits touched at Detroit and Mackinac a century or more ago, with 
one eye on the red man, as a means of establishing their religion in 
the remote West, and the other on his furs, or any other commodity 
the Indian had to offer. Yet it was not till 1824 or 1828 that Mich- 
igan was really discovered. Previous to that time, says Judge Holmes, 
of Newark, Ohio, ' All back of Detroit was considered a swamp. I 
know, for I was one of the government surveyors, and could not survey 
it except in the winter on the ice.' 

"These reports, started by the old surveyors, were caught up and 
circulated by designing speculators, through their agents, stationed at 
Buffalo, Erie, Cleveland, Toledo, Detroit, and other points on the lakes 
where they could reach emigrants going west, their object being to 
divert the tide of emigration from Michigan and turn it to Northern 
Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, or to any point where they had lands, and 
hence an interest in having a settlement made. 

" Many of the emigrants, as they arrived at any of the above places, 
were waylaid by these ' tutored barbarians/ and being influenced by 
their wheedling stories, took some other route westward and never 
came to Michigan. Detroit at that time was the rendezvous for all 
emigrants who came west by the lake. Here they stopped to get their 
outfit, if they had come without it; here they made preparations, 
got needed supplies, and started out to begin anew, in the woods. 
There were some half-dozen not very imposing brick blocks, and no 
very grand buildings of any kind in Detroit at that time. There was 
not much that was very prepossessing about the place, perhaps more 
so because the muddy condition of the streets discounted largely on 
the whole town. The streets, although apparently impassable from 
this mud, were yet full of the stir and turmoil of business, mostly of 
teams passing and repassing. Conspicuous among these were the 
emigrant wagons, of various and nondescript kinds, sizes, and con- 
struction, — some with the rude canvas covering and some were open, 
some drawn by one yoke of oxen, some by two, and some by three. 
Occasionally horses were used. These wagons were loaded with boxes 
filled with household goods, the largest ones being placed at the bottom, 
the next smaller on these, and so on to the smallest at the top. Then 
the various loose articles of the household paraphernalia were stuck 
or fastened here and there upon or between the boxes, looking as if 
they had budded, blossomed, and branched out from the load. The 
sturdy emigrant and his resolute wife were seated in front on the load, 
and cropping out here and there on the boxes behind there were bon- 
nets and little hoods, caps and curly heads, and occasionally following 

* This statement is not well authenticated. Parkman says nothing 
of it. 



behind, hitched with a rope to the wagon, was 'old crumple-horn/ 
while various other cattle, of diverse and sundry ages and sizes, were 
driven by some of the older boys, who were attended by ' old Bose.' 
Any number of these wagons, thus loaded, with or without their retinue, 
as described above, could be seen dragging their slow lengths along 
the streets of Detroit at almost any time of the day, leaving the city 
on the various roads that diverged into the country. They soon got 
into the woods, and the road grew less and less a traveled road till, in 
many cases, the emigrants were even left in the trackless forest to 
make their own road over hill and down dale, by marsh and around 
swamps, fording streams and struggling over impassable places, thus 
threading their way onward to the point of their destination in the 
interior or western part of the State. These were emigrant-trains 
with outfits to establish homes in Michigan. 

" The red men were the original surveyors of the route between De- 
troit and Chicago. They did not cut down trees, grade it, build cul- 
verts, or ' cattle-guards,' or bridges, but following nature's grading, 
they meandered out their trail, put on their 'rolling-stock,' and shout- 
ing ' mar-chee V started westward for Chicago. Mr. 'Lo, the poor In- 
dian,' had 'the right of eminent domain/ and understood the lay of 
the land and the flow of the water across the lower peninsula. Often 
in Detroit his 'pony express,' with passenger and freight accommo- 
dation attached, could be seen starting out on the accustomed trail, 
whistling 'down breaks/ and 'switching oif' at whatever station or 
locality they chose, and they halted or bivouacked wherever they 
wished or could find a leafy covert, near some lake or stream. Gen. 
Lewis Cass — probably the first white man — Went by ' pony express' 
from Detroit to Chicago on this trail, through the unbroken wilder- 
ness, ere a settler's cabin was reared in the lower peninsula. Then 
followed the pioneer, who pushed out with his fortunes on this trail, 
until he got to the diverging point, and then struck out north or south, 
as the case might be, following the blazed trees to his lands. And 
there he pitched his tent and went to work alone in the wilderness to 
erect a home. He had his rifle, axe, and plow, energy and courage, 
and a plucky wife to aid him. He had brought with him a meagre 
outfit of household goods, perhaps, but his money was all gone. 
With these small means the work began. This was an embryo settle- 
ment, and meant not only a log house in the woods, but a clearing, 

it meant school-houses and churches, machine-shops and stores, town- 
ship and county organizations, villages and cities; it meant to repro- 
duce Eastern life in this wooded territory, it meant what Michigan is 
to-day, a great and glorious State. 

"We found on leaving Detroit, in 1836, a wagon-track, which 
for the first thirty-six miles wound through the heavy timbered lands 
of Wayne County. It seemed to us the worst road that mortal ever 
traveled over. Some idea may be had of its condition from the 
phrases and stories then in vogue about it. It was called 'a hard road 
to travel/ 'one continuous mud-hole/ 'a road without any bottom.' 
Thus the very hyperbole of extravagance was used in talking about 
it. The emigrant was supposed to stop two nights at a tavern, the 
night he reached it, and the first night after he left it, as he could not 
get far enough away from it. And the same wonderful stories were 
told about the taverns being so crowded that the landlord would stow 
away at night all the beds would hold, and then wait till they were 
asleep, when he would take them from the bed and stand them up in 
the corners, and so on until all were put to sleep. The great trouble 
with this method was, personal identity in the morning. People gen- 
erally expect to find themselves, when they awake from sleep, very 
near where the drowsy god shed his poppies over them. But that 
was their matter, not ours." 

" The new home was so entirely secluded in the woods, tha't we felt, 
on entering it, like going into hermitage. We had lost a home,— the 
old one in New York,— and here we realized its full value j for we 
felt homeless as we went into this rude cabin. Nothing but ourselves 
and the little household furniture we had brought to remind us of the 
old home. If, as before stated, we missed some of our favorite birds 
in the woods about us, we, on the other hand within-doors, were not 
troubled with the house-fly, the mischievous mouse, or the gnawing 
rat. It was a long time before either of them made their appearance 
among us. After we had been here a year without having seen a 
person or living thing that we had once known in New York, my 
mother, one day, on opening a book, found a house-fly, which had 
been caught and preserved between the leaves. She exclaimed, 

' Here is a fly from York State I Now, children, don't touch it ; let 
it remain here in this book just as it is, for it is ajly that once lived in 
our old home.' We had been here five years before we saw a person 
whom we had ever known before. Mr. Wood, then living at Battle 
Creek, came to see us. He had only known of our family in New 
York, but here he seemed an old-time friend. 

"Out-of-doors was beautiful, wild Michigan. Our cattle had a 
boundless range to feed and roam over in the oak-openings, which were 
not like the woods of New York, ' all a tangle with cut briers and under- 
brush/ but clean and trim, no fences, roads, or even a track, save the 
deer-paths and Indian trails that meandered through them. From 
the door of our log house we could often see long files of Indians, afoot 
and on ponies, wending their way along on these trails that were in 
places worn down to the depth of two feet. There always appeared 
to us to be some strange, romantic history connected with the lives of 
these wandering children of the forest. The deer also could be seen 
feeding at leisure, or trooping by the door in droves. And occasion- 
ally, in the stilly night, from some leafy covert, we would hear the 
lone howl of the wolf. The bear went foraging through the corn-fields, 
or snuffing round the betterments for a pig, while the fox paid his 
nightly devoirs to our hen-roost. The weather remained remarkably 
fine during the fall. Such Indian summer days used once in a while to 
visit us in New York, but here they seemed to be 'to the manor born/ 
and we had them by the week-full. 

" Being established in the new home, we began to cast about us for 
means of subsistence. As was most usual, when the pioneer reached 
his lands here and erected his cabin, his money was all gone. We 
were left to our own resource, — labor. This was all the capital we had. 
My brothers had cut hay for the cattle from the marsh near by. But 
we must have winter stores for the family and corn for the cattle, the 
pigs, and hens. The two latter yet to be procured and paid for some- 
how or other. The settlement on Goguac was about five years old. 
This was our Egypt for wheat, corn, potatoes, and other necessary 
supplies. There we found a chance to husk corn and dig potatoes on 
shares, and by dint of various kinds of labor we secured some wheat 
and pork. Many things were not to be had for money or labor. Here 
the rich and poor were on a level. 

" Wheat and corn suggested a grist-mill. The nearest one was at 
Com stock, on the west, or Marshall, on the east. Some seventeen miles 
to either of them. 

"There was a primitive grist-mill one-quarter of a mile from oui* 
home, in a small Indian hamlet on the banks of a rush-bordered lake. 
On several occasions we had noticed the squaws grinding corn at this 
mill. It was constructed in this manner : a long pole or sapling was 
pinned to a tree like a well-sweep, the lower part of which was pestle- 
shaped; the top of the stump was hollowed out to hold the corn. 
The sweep was then worked up and down by one of the squaws, while 
another steadied and directed the pestle, which, as it came down, 
mashed the corn in this crude mortar. We concluded not to take our 
grist to this mill, and as the Battle Creek mill was not running, we 
went to the one at Marshall. This, with an ox-team, was a two- or 
three-days' trip. As wheat was scarce and corn more plenty, many 
settlers were compelled to live on ' Johnny-cake.' 

" ' How are you getting along, Mr. Olds ?' said my mother to our 
neighbor, as he called at our house. ' Oh, we ain't getting along, we 
are only staying : it's mighty hard living on Johnny-cake. I shall 
thank God if we ever live to see the day when we can have wheat- 
bread in our family the year round. I don't know as we ever shall ; 
it will be a sort of millennium with us when wheat-bread takes its 
place on our table once more.' Neighbor Olds has lived to see that 
day, and Michigan to be one of the greatest wheat-growing States in 
the Union. 

" As there was no wheat raised the first year, this was the discour- 
aging time with the settler. Corn was sooner raised, and hence 
Johnny-cake for awhile was the staff of life. Pork was scarce, from 
the fact that hogs were scarce. The breeds then in vogue were the 
'wind-splitters/ the 'blue-racers/ and the third or fourth 'raw- 
rooters.' Everything of the cattle kind was used, — the cow for milk 
and butter, and the ox for labor. A cow or stout heifer was sometimes 
worked by the side of an ox. 

" In the spring of 1837 provision of every kind was very scarce and 
dear. Wheat was over two dollars per bushel, corn and oats very 
high where they could be bought at all, "potatoes were ten shillings 
per bushel, and it was necessary to go to Prairie Ronde, a round trip 
of iome sixty miles, to get them at that price. We gave thirteen 



dollars to Frank Thomas, of Goguac, for a shoat of the wind-splitter 
breed, weighing probably sixty pounds, dressed. It was so lean it 
would not fry itself. We had to boil it in half a dozen waters, and 
then it would not pass as ' legal tender' with any one who knew what 
pork was. We would occasionally kill a deer, and then venison would 
supply our tables with meat. 

" My father had brought five hundred pounds of codfish from New 
York. This was exchanged for pork with our neighbors. This ex- 
changing of one thing for another was called paying in ' dicker.' 
This ' dicker' was all the money we had in circulation, and was of 
denominations so various that we cannot name them here. Each 
settler was a banker, and all his movable property — large and small 
— was his bank stock. He paid for an ox-yoke by giving for it its 
equivalent in so many pounds of pork. This was the first original 
start or trade, giving the products of one kind of labor for those of 
another. ' Dicker' was all the money the settlers had until paper money 
or specie found its way into the settlement. 

" The pioneer did not take the poet's advice, ' neither a borrower nor 
a lender be.' During the first decade of his life here he 'spelled his 
way along' with the axe and the plow. Borrowing sometimes was 
the very means to help him out of difficulty and set his enterprise 
agoing again. Everybody borrowed and everybody lent, and by it 
business was kept prosperous and suffering often avoided. If the 
thing needed could not be borrowed or paid for in ' dicker,' necessity 
then took the settler into pupilage and taught him how to make what 
he wanted, from an axe-helve or plow to a house and barn. All under- 
going common hardships made equals and friends of all. 

" For developing neighborly traits, for leveling distinctions, and for 
carrying out the letter and spirit of the Scriptural rule, 'do as you 
would wish to be done by,' the settling of a new country is unsur- 
passed. It was here that a man went for what he was worth, not for 
his station or his wealth j whether American, Scotch, Irish, or what 
not, the man was taken into account, not the mantle. 

" If a settler went to mill he lent of his grist to every one who 
wished to borrow at the log cabins he passed on his way home. 
Sometimes, on reaching his house, of a large grist he would have but 
little left. 

"A shed, constructed of logs, covered with marsh hay, answered for 
shed and barn. The first crop of wheat, cut with the old hand-cradle, 
was bound, drawn, and stacked near the shed. Near the stack a spot 
of earth was cleared and made smooth and hard for a thrashing-floor. 
On this floor the wheat was thrashed, and with the old flail. It was 
then cleaned of chaff* by the old hand-fan. In process of time, Dickey, 
of Marshall, made fanning-mills, and the thrashing-machine made 
its appearance. Then much labor was saved by its use. During the 
winter and spring, when fodder became scarce, trees were cut down 
and cattle were driven to the tree-tops to browse on the buds and 
tender part of the limbs. By this means, and sometimes only by this, 
the cattle were carried through the winter and early spring. 

" In a little sunny glade, hard by a stream that ran through the farm, 
was an Indian corn-field. The corn-hills, with the stubble yet stand- 
ing in them, marked the spot where the previous year Mr. ' Lo' had 
been engaged in corn-planting. The little mounds of earth showed 
where they had buried their corn. Their favorite camping-ground 
was on the banks of the little lake above mentioned. This lake was 
made by the beavers. The dam, of their construction, was at its foot. 
But the Indians, years gone by, had captured all the beavers and sold 
their skins to the French fur-traders. The beavers had been succeeded 
by those other builders, the musk-rats, who in turn took possession of 
this lake, and, erecting their houses, increased in * numbers and 
flourished for many years. 

" The Indians, getting their whisky at Angell's distilleries, would 
come to their wigwams, here by the lake, and have their pow-wows. 
We could hear them yell and whoop and see them dance and go 
through with their wild and grotesque antics. They would also en- 
gage in sports of the turf. Mounting their ponies, they would ride 
with whip and yell and wild halloo, and exult in genuine Indian 
style over the pony that came out ahead. We remember no depreda- 
tions they committed. A cold morning in winter one came to our 
house. He was tall and savage-looking, with painted face, toma- 
hawk and scalping-knife in his belt, and gun in his hand. He ' boo- 
shooed' himself into the house, and began, in deep, guttural utter- 
ances and fierce gesticulating, to yell about ' Cho-mo-ko-man's' — 
pointing to the northwest — getting the deer he had shot. The Indian 
had shot a deer, and a settler finding it ere the Indian came up, took 

it home. The red man tracked the settler to his cabin, where, in the 
loft overhead, he found his deer secreted and claimed it. The settler, 
unheeding his claim, turned him out of doors. This act, and the in- 
justice of taking his deer, made the Indian mad. For a time we all 
feared there would be a tragical end to this affair. But nothing more 
was heard of it. 

" At another time a squaw came to the house, and seeing a small jug 
in the corner, eagerly took it up, and cried out, 'Whiskee!' My 
mother told her it was vinegar; she, shaking the jug, retorted : ' You 
lie, — whis-kee !' The broomstick would have hit the squaw's head if 
she had not dodged and ran out of doors. 

*' My brother was splitting rails alone in the woods, one day, when 
an Indian, coming up behind him, saluted him with a booshoo so un- 
expectedly that he turned around to strike with his beetle some 
animal, he supposed, when he was confronted by a tall Pottawattomie ; 
and the next thing he said was ' Som — mock — me— sam — mock !' 
meaning tobacco. Giving him the only plug of tobacco he had, the 
Indian took it, bit off a piece, and putting the rest in his pocket, 
walked away. ' That was cool,' thought my brother, ' and I five 
miles from another plug of tobacco.' 

" 'Tis said one of the old fur traders was accustomed to weigh the 
furs he bought of his Indian customers in the following manner. 
Putting the furs on one side of the scales he would say, little finger 
weigh so much j two fingers, so much ; one hand, so much ; two hands 
so much, and so on, bearing down on the scale with one finger or two 
or with the hand, as the case might be. 

" During the winter of 1836 my brothers went to an evening party 
on Goguac Prairie. About midway through the woods they met a 
large bear directly in their path. Seeing that he was not disposed to 
get out of their way, they advanced towards him swinging their hats 
and yelling at the top of their voices. He grumblingly moved aside, 
and they passed on, well satisfied to get on so easily." 


" There were no members of our settlement — we mean the one on 
Goguac Prairie and the surrounding region — who felt too indifferent 
or too dignified to attend the social parties that were held in the set- 
tlers' log cabins. But what were these parties, you ask ? I will tell 
you. In the first place, there was the quilting frolic, the girls attend- 
ing in the afternoon, the boys coming in the evening. Then there 
was the frolic without the quilting, which girls and boys attended in 
the evening. Both of these parties usually commenced by playing 
' snap and catch 'em,' or, 

" ' Come Philander, let's be marching, 
Every one his true love searching,' 

with other plays following, the programme being varied to suit the 
company. They were often called ' bussing bees,' because the kiss 
was sure to steal in during the various acts of the play, and each play 
was certain to end with a kiss. The music in these parties was all 
vocal, consisting of marches, songs, and catches, — sometimes impro- 
vised for the occasion. Then there was the frolic that began with the 
play and ended with the fiddle' 8 

Putting life and mettle in their heels. 

All in the house were usually participants in these amusements. 
Sometimes the old folks, or perhaps the antiquated maiden aunt, 
would be * snapped up,' or judged to kiss or be kissed by some young 
man or lady, as the case might be. ' Snap them up,' meant the snap- 
ping of the fingers, by a frolicker, at some one of the company, and 
was a challenge for the person to chase and catch them. This brought 
out the swift-footed Mercuries and Atalantas to the arena, one of whom 
chased the other around a group standing in the centre of the room. 
This often resulted in a well-contested race, which was varied by all 
manner of subterfuge and art, in dodging and eluding the pursuer. 
The young lady, whether the capturer or captured, was always kissed. 
Sometimes an old settler 'snapped up' his wife, and then we would 
have a race of an amusing character. 

"We said that all participated in these recreations. Those who 
lived in the village of Battle Creek knew but little of these frolics, 
unless they chanced to be at a settler's house on one of these occa- 
sions. There were also families who had no children, or none old 
enough to go in young company, and there were some who did not 
object to the plays, but did not like the dancing. They liked Paganini, 
but not with his fiddle. We remember instances where the company 



have waited until the parents had retired for the night, and then the 
fiddler, who had been ' smuggled in' with his 'Cremona/ opened his 
little box and took out his instrument. A few passes of the bow 
across the strings called out couple after couple of the party to the 
floor, each one bowing gracefully to the other, as they took their 
positions in two opposite lines across the room. The man with the 
bow in the meanwhile — 

44 Feels his fiddle's slender neck, 

PiGks out the notes with thumb and check, 

And times the tune with nod and beck, 
And thinks it a weary while. 

4 All ready P How he gives the call ; 

Cries, 4 Honor to the ladies all I' 

The jolly tides of laughter fall 
And ebb in happy smile. 

44 4 Begin.' Down goes the bow on every string : 
4 First couple join right hands and swing !' 
As light as any blue-bird's wing, 

4 Swing once and a half times round.' 
^ Whirls Mary Martin all in blue— 
Oalico gown and stockings new, 
And tinted eyes that tell you true, 
Dance all to the dancing sound. 

44 She flits about big Moses Brown, 
Who holds her hands to keep her down, 
And thinks her hair a golden crown, 

And his heart turns over once ! 
His cheek with Mary's breath is wet, 
It gives a second somerset, 
He means to win the maiden yet ; 

Alas 1 for the awkward dunce. 

44 Now the first pair dance apart ; 
Then 4 Forward, six !' advance, retreat. 
Like midges gay in sunbeam street, 
'Tis Monnie Musk in busy feet, 

And the Monnie Musk by heart. 

44 4 Three-quarters round your partners swing.' 
4 Across the set.' The rafters ring, 
And boys and girls have taken wing, 

And have brought their roses out ! 
'Tis ' Forward, six !' with rustic grace, 
Ah, rarer far than ' Swing to place !' 
Than golden clouds of old point-lace, 

They bring the dance about. 

' 4 Then clasping hands all — 4 Right and left !' 
All swiftly weave the measure deft 
Across the woof in loving weft, 

And the Monnie Musk is done ! 
Oh, dancers of the rustling busk, 
Good-night, sweethearts, it is growing dusk ; 
Good-night for aye to Monnie Musk, 

For the heavy march begun ! 

"The ox-team, which was dignified with the name of 'horned 
horses,' carried the merry loads through the woods to the home of 
the settler who gave the party. 

"We can recollect instances where a prayer-meeting was held in a 
settler's log house one evening, and the next evening a party. The 
same ones who composed the choir and sang 4 Old Hundred/ ' Mear/ 

44 4 Awake, my soul, to joyful lays,' 

at the p ray er- meeting, led the next night at the party in 

44 4 Come, Philander, let's be marching.' 

"Looking back upon these scenes from to-day's stand-point, we 
might feel inclined to be censorious, and call them frivolous, silly re- 
creations, if not morally wrong. Well, it does look like nonsense 
now. Distance don't lend any enchantment to them. But we can 
look back upon the past and find a good many things done forty years 
ago that appear like nonsense to us now, which were not so to the 
people of that day. These were harmless recreations. After the cus- 
tomary conversation and chit-chat were over, the programme for an 
evening party sometimes began in this way : a young man would 
arise and ask a young lady to take his arm, when they commenced 
marching about the room ; another couple and another followed, till 
all were promenading two- and two about the floor, singing, — 
44 4 We're all a-marching to Quebec, 

The drums are loudly beating ; 
The Americans have gained the day 

And the British are retreating . 

The wars are o'er, and we'll turn back 

To the place from whence we started ; 
So open the ring and choose a couple in 

To relieve the broken-hearted.' 

44 Round and round the floor they went, until they came to 

44 * Open the ring and choose a couple in ;' 

they then took hold of each others' hands, fell back and formed a 
circle around the room, when some one was deputed to go into the ring 
and choose a partner from among those in the circle, at which all 
chimed in, — 

44 4 Green grow the rushes, 0, 

Kiss her quick and let her go ; 

But don't you muss her ruffle, !' 

" When the marching was over, and the company felt inclined to 
change the play, they would take hold of hands and form a circle 
about the room. Some young lady would then be requested to step 
into the middle of the ring, when the company would sing, — 

44 4 There's a rose in the garden 
For you, young man (repeat) 
Now pluck up courage and 
Pick it if you can.' 

Shetelects a partner* who walks int> the ring with her, and all sing, — 

44 ' Green grow the rushes, 0, 

Kiss her quick and let her go,' etc. 

He obeys, and she goes out of the ring, leaving him in alone. Then, 
perhaps, they would sing, — 

44 4 There he stands, that great big booby, 
Who he is I do not know ; 
Who will take him for his beauty? 
Let her answer, yes or no.' 

He then selects a young lady from the circle ; they chant 

44 4 Green grow the rushes, 0/ 

he kisses her and goes out. Thus the play goes on until all the girls 
are kissed out of the ring. 

44 At another time they would march two by two around the room, 
forming a double circle, some young man standing in the centre of 
the floor while they promenaded about him and sang,-— 

44 4 The miller he lived close by the mill, 

And his wheel went round without his will ; 

With one hand on the hopper and the other in the bag, 

As the wheel goes round he cries out, grab.' 

At the word i grab' the young man inside the ring seized hold of 
a young lady's arm, while her partner caught the arm of the young 
lady ahead of him, and her partner caught hold of the one still ahead 
of him, and thus they changed or stole each others' girls while hur- 
riedly marching about the room, making a very lively and amusing 
confusion. When the change was made all round, perhaps two or 
three times over, there was still one odd one left, who went into the 
ring, and the play began again, and was repeated as often as they de- 
sired. When the company wished something still livelier, ' hurly- 
burly' never failed to awaken and amuse the dullest. This was a play 
in which two went around and gave each one, secretly, something 
to do. For instance, this girl was to pull some young man's hair, 
another was to pull his nose or tweak his ear, another one to kiss 
some one; and such a young man was to measure off so many 
yards of tape, or to make a ' double-and-twisted lordy-massy' with 
some young latly, and so on to the end of the chapter. When all 
had been told what to do, the master of ceremonies cried out, 4 Hurly- 
burly !' Each one then sprang to their feet and hastened to do as they 
had been instructed. This created a scene of mixed, contradictory, 
and amusing character, and was most properly named hurly-burly. 

" It would seem rather odd to see such recreations among the young 
people in the country about Battle Creek now, because they have so 
many other sources of amusement which the young folks of that day 
did not have, and for the lack of something better, enjoyed the best 
they had. Many of those young people are old gray-headed men and 
women now, and probably look back upon their recreations with a 
sigh for those they loved in the days when they went pioneering forty 
years ago. 

■ i( As we have said, the drones stayed East j none but the working 
bees came to this new country. Hence the class of young men and 
ladies were first in point of worth and industry. Among them now 



we have some of the best citizens in this part of the State. Some have 
died, some have removed to other parts of the country, and some, hav- 
ing married the girls with whom they 'played the beau' or made 
' double-and-twisted lordy-massies,' in these frolics of the olden time, 
and are now living on the old farm where they first started life in 

" The following adventure in a party at my father's one evening 
will be remembered by many. A company of young folks from Go- 
guac Prairie, with others in the neighborhood, were present at this 
time. While they were promenading two by two around the room, 
singing a lively march, and just as they said, 

" * Love fare you well, darling fare you well,' 

a young couple, who had at that moment stepped on the trap-door be- 
fore the fireplace, sank down into the cellar, to the astonishment of the 
whole party. All immediately gathered about the hole and called 
out to those below, 'Are you hurt?' The response came back, 'No.' 
The trap-door had worked loose by the repeated tramping of feet over 
it, and had finally given way with a couple on it. They came up out 
of the cellar unharmed, and were the hero and heroine of the party 
the rest of the evening. 

" William Michael was the song-singer and delineator of character 
on these occasions. His bon-mots and witty sayings were always sure 
to enliven the company. He went to Illinois some years later with 
the Thomases. 

" Old gran'ther Morehouse, father to Aaron and Bradley Morehouse, 
was sometimes the musician at these parties when the violin was called 
into requisition. He was a very fine old gentleman of the school of 
the first half of this century. Tall and dignified in person, yet so 
affable and genial in manner that all liked him and felt at home in his 
presence. He was an old man then, his gray locks and wrinkled face 
indicated the grandfather ; yet when he took the violin there was all 
the graceful ease and skill in handling the bow for which he was cele- 
brated in his younger days. He could yet evoke the richest music 
from his favorite instrument. 'Tis said he purchased his violin at 
Montreal, in 1800, that its trade-mark was 1600, and that it was made 
at Innspruck, in the Tyrol, by Jacob Steiner, who learned his trade at 
Cremona, in Italy. This instrument, I understand, Mr. Neale, of Bat- 
tle Creek, now owns. We knew nothing of the history of his violin 
then, but we knew that he could give Zip Coon, Monnie Musk, and the 
favorite tunes of the day, to the perfect delight of the entire company, 
on the instrument that he handled. He always admired the dancing 
of Miss Nancy Orser, one of the young ladies from Goguac, and would 
occasionally play some tune for her to dance alone. He had played, 
he said, for many fine dancers, but she could beat them all. She was 
afterwards Mrs. Enoch Stewart, — since dead. 

" Daniel Angell also ' handled the fiddle and bow' at these frolics. 
The Halladay boys, both ' Mat and Cal,' were also in vogue ; these 
were their palmy days with the fiddle. 

" These parties were not only a source of amusement, but offered a 
good chance for the young people to get acquainted with each other. 
They were really a kind of social school to the young people in the 
settlement, as we had no churches, and no preaching, save an occa- 
sional sermon in a settler's house by some wandering preacher; no 
newspapers, few books, no public lectures or any public entertain- 
ment; there was a dearth of social culture and improvement. These 
parties were the first phase of social recreation. They were for that 
pioneer period highly enjoyable. All were neighbors and attached 
friends, — a community of first brotherhood or genuine Adelphians. 

" There were no purse-proud families. They all alike lived in log 
houses, and were bound to each other by many acts of neighborly 
kindness. Pride of dress was in its healthy, normal state. The ' ten- 
dollar boots' and the 'hundred-dollar bonnets' had not got into the 
new settlement; neither had ' Mrs. Lofty and her carriage, and dapple 
grays to draw it.' Neither had Mrs. Grundy pulled the latch-string 
at the door of a single log cabin in the settlement. She and all her 
kith and kin were East. Neither had the ' fashions' got in among us. 
It was fashionable then to live within your means, and the best suit 
of clothes you could afford to wear was the fashionable one. All 
classes worked for a living, and thrived. Wealth and leisure were not 
here to create distinctions. Aristocracy, which is said to be the off- 
spring of ancient wealth, was not in these regions. Yet every settler 
was an aristocrat,— one of the true nobility, who had earned his title 
by useful toil in the high school of labor. 

" Railings, logging-bees, husking-bees, quilting-bees, and the many 


other occasions in which the word bee was used to indicate the gather- 
ing of the settlers to render gratuitous aid to some neighbor in need, 
originated in and were confined to new settlements. It was merely 
the voluntary union of the individual aid and strength of an entire 
community to assist a settler in doing what he was unable to accom- 
plish alone. 

"Hence by bees the pioneers raised their houses and barns, did 
their logging, husked their corn, quilted their bed-coverings, and en- 
joyed themselves in frolic and song with the girls in the evening. 

" It was no slight task in those days when log cabins were few and 
far between, especially when they were from three to twenty miles 
apart, to go the rounds through the woods to invite the neighbors to 
your raising or bee. It was a weary, foot-sore tramp, and often at the 
lone hour of midnight the latch-string would be pulled and the occu- 
pant informed that his aid would be needed the next day at a raising. 
But the cheering response you got at every cabin, ' I'll be there to 
help you/ sent you on your way rejoicing. Each settler was a minute- 
man, and was ready at a moment's warning to yoke up his oxen, 
shoulder his axe, and start to assist his brother-neighbor in need. 

" In that early period people who lived twenty miles apart lived 
nearer together than many people do now who live in sight of each 
other. There are no distances like the unsocial and unneighborly 
distances. I think the people of that time carried out the true Scrip- 
tural idea of 'loving your neighbor as yourself.' A man might have 
gone from ' Jerusalem to Jericho' in our settlements and not have 
fallen among thieves ; but if he had met with an accident and needed 
help, no one would have ' passed by on the other side,' but every set- 
tler would have acted the 'good Samaritan.' Twenty miles to a 
neighbor ? Yes, any one of the human race, any one that needed our 
help, or to whom we had an opportunity of doing good, was our neigh- 
bor. That is the neighbor spoken of in the tenth chapter of Luke. 
There was much more importance attached to the Bible living forty 
years ago, and less noise made about Bible believing than now. 

'•' Many of the first log houses were roofed with hay or grass. Then 
came the period of oak shakes for roofs, then of oak shingles, and, 
finally, the present whitewood and pine shingle roofs. The logs were 
first laid up by notching in, leaving the rough ends sticking out at 
the corners, and when raised to the required height they were laid in 
by degrees until they came to a peak at the top; this was called 
' cobbing up,' because it was of the style of a child's cob-house. 
Shakes were put down in layers over these logs for a roof, and were 
held in their places by long poles laid across each layer and fastened 
by a peg or a withe at each end. 

" This was the primitive style of log-house architecture. Then fol- 
lowed the log with square corners and rafters for laying down the 
roof. The floors were at first small-sized oak logs split in two, the 
flat side being hewed smooth ; the pieces were laid round side down, 
and, if necessary, pinned at each end with oak pins. These floors 
were used until saw-mills were erected and lumber could be procured. 
A stick chimney was laid up, with a mixture of clay and sand for 
mortar, at one end of the house. This answered until brick could be 
obtained. The old brick fireplace was in use until the stove super- 
seded it. 

"The log house stood with the side to the road; a door on wooden 
hinges, and with a wooden latch, was in the centre, with a window of 
two six-lighted, seven-by-nine sashes close by it, and a window of 
the same size in the opposite side of the house. Not a nail or parti- 
cle of iron was in use in any part of the building, nor any sawed 
lumber. The glass was held in the sash by small wooden pegs. 

" The logs had been cut eighteen by twenty-two feet for a common- 
sized house, and hauled to the spot; a neighbor, too, may have assisted 
in the hauling. Pottawattomies, the settler's country cousins, may be 
said to have been the main help in raising the first log houses in this 
part of the State. I know of an instance where but two white men were 
present at the raising, the rest being Indians. They lifted cheerfully 
and lustily in rolling up the logs. They also assisted much at raising 
in after-years. Only let them know that ' Che-mo-ko-man raise wig- 
wam, like Indian come help him,' and you could count on their aid. 
In our settlement we depended on Goguac and Climax Prairies and 
the intermediate region for aid at raisings. 

" The hands being all on the ground and everything ready, the settler 
superintending his own raising or requesting some one else to do it, in 
either case the man who commanded the men was called the 'boss.' 
He was implicitly obeyed. He gave the word and the work began. 
The two side logs were laid securely in their places, and the two end 



logs were fitted to theirs. Four good axe -men — men who knew how 
' to carry up the corners'— were then selected, and one placed at each 
of the four corners of the building to be erected. Their duty was to 
block off the tenons and fit the end of the log for its place. The 
logs were rolled up on two long skids by the united strength of the 
party, who pushed with hands and shoulders as long as they could j 
and when the log got too high for them to reach, they took stout 
poles with a crotch in one end, that were called 'mooleys/ and put- 
ting the crotches against the log they pushed it with many a ' heave-o- 
heave' to its place on the building. Thus log after log was rolled up, 
and all the corners carried up true and secure, until the top log was 
in place, the plates put on, the rafters erected, and the house was 
raised. Then an adventurous settler climbed to the top of the build- 
ing, taking a whisky-bottle from his pocket, took a good ' swig/ swung 
the bottle three times around his head, threw it to the ground, and 
named the building. Three cheers were given by the party, and the 
raising was over. The old brown jug of whisky was passed about 
freely at the raisings and the bees to all who wished to drink. Much 
care was necessary in regard to offering whisky to the Indians ; they 
were inclined to drink too much. I saw old ' Sam-o-kay' at a logging- 
bee drink until he became dead drunk before he stopped. 

" Sidney Sweet was the first man in our settlement who attempted 
to raise a building without the aid of whisky ; he had two trials and 
failed. Some of the jolly settlers had declared he should not raise his 
barn without whisky. But he gave an extended invitation the third 
time, and appealed to the lovers of temperance throughout the entire 
region, including all Climax. It was the largest gathering I ever 
attended of the kind ; the best men of Climax and the district east 
of it were there. 

u The building went up with a will. Mr. Sweet treated his help 
each time with hot coffee, biscuit, and doughnuts. This was a victory 
over the bad habit of having whisky at raisings, and Sidney Sweet 
deserves praise for this first move in the cause of temperance among 
the early settlers. It gave encouragement to others, and soon it was 
as easy to raise a building without whisky as it had been with it. 

" What an incalculable amount of valuable timber in this country 
has been cut down, logged up, and burned to ashes ! There appeared 
to be no help for it. It must be cleared off and room made for the 
plow. They could only save for their immediate use what saw-logs, 
rail-cuts, and fire- wood they wanted ; they ' logged up* and burnt the 
rest. A settler would now and then remark : ' 'Tis a pity to burn up 
such valuable lumber/ And perhaps he would hear in reply, ' Oh, 
pshaw ! there is timber enough in Calhoun County to last two hun- 
dred years. Let the people after that look out for themselves.' Many 
began to do this long ago. Such views were expressed by men who 
thought there were no other clearings, no other logging-bees, but that 
one in the country. They did not think they were scattered all over 
the country then, and the work of burning up the timber was going 
on in all of them. In the timbered lands were found the largest trees 
and most of them, and there the hardest blows were given in making 
a clearing. 

"A logging-bee was a good place to study the difference there is 
in men's knowing how to do work and to drive oxen. There was 
your man who never hitched to a log that his cattle could not draw, 
and he hitched to it in such a way that they could draw it to the best 
advantage; while another was continually hitching to the wrong log 
or the wrong end of the log. Then there was the man who, whether 
he drove an old or a young yoke of cattle, always drove a steer team. 
I saw such an one fail repeatedly to make his cattle start a log, when 
upon Jonathan Austin's taking the whip in his hand, the cattle sprang 
at the word 'go/ and fairly ran with the log to the heap. That was 
a little victory, and Austin got the cheers for it. There were good 
ox-drivers in those days, and there were those who never could learn 
to drive them well. 

" Rail-splitting was connected with clearing up land, and came in 
for its share of hand labor. A beetle, iron wedges, gluts, and an axe 
were the implements used in this work. Rail-splitting was a regular 
employment for a certain class of men in our early settlements. Pio- 
neers and Presidents have split rails. The business has no more honor 
for that. There used to be some merit, though, in the number of rails 
one could split in a day. To cut and split one hundred rails in a day 
was a day's work for a common hand ; and two hundred for a good 
hand. The wages were one dollar a hundred and board yourself j 
one-half dollar and be boarded. The rail was mostly made from oak 
timber, and was eleven feet long. Conrad Eberstein was accustomed 

to say that he and Martin and Ephraim Van Buren had cut and split 
rails enough in Battle Creek township to fence off Calhoun County. 
They split, in the winter of 1837, fifteen thousand rails for Noah Crit- 
tenden, and eight thousand for Edward Smith, who then lived where 
Henry D. Courts now does. Remnants of some of the old rail fences 
of that day can yet be seen in some parts of the county, though dilap- 
idated and fast going to decay. 


" Many settlers followed breaking up as a regular vocation, during 
the season, as thrashers follow theirs now. The turf on the prairies 
and plains was the toughest, and hence there was the hardest break- 
ing. That on the oak-openings yielded much more easily to the plow. 
The thicker the timber the softer the soil. Three yoke of cattle for 
the openings, and four for the prairies and plains, was the team re- 
quired in breaking up. Many of the first settlers broke up their 
lands with two yoke of oxen, because they could get no more. After the 
underwood grew up in the openings, on account of the annual fires 
not burning it down, the ' breaking-up' team consisted of six or seven 
yoke of oxen, according to the size and thickness of the ' grubs' in the 
land to be plowed. The first plow used by some was the old ' bull 
plow.' This was all wood, save the shire and coulter. Then came the 
large ' Livingston County plow/ imported from the East. Five dol- 
lars an acre was the old price for breaking up. Long distances were 
traveled over after the day's work was done to carry the share and 
coulter to the blacksmith's shop and get them sharpened. Many 
went six, seven, and sometimes ten miles to a blacksmith-shop. The 
old breaking-up plow was an institution in its day, and required a 
strong arm l to hold it.' A man might be able to 

" ' Govern men and guide the State/ 

who would make a ' poor fist of it' in holding a breaking-up plow be- 
hind seven or eight yoke of oxen, moving on in all their united 
strength among grubs and stones, and around stumps and trees. The 
driver had a task to do in managing his team and keeping the leaves, 
grass, and dSbris from clogging up before the coulter. He moves 
backwards and forwards along the whole line of his team, keeping 
each ox in its place, while with his long beech-whip he touches up the 
laggard ox, or tips the haunches of the off-wheel ox and the head of 
the nigh one to 'haw them in' while passing by a stump or tree. 
Then he cracks his whip over their heads, and the long team 
straightens out and bend down to their work, while the bows creak 
in the yokes, the connecting chains tighten with a metallic ring, the 
gauged wheel rumbles and groans at the end of the plow-beam, the 
sharp, projecting coulter cuts open the turf the proper depth, the 
broad share cleaves the bottom, and the furrow thus loosened rises 
against the smooth, flaring mould-board that turns it over with a 
whirling, ripping sound. Thus the work goes on. 

" ' The glittering plowshare cleaves the ground 
With many a slow decreasing round ; 
With lifted whip and gee-whoa haw, 
He guides his oxen as they draw.' 

" Husking-bees with the pioneers were not of the old ' down-east' 
kind, where the boys and girls both attended them. The settlers and 
their sons only attended these. They were occasions of rare enjoy- 
ment, besides being of value to the parties giving them. Sometimes 
the heap of corn would be divided into two parts, and parties chosen 
to husk against each other. This gave occasion to much strife and 
many a well-contested race. Then again the time would be enlivened 
by some one singing a song. Those were the days of song-singing 
and of glorious songs. I am sorry that some of those songs have 
gone out of vogue. Another source of enjoyment at husking-bees 
was story -telling ; this was a good occasion for cultivating the faculty 
of narration, and of imparting pleasure and information to others. 
As we had few books to read, we related over what we had read, and 
thus became books to each other/ 

"In 1824 there were but six organized counties in the Territory of 
Michigan. They were Wayne, Monroe, Macomb, Oakland, Macki- 
nac, and St. Clair. The old land districts, with their ' land offices/ 
were as follows: the Detroit district, organized in 1804; the Monroe 
district, in 1823 ; the Kalamazoo district, in 1831 ,• and that of Grand 
Rapids, in 1836. Up to 1824 but sixty-one thousand nine hundred 
and nineteen acres of land were sold, and this was in the Detroit dis- 



trict; while in the single year of 1836 one million four hundred and 
seventy-five thousand seven hundred and twenty-five acres were sold, 
and in the whole Territory at that date four million acres of land 
were sold. 

" The recognized villages or hamlets in 1 825 were Port Lawrence,* 
on the Maumee, Monroe, Frenchtown, Brownstown, Truax's, near De- 
troit, Mt. Clemens, Palmer, on the St. Clair, Tecumseh, Pontiac, and 
Saginac. Orange Risdon, of Ypsilanti, made the first map of the 
surveyed part of Michigan, in 1825. In addition to the old, six new 
counties were added on this map. These were Washtenaw and Lena- 
wee, both organized in 1825; Saginaw and Lapeer, in 1835; Shia- 
wassee, in 1837 ; and Sanilac, in 1838. On this map the average vil- 
lage is indicated by four black dots. Detroit had twenty dots ; Ann 
Arbor ten; Woodruffs Grove eight: Ypsilanti three; Dexter two; 
while Dixborough, with a name as black and much larger than any 
of them, had not even a speck. At the same time the possessions of 
Benjamin Sutton, the pioneer of 1825, covered two sections of land 
in Washtenaw County. 

"The roads at this time, 1824, were the Chicago road, starting from 
Detroit, with a fork at Ypsilanti to Tecumseh, and one to Ann Arbor ; 
and a road from Detroit to Pontiac and Saginaw. The most noted of 
these was the old Chicago road, which was cut through from Detroit 
to Ypsilanti in 1823. That old pioneer, John Bryan, was the first 
white emigrant that passed over this road. Soon after it was cut 
through, he drove an ox-team before a wagon carrying family and 
household effects from Detroit to Woodruff's Grove, which place he 
reached on the night of Oct. 23, 1823. 

" In 1835, John Farmer mapped out Michigan with its improvements 
at that date. I find an old map the most valuable and interesting of 
histories. Just one decade had elapsed in the new pilgrim's progress, 
between Orange Risdon's map of 1825 and John Farmer's of 1835. 
During this time civilization had taken up its line of march with its 
emigrant wagons, or with knapsacks or staff, on the old Chicago road 
westward from Ypsilanti, and all along its route the sound of the axe 
was heard breaking 'the sleep of the wilderness;' while clearings were 
made, and hamlets sprung up at Saline, Clinton, Jonesville, Coldwater, 
Sturgis, Mottville, and at other places on towards Chicago. The same 
busy work of progress was going on from Ann Arbor westward, along 
the old Territorial road, where log cabins arose and villages appeared 
as if evoked by magic. For on the map of 1835 we find on this new 
map, west of Ann Arbor, the names of Lima, Grass Lake, Jackson- 
burgh,f Sandstone, Marshall, Battle Creek, Comstock, Kalamazoo, 
and St. Joseph, on the lake. 

" Emigration had also pushed out from Detroit, on the Grand River 
road to Saranac, and on to Grandville. At the same time there were 
other roads branching out north and south from these main routes, 
leading to the various improvements in the lower part of the penin- 
sula, and dotting the map here and there were those heralds of pro- 
gress, — post-offices, saw-mills, and grist-mills. 

" The love of one's native country is strong, and when we leave it 
we carry its love and its memories with us, as we do those of a dear 
friend, wherever we go. They go not only with us, but they influ- 
ence us by suggesting their like when we are selecting new homes in 
another country. There is a theory like this : 'Tis said the emigrant 
from New England was sure to get something of his native hills in 
his Western home; that if he came from the banks of a river, or from 
the banks of a lake, the water-view would not be forgotten when he 
sought a home in another place ; and that if he was born on a sixty- 
nine-mile level, he would be delighted with our burr-oak plains or 
matchless prairies. 

"Michigan had a variety of surface and soil, and hence pleased 
almost all. True, she didn't have the 'hanging rock and airy moun- 
tain/ yet, from the rugged hills to the level prairies, she had every 
variety of surface, and, from the dark, rich prairie mould to sandy 
earth, she had every variety of soil. And the same is true of her 
woods. From her magnificent forests of heavy timber to her sparsely 
wooded openings, she had every variety of timber. She had something 
to suit every one. Her climate was mild, her lakes and streams of 
pure water, and although she had the watery marsh, the occasional 
swamp, the slough or swale, yet, where they were useless, they did not 
seem to discount very much on the country. Taking the State as it 
was, it went at a premium to the emigrant. 

" We hear much about the language of flowers. When this Terri- 

* Now Toledo, Ohio. 

f Now Jackson. 

tory was in its full bloom, in all its natural wealth of tree and flower, 
ere the white man's axe had resounded in its forest or a plow turned 
a furrow, I think that Ponce de Leon would have interpreted the lan- 
guage spoken here, as he did farther south, in Florida, ' the land of 
flowers.' But there was a language of more utility spoken in her im- 
mense forests. Here she told of vast fortunes to be made in the lum- 
ber trade; but heavy blows and hard labor to be given ere the 
emigrant could get to farming. In her oak openings she said : ' Here 
are lands almost fitted for the plow; build a house of the wood here, 
fence into fields, thin out the timber, and, if not in the way, keep the 
heaviest for woodland, and go to farming.' In her prairies she said : 
' Here are your farm-lands ; build your house, fence off into lots, and 
drive your team a-field.' In her marshes she said: 'Here is your 
meadow all ready for the scythe; fence it off to keep the cattle from 
spoiling it, and mow in the proper season.' In her streams she bab- 
bled of mill-privileges, of grinding wheat and corn, of turning ma- 
chinery for shops, and of the manufacturing power to build up 
villages and cities. In her lakes she said : ' Here you have the use- 
ful and the beautiful ; find me out.' And she said in more general 
terms, ' I have vast stores of wealth concealed in the earth j find them 
and they are yours.' 

" In the forest we found the whole family of oaks, or the Michigan 
family, some ten or twelve different kinds, and among them the burr- 
oak, bearing an acorn good to eat, and on which hogs would fatten. In 
the timbered lands were the new trees called the whitewood, of which 
the best of lumber for building was made, and the black walnut, more 
valuable than cherry for cabinet-work. It also bore a large and very 
rich nut, and with it the whole family of the hickories, all bearing 
nuts. Besides these were the butternut, the beechnut, and the hazel- 
nut, all bearing an abundance of their fruit. Throughout the woods 
we saw the grape-vine hanging from the trees laden with its fruit. 
We saw vast thickets and long rifts of blackberry bushes, lately bur- 
dened with their tempting berries. 

" And we were told that the woods and hillsides and openings, in their 
season, were fairly red with the largest and most delicious of straw- 
berries, while the wild plum grew along the small streams, the huckle- 
berry and the cranberry on the marshes, and the aromatic sassafras 
was found throughout the woods. The annual fires burnt up the un- 
derwood, decayed trees, vegetation, and dSbris in the oak openings, 
leaving them clear of obstructions. You could see through the trees 
in any direction, save where the irregularity of the surface intervened, 
for miles around you; and you could walk, ride on horseback, or 
drive in a wagon wherever you pleased in these woods, as freely as 
you could in a neat and beautiful park. 

" But since the white man's axe first resounded in these wild regions 
the work of demolishing the noble forest-trees has been going on in 
this State. What large amount of cherry and black walnut has been 
burned up or made into rails ! In how many instances has a sense of 
the use and beauty of our forests been unheeded. Michael Angelo was 
once commissioned to destroy the beautiful villas about Florence. He, 
an artist, do such work ! He tried to save all, but could not, — the edict 
of war must be obeyed. The work of destruction went on. He came 
to a mansion with beautiful frescoed walls; the soul of the artist stayed 
the hand of the patriot, and in that field of desolation one mansion 
was left standing alone. In how many instances have we found the 
settler not commissioned, like Michael Angelo, to destroy the beautiful, 
but, Vandal-like, how often has he done it ! Yet we have many in- 
stances where a sense of use and beauty has said to the soul of the 
settler, ' Spare the forest !' and, like the artist, he has done it, leaving 
beautiful woodlands standing alone amid cultivated fields. We ean 
now say, Would that such instances had been multiplied ! The wild 
denizens of the primeval forests in Michigan had beautiful homes. 

" Among the feathered tribe, the early settler did not find many of 
his old favorites. The robin, the wren, the swallow, and some other 
birds were not here. But there were a great variety of birds, and 
some of most gay and beautiful plumage. Among the singers were 
the Western mocking-bird and the whip-poor-will. We found here 
an old favorite, or enemy, in that mad-cap and freebooter, the blue 
jay. He was still the same restless being, tipping, darting, bob- 
majoring and hazing about from tree to tree. 

" * The jauntiest robber that ranges the wood, 
Nothing will name him but blue Robin Hood.* 

" There were no crows here to pluck the pioneers' corn, nor to caw 
from the tree-top through all the livelong day. 



" Among the four-footed denizens of the forests were the whole family 
of squirrels. Here was their smaller brother, the chipmunk, who 
never goes up a tree, because they have disinherited and driven him 
from that region, making him a serf to burrow in the ground. And 
here was his spotted-sided petite wolverine cousin, the gopher, which 
the settler found at corn-planting to be appropriately named. For, 
did he not go for their corn ? It was generally acknowledged that 
one gopher would steal more corn than half a dozen crows. Begin- 
ning at the outside of the field, along the fence, they would rob hill 
after hill and row after row, digging up every kernel as they went. 
And here also was that chief among them all, the prince imperial of 
his tribe, — the fox squirrel. He was a magnificent fellow, some four 
times larger than the red squirrel ; of a lithe and graceful form, with 
a long dashing tail, that he carried superbly as he scampered off. 
Here were also those other natives of the woods, — the woodchuck, 
coon, opossum, badger, hedgehog, fox, lynx, wolf, old Bruin, and the 
' antlered monarch of the waste/ the deer. 

" And lastly, lording it over all the other inhabitants of the forest, 
were the Indians. They lived here, simple children of Nature, in no 
permanent abodes, but in bark lodges or wigwams, which they left 
when they pleased and roamed to another part of the country, where 
they in turn tarried as long as they desired. The forest was untouched 
by them, save to build their wigwams, canoes, or fires. The soil was 
undisturbed by them, save to plant their patches of corn for food. 
They killed nothing in the woods save what game they needed for 
sustenance. They brought baskets, maple-sugar, huckleberries, and 
cranberries to the cke-mo-ke-man's cabin to ' swap.' They were always 
friendly, and saluted their pale-faced neighbors with their accustomed 
boo-shoo ! a word showing their association with the French, as it is a 
corruption of bon-jour, the French 'good-morning/ or 'good-day.' 
We also find that their marchee is from the French marche, to march. 
Many other Indian words could be traced to a French origin. 

" * And very hard it is to tell 

Which of the three is worse, 
But either one is bad enough 
To make a body curse.' 


" We could always tell when the ague was coming on by the premoni- 
tory symptoms, — the yawnings and stretchings ; and if the person 
understood the disease he would look at his finger-nails to see if they 
were turning blue. No disease evinced its coming so plainly by 
signs as the ' fever'n ager.' The adept could tell its approach before it 
got within a rod of him. At first the yawns and the stretchings stole 
upon you so naturally that, for a time, you felt good in giving way to 
them ; these were soon followed by cold sensations, that crept over 
your system in streaks, and grew colder and colder as they, in succes- 
sive undulations, coursed down your back, while you felt like a ' harp 
of a thousand strings,' played upon by the icy fingers of old Boreas, 
who increased the cold chills until his victim shook like an aspen 
and his teeth chattered in his jaws. There you laid shaking in the 
frigid ague region for an hour or so, until you gradually stole back 
to a temperate zone. Then commenced the warm flashes over your 
system, which increased with heat as the former did with cold, until 
you reached the torrid region, where you lay in burning heat, racked 
with pain in your head and along your back for an hour or so, when 
you began by degrees to feel less heat and pain, until your hands 
grew moist and you were relieved by a copious perspiration all over 
your body, and you got to your natural feeling again. You felt re- 
lieved and happy, and as you went outdoors everything about you 
was pleasant and smiling, and you seemed to be walking in a brighter 
and happier world. 

" This disease delighted in extremes ; it reveled in antithesis, — in 
being first in severe cold, then in burning heat. Among the various 
reasons adduced as the cause of this complaint was this : we got it in 
passing through the miasmatic period that began with our first at- $ 
tempts to subdue this wild region, and lasted until cultivation did 
away with the miasma. 

" The ague is supposed to be the first disease to attack man in a new 
country. The settler found it lying about idle, like the Indians. I 
knew it wa* cruel, but I have often thought I would like to see an 
Indian hare a genuine old settler's shake of the ague. If anything 
would tame him it would be that. It would shake all the whoop, if 
not all the Indian, out of him. 

"The first question asked a settler after he had been here a short 
time was, ' Have you had the ague yet?' If answered in the nega- 
tive, the reply would be, 'Well, you will have it; everybody has it 
before they've been here long.' As if the ' fever'n ager' initiated 
them to citizenship in this State. 

" Anson Mapes and my brother Martin were the last ones in our set- 
tlement who had the fever and ague. They had escaped it so long 
that they began to boast about their not having it; but they had it 
at last, and with increased severity, for it almost shook them to death. 
When Martin 'had the shakes,' the dishes rattled on the shelves 
against the log wall. No one was ever supposed to die with the ague. 
It was not considered a sickness, but a sort of preface or prelude to it. 
' He ain't sick, he's only got the ager,' was a common expression 
among the settlers. The doctors had no quinine then ; in fact there 
was no remedy known, for it was 

" ' A disease no hellebore could cure.' 

" The prevailing opinion was that we must have it until we wore it 
out; and most of us did. There were various remedies tried, but 
none cured you. Some were simple, some whimsical and funny. 
Some would say, when you feel a shake coming on start and thus run 
away from it. This remedy was tried; the ague always beat in such 
a race. Others would work right through the shake, fever and all ; 
but the next day ' the shoe was on the other foot,' they had all the 
work they wanted in attending to an extra shake and fever. 

" I remember that I once tried the following remedy, which was 
said to be a sure cure : I was to 'pare my finger- and toe-nails, wrap 
the parings in a piece of tissue-paper, then bore a hole in a maple- 
tree, put the nails in and plug up the hole. I did this, and the result 
was I was put through the entire gamut of this disease — 

" ' From Greenland's icy mountains 
To India's coral strand' — 

for four or five successive seasons after that. A decoction of ' Culver- 
root' was used as a kind of cholagogue by many, but it did not cure 
the disease. 

" There were several phases to this complaint. Some had it every 
day, some every other day. As it began with you so it continued. 
It opened the account with you at such an hour on such a day, and 
then put in its appearance a little later every day or every other day, 
until your morning shake was changed to one at sunset or midnight. 
The cold sensation increased in severity until it culminated in 
shaking the life nearly out of you ; then by degrees it waxed and 
waned perceptibly less, till it left you. The ' fits' came so regularly 
that the settler made his calculations by it. His calendar was divided 
into well-days and ague-days. The minister made his appointments 
to preach so as to accommodate his ' shakes.' The justice entered the 
suit on his docket to avoid the sick-day of the party or his own. The 
constable watched the well-day of the witness to get him into court ; 
and the lawyer adjourned his case on account of his ague-day. The 
housewife regulated her affairs by it, — she would do up her work, and 
sit and wait for the ague, as for a visitor to come. And the pioneer 
gallant went sparking on his well-night, and then he sometimes 
found his Dulcinea ' sitting up' with the ' fever'n ague/ 

" It would seem that the old settlers wore out and broke up the 
disease, for the ague of to-day is no more like that of the olden time 
than the old broken-down man is like the one in robust manhood. 


" Among the troublesome enemies to our happiness was what, in the 
parlance of the day, was called ' Michigan rash.' It was called Michi- 
gan rash because it was supposed to be indigenous to this part of the 

"Some observing philanthropist has said, ' All the comfort a poor 
man took in this life was to scratch himself when he itched.' Then 
there was a happy period in the early settlement of this State, for the 
pioneers did a great deal of scratching. 

"Perhaps I ought to put on the 'silken gloves of sentiment/ b$ 
way of caution, in treating this subject. The settlers used much 
modesty in referring to this cutaneous disease, calling it a 'breaking 
out/ an 'impurity of the blood/ ' rash/ while perhaps the person 
giving it these mild names was really putting into practice the gen- 
uine old method of scratch that used to belong to something much 
worse than a ' breaking out/ or a 'rash.' An amusing incident once 
came under the writer's observation during this unpleasantness in our 
pioneer life. A gentteman from New York was visiting some friends 



in our neighborhood, and, noticing the children scratching a good 
deal, asked the lady of the house the cause of it. She replied, ' They 
have a breaking out that is called the Michigan rash/ To which he 
answered, ' Oh, the Michigan rash ! I presume it is ,• but I see the 
children go through with the old motions as natural as life. Don't 
you think, madame, brimstone and lard will cure it?' This fair bit 
amused the settler's wife, and also awoke her to the real gist of the 
matter, — that they were really enjoying the full benefit of the ' seven- 
year itch/ under the mild title of Michigan rash. 

" Whole families, yes, whole neighborhoods, would have it at the 
same time. It was no respecter of persons, knew no party, sex, or 
creed, — everybody had it. It would break out in a school, and go from 
pupil to pupil, and from pupil to teacher. The smaller pupils would 
dig it out on the spot, while the larger ones would grin and bear it 
till some convenient opportunity occurred. Young men and young 
ladies, when in company, avoided showing their hands. Most people 
had this disease as they did the ague, until they wore it out. 

" A lack of fruit and vegetables in our diet was supposed to have 
something to do with the cause of the Michigan rash. 


" ' Now, by two-headed Janus, Nature 
Hath found strange fellows in her time.' 

" Mosquitoes, like the subject we have just treated, are a cutaneous 
disease. They, with the ague, the Michigan rash, and the Nitchenob- 
bie8, were found here indigenous to this territory. It is maintained 
by some that the mosquitoes were created as pests, and sent here for 
the purpose of compelling us to drain and improve our swamps, 
marshes, and lowlands. As nothing has been formed in vain, and as 
we know of no other use for mosquitoes, this seems to be their mis- 
sion here among us. It is an undisputed fact that they were the 
most numerous and pestilent in the heavy timbered lands, dense 
swamps, lowlands, and thickets, where they remained in their leafy 
coverts during the day. But when twilight let her curtain down, 
these little recluse imps would sally out from their fastnesses, and, 
with flourish of trumpets, call their vast hordes together; when, like 
the Huns and Goths, ' they would bear down in a furious attack upon 
the nearest log fortress.' 

" About this time, too, after having learned their mode of warfare, 
and the nature and time of their attacks, we were accustomed to fill 
tin pans with chips or some light materials, and kindle a fire in them, 
both in the front and rear of the house, or wherever there was a door 
or opening. This fire was kept smothered into a smoke. This was 
our only defense. Mosquito-bars were not invented then. Still our 
enemies would frequently break through this wall of smoke, in some 
bold onset, and attack us in our cabin. The smudge was then re- 
moved into the house, and we sat enveloped in its dense clouds, with 
eyes suffused with tears, suffering patiently anything that would rid 
us of these pests. I have seen the log house all quiet at the close of 
day, not a mosquito about, but as soon as you started your smudge, 
that was the signal for their attacks, — they * smelt the battle afar off, 
and shouted among their trumpeters, ha, ha !' Some of the settlers 
would not use the smudge on that account, alleging that you dis- 
covered yourself to them, and hence invited their attacks. 

" I have often gone into reflection on the subject (in their absence) 
of this annoyance. What discontent and unhappiness such little 
imps could create ! Coleridge has said, — 

" * Beneath the rose lurks many a thorn, 
That breeds disastrous woe ; 
And so doth thou, remorseless corn, 
On Angelina's toe.' 

Now there was a ' thorn* or a nettle that not only lurked beneath 
the rose, but beneath every tree, bush, and covert about us, and it 
was a nettle that felt like business, and went about ' breeding dis- 
astrous woe/ ' Don't mind them,' says some novice, who had not made 
their acquaintance ; ' go to sleep, and let them sing !' Don't mind them ? 
Try it. They like that. Try to sleep ? What odds to them ? Couldn't 
they murder sleep ? Did they mind your slaps ? Feel them light on 
your nose, ears, or neck, tame as a spot of mud. Suppose you slapped 
and killed one. Fifty or a hundred rushed on over his dead body to 
avenge his death. So small a thing to create so much trouble and 
misery ! How often in the evening, after the smudge had been made, 
would we sit and fight these ItHie tormentors, till tired, victimized, and 

"■' Weary of life, we would fly to our couch, 
And fling it away in battle with these Turks.' 

We found no rats, mice, or house-flies ; they came years later with an 
advanced civilization. 


" The log house of the pioneer, with its plain furnishings and its 
old-fashioned fireplace, was a comfortable and cheerful abode. I am 
sorry that the old fireplace has gone out of use; it contributed much 
to the health and happiness of the old settler's home. The settler, 
after a hard day's work, seated with his family around his glowing 
ingle, with an abundance of wood in the corner, enjoyed the luxury 
of his magnificent fires. There is an art in building a good fire ; it 
was cultivated to a great degree of perfection in the olden time. It 
appears to be one of the lost arts now, as the dull and cheerless stove 
has banished it from the household. It belonged to the old fireside, 
where it was kept in constant practice in laying down aright the 
back-log and fore-stick, and building thereon, with small wood, in so 
secure and artful a manner, that with a little kindling the fire could 
be started and give out the most heat and light to the household. As 
we are writing, distance lends enchantment to the memory of those 
by-gone scenes around the old pioneer's fireside. 

" For lights in the evenings, if the fire was too dull, some fat was 
put in a saucer, — apiece of pork sometimes was fried for that purpose, — 
a rag was twisted for a wick, and then coiled about in the grease, one 
end being left out on the edge of the saucer. This was lighted. 
This was our evening taper. 

" But pork was often scarce, and tallow or grease of any kind could 
not be had. There were no pine-trees in this region, hence pine-knots 
could not be found. But in their stead we gathered the bark from the 
hickory-tree, and when we needed light, pieces of this bark were 
thrown on the fire. This created a bright blaze that was nearly equal, 
and full as lasting, as that from the pine-knots. 

" The old iron crane, tricked off with its various sized pot-hooks 
and links of chain, swung from the jambs at the will of the housewife, 
who hung on it the kettles containing the meal to be cooked for the 
family, and pushed it back over the fire, where the kettles hung till 
the meal was prepared for the table. Pigs, chickens, and spare-ribs 
were roasted splendidly by suspending them by a wire before the fire. 
The baking was mostly done in the old brick oven that was built in 
one side of the chimney, with a door opening into the room. The old 
iron-covered bake-kettle sat in the corner under the cupboard, and 
was used for the various baking purposes. Many will remember the 
much-used 'tin reflector' that was placed before the fire to bake bread 
and cakes, and how finely it baked the Pink-eye and Neshannoek* 

" The settler's daily fare, from a lack of abundance and variety in 
his larder, was necessarily frugal. The provision in store was wheat, 
corn, pork, and potatoes. There was no fruit, save the wild plums 
and the various berries that grew in the woods and lowlands. The 
bill of fare for the table was bread, pork, and potatoes. Pork, as we 
have said, was often very scarce, families often going without food, 
save the wild game they killed, for a whole season at a time. Salt 
was also often very scarce; at one time it was twenty-one dollars per 
barrel. Thomas Kewney's family went without a particle in the house 
for six months. We were told when we first came to this State that 
we would get the ' Michigan appetite' after we had lived here a short 
time. We found this to be true. And when it did come, which was 
the first year, it was ravenous. With this appetite, pork and potatoes 
were dainties. We relished them as such for a good square meal ; and 
when we got through with that, we had only to reverse the order, and 
eat potatoes and pork, for the richest dessert, — such was the keenness 
and relishing power of our appetites. It seemed that all we labored 
for was to get enough to eat. Fruitless toil, for we were hungry all 
the time. 

"Mrs. Thomas Kewney and her daughter Ann, afterwards Mrs. 
Stevenson, came to visit us one afternoon. My mother was really 
puzzled to know what to get for supper, for we had no bread in the 
house, nor anything of which to make it ; but, like a good housewife, 
she was fruitful in expedients. Looking over her stores, she found 
about two quarts of wheat, which she requested me to grind in the 
pepper-mill. This I did. She then took the unbolted flour, and of 

* From the Neshannock Creek, in Mercer Co., Pa., where they orig- 
inated. ... 



it made a short-cake for her company. We had an amusing time at 
table over our frugal repast, which consisted principally of this Gra- 
hamitish cake. 

"Tea, coffee, sugar, and butter were rarely seen on the settler's 
table. An herb called tea-weed, a kind of wild Bohea, that grew in 
the woods, was used by some of the settlers. The leaves were steeped, 
like our imported teas, and the decoction was drunk. But it was soon 
abandoned when the green or black teas could be had again. Crust 
coffee, or a coffee made from wheat or other grains browned, was in 
common use for drink at table. Our pioneer mothers and their 
daughters found many occasions when they could not enjoy the accus- 
tomed t$te-d-t$te with their lady visitors, over cups of fragrant Young 
Hyson or Bohea; but their tea-table chats were had over their flowing 
cups of crust coffee, and there was many a wish from the young ladies 
for the good time coming, when they could once more ' turn up their 
tea-cups' and have their 'fortunes told.' Tea-pots were ransacked 
and old tea-grounds were saved by the girls, for the purpose of having 
their fortunes told by some of the older matrons, who knew some- 
thing of the gypsy art of divination. The usual meal consisted of a 
platter of boiled potatoes, piled up steaming-hot, and placed on the 
centre of the table, bread or Johnny-cake, perhaps some meat boiled 
or fried, and an article largely partaken of was a bowl of flour-gravy, 
looking like starch, and made, something like it, of flour and water, 
with a little salt, and sometimes it was enriched by a little gravy from 
a piece of fried meat. This was the meal, and it was eaten and 
relished more than the sumptuous meals on many of our tables now- 
adays. The table was, at any rate, swept of all the edibles on it. 
Nothing but the dishes was left after a meal. The dog, the pigs, and 
the chickens fared slim. 'Tell me what a people eat and I will tell 
you their morals.' The old pioneer bill of fare was simple and whole- 
some. Its morals can easily be deduced. What shall we say of the 
modern bill of fare ? 

" There have been many reasons adduced as to the cause of this 
appetite. To me there has ever been but one good cause, — that is, 
hunger. We seldom got enough to eat, and hence were always hun- 
gry and ready to eat. ' Quit eating while you are hungry,' the health 
reformers say. We carried out the letter and spirit of this rule, and 
will vouch for its producing a splendid appetite. It was called the 
Michigan appetite, as though it was aboriginal and belonged to this 
State. Perhaps it did, and originated with the Indians. The first 
settlers may be said to have fared like the Indians for the first year 
or two after they pitched their tents here, and hence got their appe- 
tites and a little more ; for, as the rude phrase had it, the pioneers 
were usually hungry enough to eat ' biled Indian.' We had no cases 
of dyspepsia, — our digestion was as sound as our sleep. The dys- 
pepsia was with the rich and dainty dishes East. 

" One Sabbath morning I was at home alone. The rest of the family 
had gone to hear Rev. Levi Vedder preach in the log school-house by 
Deacon Case's. Always hungry, as soon as I found myself alone I be- 
thought me of getting something to eat. Luckily, I found some flour, 
lard, and salt. I was delighted, and went to work to make a short- 
cake. I had seen my mother and sister make this cake often enough 
to have learned, as I thought, to make one myself. So, rolling up my 
sleeves, I went to work. I mixed up the flour and water awhile, then 
put in the ' shortning' and added a little salt, and then kneaded and 
kneaded it with my fists till I considered it ready for the spider. But 
had you seen my hands ! Didn't the dough ' stick, stick, stick to fingers 
and knuckles and palms !' It hung in strings from my hands, and 
just as I rolled out my cake and put it in the spider and placed that 
over some live coals to have the bottom bake, I heard a rap at the door. 
Frightened, and with the dough stringing from my hands, I opened 
the door, when Uriah Herson, a settler's son, presented himself with 
the accustomed 'good-morning,' and offered me his gloved hand. I 
did not accept it, but rather confusedly excused myself by saying my 
hands were too doughy, as I had been mixing up feed for the chickens. 
He smiled, and said he had come to see the young folks. I informed 
him that they had all gone to attend meeting in the Deacon Case 
school-house. I, during this time, tried to fill up the gap in the door, 
that he might not see within. But just then I heard the yelp, yelp, 
yelp of a chicken. Looking around, I saw a two-thirds grown rooster 
with both feet stuck fast in the middle of my short-cake and in the 
spider, — the dough had softened by the heat and let his feet down to 
the bottom of the spider, and there he stood with extended wings, 
bill full of sticky dough, yelping away like murder. Uriah glanced in 
at the fireplace and took in the whole situation. As I heard the first J 

yelp I told him the folks had just gone, and he could soon overtake 
them. He said he guessed he would go to meeting also, and went off 
laughing at my chicken-pie. He gone, I hastily turned to the spider, 
seized that chicken by the neck and jerked him out of my short-cake, 
the middle part of it coming up with his feet. I pushed this down 
with one hand, and pulling him out, ran to the door, wringing him by 
the neck by way of revenge, threw him to the ground, and went back 
to my poor short-cake. I took a» case-knife and cut out the middle 
part, smoothed the rest into shape, and put it to baking again. As I 
went to the door to throw out the rejected dough, there was another 
act in this drama going on. The entire brood of hens and chickens 
were crowding around and over that rooster, picking the dough off his 
feet and legs. They had nearly gobbled him up. I drove them away 
in sheer pity for the poor thing. His feet and legs were bleeding, and 
as he got up to walk he hobbled awfully on his clumsy, half-baked 
feet. As I returned to the house the greedy, hungry brood imme- 
diately ran to him again, and chased him about the door-yard, pick- 
ing at his legs and feet. 

" Once more by the fireside, I watched the baking of the cake. The 
bottom done, I set up the spider for the top to bake. This done I 
made a square meal on that short-cake. Appetite always keen, but 
now heightened, as stolen apples are sweetest, I relished the cake ex- 
ceedingly. There was none of it left to turn evidence against me. 
This adventure remained a secret for a long time. It finally got out. 
Uriah, no doubt, found it too good to keep, and related it to some 
friend. I then gave to our family my entire transactions that Sunday 
morning, — mixing up feed for the chickens. 


" It is not my purpose in any way to encroach upon the ground 
that was recently so well and satisfactorily occupied by the members 
of the Pomological Society at this place. It will be enough for me to 
have occupied a more obscure field, at a remote period in our history. 
Nor will I attempt to reach or imitate that high order of intelligence, 
skill, and fitness, which was so conspicuously manifest in the produc- 
tion of those very interesting and instructive essays and lectures 
which were read by those gentlemen. 

" There are very many persons who never saw a prairie before it 
had been invaded by the ruthless plowshare, when it was arrayed in 
all its primeval beauty and splendor. For novelty and variety in 
landscape scenery, it is hard to conceive of anything so enchanting as 
a prairie when bedecked with every conceivable size, form, and color 
of flowers, from the modest little blushing violet of early spring 
through all the rapid successive changing gradations until the frosts 
of autumn. As the traveler passed on, mile after mile, his delighted 
vision would be greeted by endless kaleidoscopic alternations of spark- 
ling gems, in colors of white, yellow, pink, orange, blue, violet, mottled, 
etc. There was loveliness and magnificence and fragrance in nature's 
teeming, quiet laboratory. This imperfectly represents the state of 
all our prairies, when the early pioneers arrived here. 

"A few years after the first settlement of the country, when there 
were more inhabitants and enough cultivated land to prevent the de- 
vastation by the annual fires, two varieties of roses spontaneously 
appeared, — one, a small single rose, growing on a small delicate shrub 
about two and one-half feet high, and not very fragrant; the other, 
sometimes called the Michigan rose, was a climbing vine, and could 
be so trained as to perform astonishing feats of climbing to great 
heights. It is a single rose, and is almost entirely destitute of fra- 
grance, even when in full bloom, but if tastefully arranged is a splendid 
sight. The Michigan rose has obtained an extensive notoriety, and 
gained many admirers. When I was in New England, twenty years 
ago, a gentleman there, who had previously heard of it, expressed 
strong desires to obtain it. 

" When the pioneers arrived here, more than forty years ago, they 
found growing here the black walnut, butternut, hickory-nut, and 
beech-nut. There were, in some localities, great numbers of small, 
young hazel-bushes, which, having perennial roots, had maintained a 
show of life ; but there were but few, if any of them, that had been 
allowed sufficient time between the fires to grow to a bearing size and 
age, which they did as soon as the fires were prevented from running. 

* In and about Kalamazoo County, nature was very liberal in the 
bestowment and diffusion of many rich fruits and delicious berries. 

* By Henry.Litfcle. 



In some localities the pioneers found a few wild plum-trees in a bear- 
ing condition. When the fires were stopped, the plum-trees sprang 
up in great numbers, and in a few years came into bearing, when a 
great variety of plums were produced. Among the many kinds of 
whortleberry, there was found growing in the lagoons a medium-sized 
kind. This blueberry, as it is sometimes called, is about half as large 
as a whortleberry of the same color that grew in New England, while 
it is twice as large as another whortleberry of that country, which is 
as black as jet and of delicious flavor. In later years they also found 
a blueberry which was about half as large as the first one named, 
which grew on dry, sandy land, and upon a small, slender, low bush, 
but they were very seldom met with, except in the Yankee Springs 

" The pioneers found growing in the lagoons a cranberry which was 
peculiar to this country. It is a very good fruit, but the pulp is so 
soft and juicy it is difficult to keep it until the next spring. 

" The Eastern cranberry, of a similar variety, is smaller in diameter, 
and more conical in form, and the pulp being more firm, it may easily 
be kept nine or ten months after picking. There was another kind 
of cranberry here that was found on dry land, growing upon shrubs 
or small trees about eight feet high, the berry being of the size of a 
large pea, of a bright red color when ripe, having one seed or stone 
as large in diameter as the berry could contain, but quite thin, with 
sides somewhat convex, and the pulp soft and extremely acid. I have 
met with but two or three of these trees in this county, although they 
are somewhat plenty in New England. At that period in our fruit 
history several varieties of strawberries abounded in great profusion. 
They were confined mostly to the oak openings, more particularly to 
the burr-oak openings, near the borders of the prairies, where they 
were larger and more plenty than in other openings. The strawberry 
being an annual, could grow and mature its fruit at that early period, 
between the time of the annual fires, without the help of man. The 
checkerberry,* although being the most lowly and humble member of 
the berry family, yet it being an annual, it could maintain its ground 
and mature its berries, which remained through the winter on the 
vines, and came out the next spring in a bright red color. The chief 
value of the checkerberry is found in the well-known flavoring ex- 
tract from the leaves. At that time we also found the small wild 
black cherry and the choke cherry, but the latter not in plenty. All 
the above-described fruits grew to perfection here in and during a 
few of the first years after the settlement of the country, which may 
be called the first fruit period, 

" The dawning of the second fruit period brought large additions to 
our former liberal supplies of indigenous edible fruits. That great 
change is due entirely to the greater number of the inhabitants and 
the increased quantity of cultivated land, which prevented the rav- 
ages of the annual fires of the Indians. The frequent recurrence of 
the fires and the firm, compact, unyielding nature of the prairie 
sward was so unfavorable to the growth of fruit that none were found 
there except a few plums, and in after-years a very few strawberries 
in half-cultivated fields, so that all the fruit that I am to write about 
was found on opening lands. I first noticed great numbers of young 
crab-apple trees, from one to three feet high, which came on rapidly, 
and in a few years were bearing. 

" The next in order are the plum-trees, noticed above. The grape- 
vines had been cut down by the fires every year, except in a very few 
favored localities. I saw two or three vines at that early day, which 
vines were several inches in diameter, and reached to the top of the 
tallest forest-trees. As the grape-roots were perennial, as soon as the 
vines had sufficient time they shot forth with great rapidity, and soon 
came into bearing. As there were none but wild grapes in the country, 
some of them which were cultivated were considered very good. The 
honeysuckle-vines were there, but I have looked in vain for their de- 
licious fruit. There was also the mandrake (mandragora), sometimes 
called May-apple, the fruit of which some people are extravagantly 
fond. In size and appearance it resembles the small kind of tomato. 
The ground-cherry (Phy salts viscosa) was there, — an excellent fruit, 
about the size of a large cherry, and grows in a calyx. In fallow 
fields and in fence corners, and nearly everywhere they were allowed, 
the strawberries appeared with renewed vigor and increased size. 
There were two kinds of gooseberries, — the prickly and the smooth ; 
the latter were not plenty. 
" There were three varieties of raspberries, — the black, yellow, and 

* Wintergreen. 

red ; very few of the latter, but the first quite plenty. There were 
three varieties of blackberries, one the small, well-known, common 
kind. In favorable places they are very prolific, the bushes some- 
times growing six or seven feet high. In early times wild fruit was 
free plunder, and one year there were carried away from my place, by 
men, women, and children, many bushels of blackberries j the people 
went there from Kalamazoo and Cooper and the region round about 
those attractive acres. There was also the low-bush blackberry, sup- 
posed to be the Rubus trivialis, the bush being two or three feet high; 
the berries were larger and more globular in form than the first de- 
scribed. As both these blackberries were biennials, of course they 
could produce no fruit unless there were two consecutive years without 
the fires. There was also the ground or running blackberry, supposed 
to be the Rubus villosus, the vines running on the ground like the 
strawberry ; the berries were globular in form, having but a few seeds; 
the vines were annuals, but the roots were perennial, and as difficult 
to exterminate as the Canada thistle; they were found mostly in 
cultivated lands. 

"In the winter of 1831 I planted one pint of apple-seed in a box 
of dirt, which was kept out of doors until the next spring, when I 
carefully planted them on my land on Gull Prairie. I very much 
regret to be compelled to say that not one of those seeds ever germi- 
nated, for the supposed reason that they were two or three years old 
when planted. At the same time, likewise, I planted about the same 
quantity of dried currants, with the same results. I knew before, and 
since I planted the currants, that it was the popular belief that cur- 
rants could be propagated in no way but by the roots or the cuttings. 
I was not a farmer nor a botanist at that time, but I had learned 
that some kinds of seeds had germinated, and why should not currant- 
seed ? I therefore did not know any better than to hope for success. 
I do not suppose that it was public belief nor any natural law that 
prevented these seeds sprouting, but simply because they were two or 
three years old. I have since learned that currant-seeds, and straw- 
berry-seeds, and blackberry-seeds will germinate very readily. I do 
not know but there are inherent in all seeds, tffat are properly de- 
veloped and fully matured, the principles of vitality, which, through 
and by their organic germinal functions, will fulfill the great laws of 
reproduction, if we knew how to treat them. The bulbous and tu- 
berous plants are a law unto themselves, their bulbs and tubers being 
their seeds. I know of no better way, with certain kinds of fruit, than 
to plant the seeds direct from or soon after they are removed from 
the ripe fruit, before they lose their vitality by age and drying up. 

" In the spring of 1833 I planted some love-apple seeds, which were 
obtained at the Carey missionary establishment, on the St. Joseph 
River. The seeds germinated and grew finely, and in due time the 
fruit was fully developed, but as yet no one was found who knew 
anything about the strange, curious fruit, or supposed it to be of any 
value beyond being an ornamental curiosity. At length a gentleman 
from Savannah, Ga., was at my place, who, seeing my mysterious 
fruit, with great delight exclaimed, ' Why, you have the tomatoes 
here, and they are excellent for eating, and held in high estimation 
by the people of Savannah.' He did not inform us how they were to 
be used, but we looked forward with the most flattering anticipations 
to the time of enjoying a rare feast. When the fruit was fully ripe 
we proceeded to make a trial of its virtues, in the same way that we 
would with a ripe peach or plum, but one or two nips were enough to 
prove that it was an extremely disgusting, repugnant, abhorrent, de- 
testable thing, — and I might go on multiplying revolting terms, and 
then utterly fail of conveying any adequate conception of its hate- 
fulness. We thought there was some mistake about that thing. 
When I found the botanical name {hy coper sicum), that offered no ex- 
planation. Before long, however, we became better informed. We 
learned that it should be used while in its green state, when, if sliced 
thin and fried after pork, or baked in a pie, that it was a good sub- 
stitute for green apples. 

" As there were no apples in the county at that time, the tomato 
soon became very popular. One man on the prairie, who had great 
quantities of tomatoes, and there being no market for them, and being 
unable to use the whole of them in his own family before they became 
ripe and consequently worthless, gave them away by the bushel to his 
neighbors. In these modern times I have learned with profound as- 
tonishment that there are a few people with such perverted tastes that 
they even eat ripe tomatoes. 

" In 1834, Elihu Mils, of Ann Arbor, brought to Gull Prairie a 
quantity of apple-trees for sale, of which he sold more or less to dif- 



ferent parties on the prairie. Among the pioneers of Gull Prairie 
there were several from New England, where it was supposed by 
many that stony or rooky land was as good as, if not preferable to, 
any other for apple-trees; even the steep side-hills and their summits 
were graced by the apple-trees, provided they had the everlasting 
rocks. About the beginning of the present century, one of my neigh- 
bors being about to set out an apple-orchard, and having none but 
sandy land to put it on, in his great wisdom conceived of the brilliant 
idea of carting from abroad large flat stones, and placing one at the 
bottom of each hole for the roots of the tree to rest on. It so hap- 
pened that there were not stones enough, and the last tree was set with- 
out any. The fate of that tree was commented upon and watched by 
all the neighbors with profound interest. Notwithstanding all the 
adverse predictions put forth, that tree flourished as well as the 

" Now when those men came here and had turned their wistful eyes 
abroad over the land and could discover no suitable land for apple- 
trees, we need not wonder that their sensibilities were stirred to their 
inmost depths. When Elihu Mills was selling his trees on the prairie 

(as referred to above), he went to the house of Mr. , but he was 

away from home; when, therefore, Mr. returned home and found 

that his son had bought some of Mills' trees, and set them out, he 
expressed great sorrow. 

"In the autumn of the same year (1835), Mr. J. F. Gilkey brought 
from Indiana or Ohio about one hundred apple-trees, one-half of 
which he set out south of his house; but, inasmuch as the cattle 
had access to them, a few years thereafter not a vestige of the trees . 
remained. The other half of the aforesaid trees Judge Hinsdell 
set out west of his barn, among the standing girdled forest-trees. 
These girdled trees were afterwards felled and burned up without in- 
jury to the apple-trees. Those good old trees have faithfully served 
their day and generation, and now, after a lapse of thirty-eight 
years, still remain as enduring monuments of the genius, thrift, and 
remarkable enterprise of that wonderful, active, and successful man. 

u In 1835, John "Barnes and Loyal Jones each set out eight or ten 
peach-trees, which were two years old at the time of setting, and were, 
I believe, the first peach-trees that were set out upon Gull Prairie. 

" At an early period of the settlement of the prairie, Augustus Mills 
set out a goodly number of the common red, sour cherry-trees. In 
the year 1844 they were nice great trees, and had borne fruit several 
years. At that time there were many young sprouts or offshoots, 
which were one or two feet high, that had sprung from the roots of 
the large trees, a few feet from the trunks. I obtained a quantity of 
these offshoots, and planted them out for myself. At the time of 
planting my cherry-trees, and after, I was told by the wise ones that 
my trees would never bear, because they were sprouts or offshoots. I 
was so green at that time that I did not know any better than to sup- 
pose that such sprouts would bear. True, I had previously had a 
similar experience, but that was more than twenty years before, and 
had passed from my recollection, and so could not benefit me in that 
time of need, and, being ignorant, I was all the while liable to make 
grave mistakes in something. 

" That little experience, or episode, in my experiments with fruit- 
trees (already alluded to) occurred while I was residing in New Eng- 
land. There I had a neighbor who had a goodly number of large, 
bearing apple-trees ; from the roots of those trees, a few feet from their 
trunks, there had sprung many sprouts or offshoots, which were four 
or five feet high, and very straight and thrifty. The owner of the 
trees was truly a very learned and intelligent man. He told me that 
I might have in welcome as many of his sprouts as I desired, but at 
the same time advised me not to take them on any account, 'for 
sprouts/ said he, ' will either never bear, or bear fruit that will be 
unlike the original, and be absolutely worthless.' Those few words 
embraced valuable information and friendly advice, which, emanating 
from so high a source, should (as many people would say) deter me 
from the commission of such a rash and foolish act as the one I was 
about to perpetrate. But I was so green and unlearned in those days 
that I knew but little about philosophy or the laws which govern the 
vegetable kingdom ; consequently, I did not know why a sprout taken 
from the roots of an apple-tree, or a scion from its branches, and the 
one planted in the ground elsewhere, and the other ingrafted into an- 

* This fully equals the pioneer in Illinois who cleared a few acres 
ip a grove upon which to plant corn, thinking it would not grow on 
prairie land. 

other tree, should at once degenerate and lose all respect for their 
noble parentage, and either not bear at all, or bear that which would 
be a shame and disgrace to their family. 

" But that mysterious theory did not originate with my much-es- 
teemed friend. It was a relic of past ages, which had been carefully 
preserved and as carefully handed down through succeeding genera- 
tions for the protection of their children's children. Notwithstanding 
all that, and the increased light of the nineteenth century, I carried 
the sprouts home and set them out, and as they were from large, ma- 
ture trees, they came forward with astonishing rapidity, and made 
beautiful trees, began to bear very early, and continued to bear excel- 
lent apples. The reader, long before this, will have anticipated the 
results of my experiments with my cherry-trees. I suppose it is 
unnecessary for me to say that I met with perfect success in every 
particular. The trees have not only borne great quantities of good 
cherries year after year, but still continue to do so. 

" Kalamazoo, July 18, 1873." 


In the early years of Michigan the people, as in all new 
countries and frontier settlements, were compelled to resort 
to primitive means for the exchange of products. Legalized 
money, or currency, was scarce, and what little was in circu- 
lation was looked upon with suspicion to a greater or less 
extent; and partly from this, and partly from other causes, 
the settlers adopted, and continued for several years, a sys- 
tem of exchange called by the American people, at least 
by those inhabiting the Northern States, " dicker." This 
convenient word is defined in " Webster" as meaning to 
negotiate, to trade, to swap. In Latin it is written dacra, 
dacrum, decora, dicora, decara, from the word decuria, 
meaning a division of ten ; hence a dakir of skins, a 
dicker of furs, a dicker of gloves or moccasins, etc. Any 
exchange of products or goods was called " a dicker.' 1 

It was a provincialism transplanted from England and 
the continent of Europe to the shores of America, and made 
a part of the common idiom of the times ; generally in use 
on the borders and among the newer settlements. 

It is probable that there was no one article of trade or 
exchange which was made the standard of values, as has 
been the case in some parts of the Union, — as, for instance, 
in Oregon, where wheat was for a time the recognized stand- 
ard by State or Territorial authority, we believe, at a fixed 
value per bushel, and a legal tender, as good as Mr. Chase's 
celebrated " greenbacks." Among the savages of the con- 
tinent, wampum, manufactured mostly from shells, was the 
standard of exchange, as well as the foundation or medium 
of all national and tribal records. 

" * Bicker,' when properly defined, was money in a sense liberal and 
broad enough to have suited Sam. Carey or Ben. Butler in their most 
ultra greenback humor. Butler says, ' A piece of leather is good 
enough for money.' So thought the pioneer. He took leather of the 
shoemaker in exchange for potatoes ; he paid the merchant in wheat, 
the blacksmith in marsh hay, the carpenter in beef, the tailor in wood, 
the parson with a pig, and split rails for the postmaster to pay the 
twenty-five cents for his letter. 

" It was a much less expensive currency than anything yet invented 
by the inflationist. It dispensed with even the necessity of coin or 
paper. Each pioneer possessed the power of the general government ; 
he had only to say ( Jiat moneta,' and presto ! everything at his dictum 
became current money. His ipse-dixit made it legal tender for all 
debts and dues, both (in a local sense) public and private. 

" It is often said nowadays that ' the people are the government ;' 
then each man was the government, and, by bis fiat, he made all the 
money necessary for his use during the first decade of the pioneer 
period. Labor was the ' gold basis' of this bank. It measured the 
value of everything which man produced by toil. It was really the 



primeval capital of the human race, and it must continue to give 
actual value to every commodity. 

"A settler needed an ox -yoke, and he gave its value, — a day's 
work, or he gave its equivalent in a bushel of wheat, which usually 
had a recognized value of one dollar in currency. In the prosperous 
days of the Venetian Republic, among whose financiers the modern 
system of banking is said to have originated, labor was the basis not 
only of all exchangeable values, but also of citizenship. No idler 
could be a citizen in Venice; he must show his title to the nobility of 
labor or leave the commonwealth. Based upon this capital, the bank- 
ing system of the famous Italian Republic grew to wonderful dimen- 
sions, and flourished during a period of four centuries."* 

The " dicker" period of Michigan continued until a new 
order of things was established by the invention and intro- 
duction of the famous " wild-cat" banks, which sprouted 
and flourished during the feverish days of land speculation, 
when every section had its city with " corner lots" held at 
fabulous prices by the crazy speculator. Hundreds of cities, 
on paper, were laid out and lots sold " by sample," as the 
traveling men say, — that is, a magnificent cut plat or map 
was made, showing a mile square beautifully laid out, with 
churches, colleges, opera-houses, parks, etc., together with 
coal-mines, water-power, stone-quarries and every conceiva- 
ble adjunct and accompaniment of a flourishing commercial 
point. Armed with these wonderful evidences of the vast 
advantages of the new country, agents repaired to the East, 
and sometimes opened real-estate offices and did a flourish- 
ing business in the sale of lands and lots. Then the " wild- 
cat" and " red dog" banks made their appearance. All that 
was necessary to commence banking operations with was a 
charter and a good supply of paper, and forthwith the won- 
derful currency came floating on the breeze " like leaves in 
Vallombrosa, " and "everybody and his wife" had pockets 
full of money. 

"If the bank printed its notes and the location in the same ink, it 
was denominated a 'wild-cat;' if the notes were left blank for the 
place of business to be stamped upon them in red ink, it was called a 
' red dog ;' if the blank was stamped in blue ink, it was called a * blue 
pup.' But all were of dangerous genus, and bit and scratched the dear 
people who ventured to handle them with equal delight. "f 

The experience of the Western States with various kinds 
of currency has been a very dear one, and every State lost 
millions of dollars in the break-ups and failures and swin- 
dling operations of the years of experimental banking. 
Even if a certain issue was sound of itself the counterfeits 
upon it were equal to the genuine in appearance and exe- 
cution, and would deceive an expert. No man dared to 
keep a bill or note overnight for fear the bank would 
u burst" before morning. Every merchant and business 
man kept a " counterfeit detector" in his money-drawer for 
both coin and paper, and even then he was a most remark- 
bly lucky individual who did not get a fair percentage of 
counterfeit or broken bank-notes. 

The great civil war accomplished two things for which 
the American people should forever be thankful, — it made 
the United States a nation, and gave them a sound cur- 
rency. The " greenback" and national bank-note are good 
in every corner of the land, because a nation's wealth is 
pledged to make them equivalent to metal currency. State 
and corporate banks are passed away forever, and the canine 
and feline species are extinct in the land of their origin. 

* From notes by Mr. Van Buren. 


f Van Buren. 


The following account of the " wild-cat" experiences of 
this State is from a letter written to the Chicago Tribune, 
by Z. Eastman, of Elgin, 111. : 

"Michigan was lying snugly in the bosom of Uncle Sam, where it 
was warmly nursed as a Territory, with a boy, Stevens T. Mason, less 
than one and twenty years of age, recognized by Gen. Jackson as 
Territorial Governor. Michigan was then the favorite place to which 
New England boys came to buy land. Paper money was freely taken 
by Uncle Sam, and his acres went off at a rapid pace, as the paper 
promises of the banks to pay came in. Money was as plenty as chips 
in the forests of that most progressive State of swamps and oak 
openings, and it did not much matter on what bank, strong or broken, 
safety-fund or shin-plaster, if it were only a printed bank-bill of any 
denomination, — the larger the better. 

" Of the few old banks of Massachusetts which ever failed before 
these days was the Belchertown Bank, — a rural town of substantial 
farmers, with no commercial business. Here they had got up a bank to 
issue money, which they did all according to the charter; but, having 
no business, the bank of course failed. Their bills were printed upon 
an unusually transparent paper, tinted red, so that this money might 
well have taken a significant name that came after, — 'red dog.' 

" This Belchertown joins Amherst, Mass., that seat of learning and 
morality. One of the exemplary youths of that town came out to 
Michigan to spy the land and make an investment. He saw what a 
wonderful State Michigan was ; what vast resources for Yankee genius ; 
what a remarkably singular way they had of doing business there ; 
also the great abundance of money and the freedom with which it was 
used and, especially, paid out. He came back as a spy with a goodly 
report; and he brought word that so free was the use of money in 
Michigan, and so great was the demand there, these people were not 
at all particular about the kind they received. Specie would not be 
refused, but bank-bills were preferred, and it did not much matter 
where the banks were located, East or West, or whether alive or 
broken, or the bills counterfeit even, — it was all the same to the good 
people in this eminently Democratic Territory, governed by a boy- 
governor, and not giving due heed to the sound doctrine of ' exclusive 
specie currency.' And the sober people of Amherst listened to the 
report of this young man, and thought favorably of the new Territory 
as a place for an investment; and so they gathered up their spare 
funds and searched everywhere, and in their old laid-away leather 
pocket-books, for the red bills of the defunct bank of Belchertown, 
which had at last found its place of redemption in the backwoods of 
Michigan ; and they sent back a young man well stocked with Belcher- 
town and other New England currency to make for them large entries 
of government lands. About the same time — that is to say, in 1834 
or 1835 — came also the president of the Bank of Amherst, an insti- 
tution that stood well, that redeemed all its issues in specie when 
called upon (which never happened) ; and he came for the purpose of 
entering wild and timbered lands in the State of Michigan, and to 
pay therefor the paper currency of his own bank. And he found such 
as suited him well, and the lands on which the pine logs are cut that 
furnished millions of feet of lumber which came into the Chicago 
market every year from Muskegon. These he bought of occupants 
as well as at the land-office, and finding the section that suited him, 
and the payment being agreed upon, he would sit down upon a stump, 
take out a roll of the printed sheets of his bank, sign off the requisite 
amount of bills to pay the price, and receive a title to his land. Or 
the same formality in the land-office of the district resulted in the 
transfer of title from the government to the bank president, — his sig- 
nature to the bills being the pivot on which the transfer turned. 
Those were the days just prior to the coming of wild-eats into Michi- 
gan, and just preceded also a very ferocious ' varmint' of precisely the 
opposite genus, which was Jackson's specie circular. It is very pos- 
sible that this stern old man with the hickory face, sitting in his 
Presidential chair at Washington, had heard how they were buying 
up his broad acres in the Territory of Michigan and paying for them 
in those narrow slips of blue and red paper. This much he knew 
certainly, that the lands were going fast; that the grasp of the specu- 
lator was lapping upon township on township, far outstripping the 
march of even the squatter or the hunter after the deer; and in place 
of them, the receivers' offices were being surfeited with the money 
called 'paper promises to pay.' If the process went on, the pablie 



lands would soon be all transformed into paper, and the ultimate 
prospect of redemption hopeless. At the same time he knew that 
work was getting sadly out of fashion ; that few were producing any* 
thing, not even as much as the consumption of food, the majority 
living by their wits or sleight-of-hand in trade ; and, according to the 
philosophy of this rigid old homespun, if this process continued, not 
only would the banks fail with their paper on his hands, but starva- 
tion must be the fate of a portion of the people. He rose up and 
swore with his favorite oath that he would mend matters or make 
them worse; and he commanded the Secretary of the Treasury and 
his under-servants of the land-office to receive no more of the frail 
stuff as money, called rags ; but to take only such as Senator Benton 
had full faith in, viz., gold and silver, in payment for the public lands ; 
and this was the specie circular. The United States Bank had already 
had the hickory cudgel over its proboscis, and it was spouting blood. 
This other was a blow at the land speculators, and an admonition to 
the State banks that the same doughty President had determined that 
it was time they should set their back counting-rooms in order. The 
nation staggered under this blow from Washington ; it was felt in all 
parts of the land and by all classes. But Michigan had had a fair 
start under the speculative regime, and they were building fair and 
substantial towns in their woods, such as Ypsilanti, Ann Arbor, Jack- 
son, Marshall, Kalamazoo, etc., and before the stumps were out of 
their prominent streets they had substantial, large, brick structures 
up for hotels, stores, and dwellings, which stand to-day as proud 
monuments of the energy of the times when Jackson smote them. 

" The Territory of Michigan was admitted as a State in 1837. It 
was an exemplary Democratic State, and its people meant to reflect 
in the very strongest light the sound doctrines of the Democratic 
party. They were opposed to monopolies and to a National bank, and 
were quite willing to swear by Benton's addendum — specie currency 
— and also the down-East commercial interpretation of the doctrine, 
free banking with real estate security. The Michiganders had plenty 
of land, which they had bought when paper was plenty, but were 
very poor in matters of dollars, and halves, and quarters; and since 
bank-bills would no longer buy lands of government, they had gone 
suddenly back whence they had come, and paper became as scarce as 
silver. There was not currency enough in the State to move the 
swamp lands. Under the license of party fidelity they proceeded at 
once to legislate for the emergency. How prone the people are to fly 
to the relief of the Legislature when they get hard up ! They, there- 
fore, at Detroit, through their representatives, proceeded to legislate 
into full vitality the essential doctrine of the Democratic party, — that 
banking should not become a monopoly; that all people had inalien- 
able rights to run a bank, provided they put up the security: and, 
that land, being the surest of all property, was the best security that 
a person proposing to do banking could put up as a guarantee to all 
who might hold the bills of the bank that they could be redeemed or 
paid when call for payment should be made. Who could state a 
principle more logically than this ? And they passed a Jaw that any 
number of persons combining together so and so, and pledging to the 
State a certain amount of real estate, unincumbered, and at certain 
presumed-to-be fair prices in valuation, should enjoy the privilege of 
issuing bills which should be deemed and taken as money, and which 
bills should entitle the holder to draw specie from the bank in re- 
demption for the same, — should he be so foolish as to call for it. Now 
all that was weak in this system was the possibility that the people 
would be foolish and call for specie when they did not want it, and 
when it could do them no good. Like Gunther's candy, then un- 
known, there was a fear that children might even cry for it. And, 
besides, there was that other equally Democratic doctrine, ' specie 
currency ;' and that possibly might come in and clash with the also 
Democratic doctrine, 'free banking. 1 And through this gate, which 
the legislators at Detroit set open, and propped with a good hickory 
stick, that looked some like Jackson's cudgel, the wild-cats came into 
Michigan. And these were the names of a part of scores or many 
seores of them : The ' Bank of Lapeer,' ' Oakland County,' < Macomb,' 
' Ypsilanti,' ' Bank of Washtenaw,' ' Calhoun/ « County Bank,' ' Bank 
of Marshall,' ' Jackson,' ' Allegan,' ' Sandstone,' * Huron,' etc. They 
issued their bills all according to law, all secured; the wealth ot the 
lands, which could not depart, was represented in a currency which 
they called money, and to be used as the medium of trade, to raise 
crops and move crops ; to buy and sell merchandise with, etc. They 
were good-looking bills, and seemed as much like money as a green- 
back of 1874. How very nice was all this ! The country was happy 

for they had money in great abundance. The merchants bought 
large stocks of goods; the stores were well filled. The people bor- 
rowed money of the banks freely ; everybody that could paid out. 
And money was again as plenty as when the worthy young man of 
Amherst disbursed Belchertown, or the venerable president made 
money from the stump of a tree with a stroke of his pen. But time 
hurries up events most marvelously. The financial convulsion, which 
Jackson either mended or made worse, came on unappeased, till at 
last his successor, Van Buren, when he took the Presidency, found all 
the banks of the country under a suspension; there were neither Nick 
Biddle's bills nor Benton's click of the dollar nor the shine of the 
eagles through the net-work of silk purses. The sound Common- 
wealth Bank of Boston, which secured itself by loaning to its cus- 
tomers on bonds and mortgages, and thus honored Democratic notions 
of banking in Boston, failed at the first dash, being sadly surprised 
to learn the flaw in the theory that good notes of hand, well secured, 
would not redeem bank-bills; that money, after all, was the only 
commodity that would redeem promises to pay. 

" The banks of Michigan being so far out of the range of the finan- 
cial tornados that raged where money was, it was reasonable to think 
they might escape. It does not appear that any sudden squall keeled 
them over. Trade went on, the merchants sold goods rapidly, and 
bought what little produce the tillers of the soil had in those days to 
sell; goods grew gradually higher in the stores; money grew gradu- 
ally less in price. One bank far away would be worth ninety cents, 
another eighty, and so, graduated by no known rule, they stood, the 
representatives of values from twenty-five cents to par. Those at par 
were received for goods at twenty per cent, above cost in certain places 
(perhaps near home, if the unfortunate bantlings had any home), while 
they would be at twenty-five cents in another section of the State. 
The currency became a wonderment to all the Wolverines. It was 
laughed at, sneered at, or jeered at, as fancy might dictate, and thus 
became the prolific source of many grim jokes. The * Sandstone' 
bank became the main butt. ' Lapeer' was another synonym of un- 
fathomable banking mysteries. ' Wild-Cat' was the general term by 
which the whole breed was known. 'Red Dog,' 'Blue Pup,' 'Grind- 
stone,' ' Sandy Bay,' ' Sink-a-porc,' and other queer terms designated 
certain classes of this queer currency. And yet it may seem strange 
why it should be so very different from any other currency. It was 
authorized by law; it was the first complete trial of organizing a 
system by which the bill-holders should be secured by a pledge of 
real estate. The absurdity of the arrangement was, that it could 
have been supposed that the wild lands of Michigan could be con- 
verted at any reasonable period into anything with which bank-bills 
could be redeemed. The winding up, or rather closing up, of the ex- 
periment was as singular as its origin. They had but a year or so, 
and perhaps but a few months' trial of confidence before the public. 
We have no knowledge of any process of winding up, or foreclosing 
to save bill-holders ; or that the lands put up were ever appropriated 
to redeem the currency. It rather 'petered' out. The public had 
their time for ridiculing that style of banking, and then very gener- 
ously abandoned the whole thing, leaving the expressive title as an 
inheritance to future generations." 

When the bank commissi'oners came around to look into 
the financial condition of the various institutions, the officers 
had a very ingenious way of meeting the emergency. They 
found some bank or individual that had a few thousand 
dollars in specie. This they borrowed, and when their bank 
had passed examination and been pronounced sound, the 
money was loaned to the next in order, and so on in rotation 
until the commissioners had finished their work and departed. 
In this way a thousand dollars might serve as a specie basis 
for all the banks in the Territory or State ; all that was 
necessary was to know the line of movement of the com- 
missioners, and an approximate to the date of their appear- 

An incident of the " wild-cat" days is related in connec- 
tion with the Battle Creek bank by Mr. Van Buren : A 
gentleman connected with the " wild-cat" bank at that place, 
in the fall of 1837, borrowed one thousand dollars in five- 



franc pieces of a citizen of Le Roy, Calhoun Co. This he 
used at the inspection of the Battle Creek bank j then 
taking it to the next in rotation, and so on, going the rounds 
of all the banks in the neighborhood, including " Sinkapore," 
at the mouth of the Kalamazoo River, keeping far enough 
ahead of the slow-going commissioners to make the deposit 
in time to meet them. He kept the money about a month 
or six weeks, and paid its owner forty bushels of wheat for 
its use when he returned it. 

In the same way a citizen of Three Rivers borrowed the 
" specie basis" of Kalamazoo, to serve the bank in his place. 
On his way home, in a one-horse wagon, he lost his way, 
and was compelled to camp in the woods overnight. He 
slept with the " sub-treasury" under his head, and in the 
morning made his way joyfully to Three Rivers without 
meeting a Dick Turpin on the road. The commissioners 
found the bank all right, and certified accordingly, while 
the specie was quietly returned to its owner. 



First Counties organized in the Territory — Organization of Kala- 
mazoo County — First Townships — County-Seat — Subdivisions. 

The earliest counties organized within the Territory of 
Michigan, from 1796 to 1830, were as follows : Wayne, 
which included the 'lower peninsula, by Gen. Anthony 
Wayne, after whom it was named,* in 1796 ; re-established 
by proclamation of Governor St. Clair, July 15th of the 
same year, and organized by proclamation of Governor 
Cass, Nov. 21, 1815 ; Monroe, taken from Wayne, organ- 
ized July 14, 1817; Mackinac, organized Oct. 26, 1818; 
Oakland, March 28, 1820 ; Washtenaw, 1826 ; Chippewa, 
from Mackinac, 1826; Lenawee, from Monroe, 1826; St. 
Joseph, from Lenawee, 1829 ; and Kalamazoo, from St. 
Joseph, July 30, 1830. 

Under the act of October 29, 1829, providing for the 
laying out of certain counties, Kalamazoo County is de- 
scribed in the seventh section as follows : 

" That so much of the county as lies south of the base line, and 
north of the line between townships four and five south of the base 
line, and west of the line between ranges eight and nine west of the 
meridian, and east of the line between ranges twelve and* thirteen 
west of the meridian, be, and the same is hereby set off into a sepa- 
rate county, and the name thereof shall be Kalamazoo. "f 

The act erecting the counties of Cass and St. Joseph, 
approved Nov. 4, 1829, contained the following section : 

"That the counties of Kalamazoo, Calhoun, Branch, Barry, and 
Eaton, and all the country lying north of township four north of the 
base line, west of the principal meridian, south of the county of 
Machilimaekinac, and east of the line between ranges twelve and 
thirteen, and of Lake Michigan, where said range line intersects the 
lake, shall be attached to and compose a part of the county of St. 

* Albach's Annals of the West states that the county was organ- 
ized and the civil law established by Winthrop Sargent, secretary of 
the Northwest Territory, in September, 1796. The statement copied 
is from the State Census Report for 1874. Judge Campbell says Sar- 
gent set off the county on the 18th of August, 1796. 

f Territorial Laws, vol. ii. page 736. New edition. 

X Ibid., page 745. 

On the 5th of November, 1829, an act was passed for 
the subdivision of certain counties, section 4 of which 
reads as follows : 

" That the counties of Kalamazoo and Barry, and all the country 
lying north of the same, which are attached to and compose a part of 
the county of St. Joseph, shall form a township of the name of Brady, 
and the first township-meeting be held at the house of Abram I. 
Shaver, in said township/'^ 


(i Be it enacted by the Legislative Council of the Territory of Michi- 
gan, That the county of Kalamazoo shall be organized from and after 
the taking effect of this act, and the inhabitants thereof entitled to all 
the rights and privileges to which by law the inhabitants of the other 
organized counties of this Territory are entitled. 

" Sec. 2. That there shall be a county court established in the said 
county, which court shall be held on the third Tuesday of October in 
each year. 

"Sec. 3. That a circuit court shall also be held in the said county, 
and that the several acts concerning the Supreme, circuit, and county 
courts of the Territory of Michigan, defining their jurisdiction and 
powers, and directing the pleadings and practice therein in certain 
cases, be, and the same are hereby made applicable to the circuit 
court in the aforesaid county of Kalamazoo. 

"Sec. 4. That the said county of Kalamazoo shall be one circuit, 
and the court for the same shall be held hereafter on th*e first Tuesday 
of September in each year. 

" Sec. 5. That all suits, prosecutions, and other matters now pend- 
ing before the circuit or county courts of the county of St. Joseph, or 
before any justice of the peace of said county, shall be prosecuted to 
final judgment and execution ; and all taxes heretofore levied, or 
which may be hereafter levied for the year one thousand eight hun- 
dred and thirty, shall be collected in the same manner as though the 
said county of Kalamazoo had not been organized. 

"Sec. 6. That the circuit and county courts shall be held at the 
county-seat, at the court-house or other usual place of holding courts 
therein, provided that the first term of said courts shall be holden at 
the house of Abraham I. Shaver,^" in said county : Provided, That it 
shall be lawful for the said circuit and county courts to adjourn the 
first term of said courts from the house of said Shaver to such other 
place in said county as to said courts may appear expedient. 

" Sec. 7. Jhat the counties of Calhoun, Barry, and Eaton, and all 
the country lying north of township four, north of the base line, west 
of the principal meridian, south of the county of Michilimackinac, 
and east of the line between ranges twelve and thirteen and of Lake 
Michigan, where said range line intersects the lake, shall be attached 
to and compose a part of the county of Kalamazoo for judicial pur- 

" Sec. 8. That all acts and parts of acts now in force contravening 
the provisions of this act be, and the same are hereby repealed. This 
act shall take effect and be in force from and after the first day of 
October, one thousand eight hundred and thirty. 

"Approved July 30, 1830." 

From the above extracts it appears that Kalamazoo 
County formed a part of the county of St. Joseph from 
Nov. 4, 1829, to Oct. 1, 1830, and during nearly the same 
period constituted also a part of the township of Brady, 
which included about one-fifth of the area of the lower 

It does not appear by any written or printed record that 
this great township performed during this period any legal 
or corporate act. If its citizens ever assembled to transact 
township business the records are in St. Joseph County. 

"An act to organize the townships of Arcadia and Brady, in the 
county of Kalamazoo, 

u Beit enacted by the Legislative Council of the 'Territory of Michi- 
gan, That all that part of the county of Kalamazoo comprised in 

I Ibid., page 787. || Ibid., page 836. 

\ This name is printed in the Territorial Laws both Abram and 



townships one and two south of the base line, and in ranges nine, ten, 
eleven, and twelve west of the principal meridian, shall be a town- 
ship by the name of Arcadia, and that the first township-meeting 
shall be holden at the house of Titus Brownson,* in said township. 

" Sec. 2. That all that district of country known and distinguished 
as townships three and four south, and ranges nine, ten, eleven, and 
twelve west, in said county of Kalamazoo, shall be a township by the 
name of Brady ; and that the first township-meeting shall be holden 
at the house of Abram I. Shaver, in said township.f 

"Approved July 30, 1830." 

This original subdivision of the county divided it into 
two equal parts, as will be seen by reference to the follow- 
ing outline map. 

Kange 12. 

Range 11. 

Range 10. 

Range 9. 


The settlement where the village of Kalamazoo now 
stands, made by Titus Bronson, in June, 1829, had in- 
creased to quite a hamlet, and had been named Bronson, in 
honor of its proprietor, or, rather, one of its proprietors, for 
Stephen H. Richardson was a partner in laying out the 
village. J In the latter part of the year 1830, immediately 
after the organization of the county, the question of a county- 
seat began to be agitated, and Governor Cass appointed two 
commissioners for the purpose of ascertaining the most 
proper point for its location. Their report, after due in- 
vestigation, was as follows : 

"To his Excellency Lewis Cass, Governor of Michigan : 

"Sir, — The commissioners appointed by your excellency to locate 
the seat of justice for the county of Kalamazoo beg leave respectfully 
to report : 

" That, after taking the oath prescribed by law, and within thirty 
days after being notified of their appointment, they proceeded to the 
county and entered upon the duty assigned them with a firm deter- 
mination to discharge it fearlessly and without reference to any object 
rather than the public good. Many difficulties stood in the way of a 
speedy determination of the most suitable site for the county-seat, 
which led to a much more thorough examination of the county than 
was at first contemplated. 

* Should be Bronson. 
f Territorial Laws, vol. ii. pages 839-40. 

J The village was not really laid out until after the location of the 
county-seat. See history of Kalamazoo. 

"That your excellency may be aware of the reasons that influenced 
the minds of the commissioners in the location they have made, a 
short description of the county is considered proper. It is inter- 
spersed with many prairies, some of which are large and fertile. 
Settlements have already commenced on most of them, and so rapidly 
do they progress that in a short time this county will claim a standing 
with the most populous in the territory. 

" Prairie Round is the largest, supposed to contain twenty thousand 
acres of land, situated near the southwest corner of the county. Two 
hundred families reside on the borders of this lake of land, where they 
have heavy-timbered land on the one side of their houses and an im- 
mense open prairie on the other. 

"Gull Prairie is the next in importance, and is situated in the 
northeast corner of the county. It is one-half or three-fifths as large 
as Prairie Bound. The settlement of this has only commenced, but 
from the character of its present inhabitants, and the local and other 
advantages it possesses, a heavy population may be reasonably antici- 

"Grand Prairie is nearly or quite as large as Gull Prairie.^ It is 
situated four miles northwest of the geographical centre of the county, 
nearly in a direct line between the two above mentioned, and about 
equidistant from both. 

"These three places, with the rich timbered land which borders 
them on one side or the other, will necessarily contain the largest 
share of the population of the county. |J 

" The small prairies (except Toland's and Aldrich's) are generally 
in the vicinity of those described, forming openings of from twenty 
to five hundred acres, which give the country a picturesque appear- 

[The description of the face of the country following is omitted.] 

" The geographical centre of the county is three miles and a half 
south of the Kalamazoo River, and about the same distance from the 
great Territorial road, laid out from Sheldon's, on the Chicago road, 
to the mouth of the St. Joseph River, on Lake Michigan. 

"Much anxiety was felt and manifested by the large and respecta- 
ble population of Prairie Round for the location of the county-seat 
on the Portage stream, near the geographical centre of the county, 
and four miles from the Kalamazoo River. Much labor and time were 
spent in examining the claims of this place, which, although of some 
magnitude, were not considered to take the site from the benefits to 
be derived from the navigation of the river. 

" Two places upon the river, about the same distance from the centre 
of the county, presented their claims for the site. These were exam- 
ined with care, and not without anxiety. 

" A spot was at length selected, on an eminence near the centre of 
the southwest quarter of section fifteen, town two south, of range 
eleven west, owned by Titus Bronson, Esq. Mr. Bronson has agreed 
to lay out a village, and place upon the proper records a plan or map 
thereof, duly acknowledged, with the following pieces of land, prop- 
erly marked and set apart in said map or plan, for public use : One 
square of sixteen rods for the Court-House ; one square of sixteen 
rods for a jail ; one square of sixteen rods for an Academy ; one 
square of eight rods for Common Schools ; one square of two acres for 
a public burial-ground ; four squares of eight rods each for the first 
four religious denominations that become incorporated in said village, 
agreeably to the statute of the Territory. 

" This place is situated on the great bend of the Kalamazoo River, 
on its southwestern bank, immediately on the Portage stream. The 
reasons which influenced the location of the county-seat at this place 
are : 1st. It is on the bank of the river, which at this place is navi- 
gable, most of the year, for keel-boats of several tons burden ; 2d. 
It is in the direct line between the two largest prairies in the county, 
viz., Prairie Round and Gull Prairie; about nine miles from the 
latter, and ten from the former, and with Grand Prairie two miles on 
its west; 3d. Good roads may, with facility, be made from it into any 
part of the county. Four or five large trails set out from this place, 

$ The commissioners seem to have obtained very uncertain infor- 
mation concerning the prairies of the county. They are greatly over- 
stated in area, and their comparative sizes as given are far from 

|| This prediction has not been verified, for those townships contain- 
ing the prairies have no larger population per square mile than the 
others. This condition may probably be accounted for by the fact 
that the farms in the prairie region are generally the larger. 



leading to as many different places of importance on the St. Joseph 
and Grand Rivers; 4th. The great Territorial road passes through it. 
"Your Excellency is therefore respectfully recommended to estab- 
lish, permanently, the county-seat at the place above mentioned. 

" John Allen, 
"Ann Arbor, Jan. 15, 1831. "Calvin Smith. 

"Approved, April 2, 1831. 

" Lew. Cass." 

On the 12th day of May, 1831, Gen. John T. Mason, 
secretary, and, in the absence of Governor Cass, acting 
Governor of the Territory, issued a proclamation " estab- 
lishing the seat of justice of the said county of Kalama- 
zoo upon the said spot of land, described as aforesaid," 
and from that date the village of Bronson* became the 
permanent county-seat. 

- The second subdivision of the county was made in 1832, 
when the township of Richland was organized under the 
following act : 

" Be it enacted by the Legislative Council of the Territory of Mich- 
igan, That all that part of the county of Kalamazoo known as town- 
ships numbered one and two south of the base line, in ranges num- 
bered nine and ten, west of the principal meridian, be a township of 
the name of Richland, and the first township-meeting shall be held 
at the house of Caleb Eldred, in said township."f 

This description included the east half of the township 
of Arcadia, being the present townships of Ross, Richland, 
Comstock, and Charleston. 

On the 7th of March, 1834, the township of Comstock 
was organized, consisting of the present townships of Com- 
stock, Charleston, and Climax, — the latter set off from the 
original township of Brady. The first town- meeting was 
held at the house of James Bennett. 

On the 3d of March, 1836, the name of the township 
of Arcadia was changed to Kalamazoo, and the village name 
of Bronson w r as also changed to Kalamazoo. 

On the 23d of March, 1836, the township of Pavilion 
was set off from Brady and organized, including also the 
present township of Portage. The first town-meeting was 
held at the house of Moses Austin. At the same date the 
township of Prairie Ronde was also set off from Brady and 
organized, its first town-meeting being held at the house of 
Abram I. Shaver. 

On the 11th of March, 1837, the town of Cooper was 
set off from Kalamazoo and organized. It included what 
are now the towns of Cooper and Alamo. The first town- 
meeting was held at the house of Elijah Woodworth. It 
was named in honor of James Fenimore Cooper. 

The foregoing townships were organized under acts of 
the Territorial Legislature. The final act admitting the 
State into the Union was passed by Congress on the 26th 
of January, 1837, and the Territory of Michigan from and 
after that date took on the habiliments of a State. 

On the 30th of December, 1837, the town of Climax, 
with its present boundaries, was set off from Comstock and 
organized, being the first in the county to organize under 
an act of the State Legislature. The first town-meeting was 
held at the house of Daniel P. Eldred. 

On the 6th of March, 1838, the township of Alamo was 
set off from Cooper, and organized as a separate township, 

*The name of the village was changed by act of the State Legis- 
lature, in 1836, to Kalamazoo. 

f Territorial Laws, vol. iii. pp. 972-3. 

the first town-meeting being held at the house of Seth C. 
Whitlock. It was named from the celebrated castle of 
the Alamo, at San Antonio, Texas, where, in 1836, Cols. 
Crockett, Bowie, Travis, and others were massacred by the 
Mexican troops, under Santa Anna, during the Texan war 
for independence. 

The townships of Charleston, Portage, and Texas were 
also set off in 1838. Charleston was taken from Comstock, 
and its first town-meeting was held at the dwelling of Wil- 
liam Earl. Portage was taken from Pavilion, and the first 
town-meeting was held at the dwelling of Elijah Root. 
Texas was taken from Brady, and the first election was 
held at the house of Albert G-. Towers. 

Ross township was set off from Richland and organized 
on the 21st of March, 1839, and its first town-meeting held 
at the house of F. D. Pierce. 

Oshtemo township was set off from Kalamazoo and or- 
ganized March 22, 1839, and its first town-meeting held at 
the house of " Mr. Lake." 

On the 16th of February, 1842, the name of Brady 
township was changed to Schoolcraft, and the two town- 
ships, now known as Brady and Wakeshma, were organized 
from the former township and called Brady, the first town- 
meeting being held at the house of Robert Jenkinson. 

On the 25th of March, 1846, the township of Wakeshma 
was set off from Brady, and organized as a separate town- 
ship. The first town-meeting was held at the house of 
Jacob J. Gardner. 

This completes the civil subdivisions of the county. 
Each township comprises what is called in the surveys a 
Congressional township, and the county will be likely to 
remain as now divided. Each township, for its own con- 
venience, is subdivided into school and road districts ; and 
there are six incorporated villages in the county, to wit, 
Augusta, in the townships of Ross and Charleston ; Gales- 
burg, in the townships of Comstock and Charleston ; Kala- 
mazoo, in Kalamazoo township ; Richland, in Richland 
township ; Schoolcraft, in Schoolcraft township ; and Vicks- 
burgh, in Schoolcraft and Brady townships. 

These villages cover an aggregate of about seven thou- 
sand four hundred acres, and vary in population from one 
hundred to eleven thousand, their total aggregate popula- 
tion being probably about fifteen thousand, or about one- 
half the population of the county. They have good rail- 
way facilities, with the exception of Richland. 



Rgsume* of the Early Courts — Changes of Jurisdiction — Territorial 
and State Courts — Causes Celebris. 

The present excellent system of judicature of Michigan 
has been developed through a tortuous way. The people 
of the region now included in the State of Michigan, from the 
date of the permanent settlement of Detroit by the French, 
in 1701, to the present time, have lived under various forms 
of government : Edicts of Kings, Orders of Military Com- 



manders, Decrees of Imperial Parliaments and Provincial 
Governors, Ordinances of National Congresses, Enactments 
of Territorial Governors and Councils, Provisions of State 
Constitutions, and the Laws of State Legislatures. From 
the coHtume de Paris to the last State constitution and 
enactments of the last Legislature, the changes of one hun- 
dred and seventy-eight years have left their impress along 
the devious way. 

The following paragraphs are from the admirable intro- 
duction to the " Territorial Laws of Michigan," written by 
Judge A. D. Frazer, and form an excellent summary of the 
various forms of legislation in use previous to the organi- 
zation of the Territorial government of 1805 : 

" The customs of Paris and the ordinances of the kingdom were in- 
troduced by the French into Canada at a very early period. These, with 
certain arrets and decrees of the French Governor, and other author- 
ities of the province, constituted the rules of civil conduct in that 
extensive region of country. The administration of justice, however, 
seems to have been limited to the densely- settled portions of the coun- 
try. There, only, courts of justice were established. 

" The only civil officer located at any of the northern posts was a 
notary public, duly commissioned by the Governor. He was always 
an educated man, well versed in the coutume de Paris, and a very im- 
portant official, in view of the duties cast upon him by law, being re- 
quired to keep a register of all the legal instruments he drew, as also 
the original documents, certified copies being furnished interested 
parties. In all matters of controversy between the inhabitants, 
justice was meted out by the commandant of the post in a summary 
manner. The party complaining obtained a notification from him to 
his adversary of his complaint, accompanied by a command to render 
justice. If this had no effect, he was notified to appear before the 
commandant on a particular day, and answer the complaint; and if 
the last notice was neglected, a sergeant and file of men were sent to 
bring him in, — no sheriff, no taxation, no costs. The recusant was 
fined and kept in prison until he did his adversary justice. 

" Such was the condition of things in the early settlements, pro- 
tected by the northern forts, up to the very time that France trans- 
ferred Canada and her other possessions in the country to the 
crown of Great Britain, in 1763. The laws of England, civil and 
criminal, were introduced into the four separate and distinct govern- 
ments, — Quebec, East and West Florida, and Canada, — but neither 
Michigan nor any other part of the territory north of the Ohio was 
embraced in the limits of either of these provinces, and for eleven 
years the country continued to be without the pale of civil govern- 
ment. At length a bill was introduced into the British Parliament to 
'make more effectual provision for the government of Quebec, in 
North America;' and, upon the motion of Burke, amended so as to 
embrace the whole of the Northwest Territory, and the bill became a 
law, Michigan and the Northwest being embraced in the province of 

" By the provisions of the act ' Canadian subjects were to hold and 
enjoy their property and possessions, with all customs and usages 
relative thereto/ and all their civil rights were guaranteed them, the 
same as under the French authority, and in all matters of controversy 
relative to property and civil rights the laws of Canada were to be 
the rule of decisions. The criminal law of England was to be con- 
tinued in force in the province. 

" Notwithstanding the adoption of this act, the inhabitants of Mich- 
igan did not at once realize the benefits of a civil government, a few 
justices of the peace only being commissioned ; but in 1776 a flagrant 
ease occurred in Detroit, which terminated tragically, and brought 
about an improvement in the administration of justice. Two persons 
were accused of theft, and the commandant of the post directed a 
justice of the peace (Dejeau) to try them by a jury, which was done, 
and the culprits convicted, sentenced to be executed, and accordingly 
put to death. The whole proceedings were a mockery and a gross 
violation of law, and warrants arrived in Detroit for the arrest of the 
commandant and justice, but they escaped/' 

In 1779 the Governor, getting tired of administering 
justice, proposed to the merchants to establish a " court* of 

trustees," with jurisdiction extending to ten pounds, Halifax 
currency. This met their approval, and eighteen of them 
entered into a bond that three of their number should con- 
stitute a weekly court, in rotation, and that they should 
defend any appeal which might be taken from their decision. 
They rendered judgment, issued executions, and imprisoned 
the defendant in the guard-house. 

The inhabitants of Michigan gained but little by the 
change of sovereigns or of laws. No regular courts were 
established by either, no judges appointed or prisons erected, 
other than the guard-house. At length the Governor-Gen- 
eral, Lord Dorchester, in 1788, laid out the province into 
districts, that which embraced Michigan being called 
" Hesse." In 1790, on the 25th of November, the im- 
perial Parliament passed an act by which the old province 
of Quebec, which formerly embraced the whole of Canada, 
was divided into two provinces, called, respectively, " Up- 
per" and u Lower" Canada, the division line being the 
Ottawa River. Each of the newly-organized provinces 
was granted a Legislative Council and General Assembly, 
upon which was bestowed the power to make all laws neces- 
sary for its government, and not repugnant to the organic 
act. The laws enacted were to be subject to the approval 
of the King and Governor. 

The Governor and Executive Council, to be appointed 
by the King, were created a court of civil jurisdiction for 
hearing and determining appeals. Michigan belonged to 
Upper Canada, and the Legislature of that province, by an 
act passed Oct. 15, 1792, repealed the existing law of Can- 
ada as a rule of decision, but reserved all rights which had 
accrued under the same, and declared the laws of England 
should be the rule of decision in all matters of legal con- 

Subsequent legislation introduced jury trials, established 
a court of request in each district, and provided for the 
building of court-houses and jails. 

In 1793, an act was passed legalizing certain marriages 
previously solemnized in the province by the commanding 
officer of the post, adjutant, or surgeon of a regiment, or 
other persons in public office, for the reason that there was 
no Protestant parson or minister, duly ordained, then re- 
siding in the province. 

Courts of General Quarter Sessions of the Peace were 
also established in 1793, and terms and places of holding 
the same fixed. The further introduction^ of slaves was 
also prohibited, and a Court of Probate and a Surrogate's 
Court established in each of the districts. By an act passed 
in the same year juries were minutely regulated, and a law 
was passed establishing a Superior Court of civil and crim- 
inal jurisdiction, and regulating the Court of Appeal. An 
act to establish a court for the cognizance of small causes was 
also passed, and by the same, " the Court for the Western 
District is required to be holden in the town of Detroit." 

The last term of the District Court was held at Detroit, 
Jan. 29, 1796, and an execution issued on a judgment then 
obtained was made returnable before the court on the first 
day of September thereafter ; but in the month of July, of 
the same year, the posts of Detroit and Mackinac were 
surrendered by the British government to the United States, 
in accordance with Jay's treaty. 



On the 15th of July, in the same year, the county of 
Wayne was established by proclamation of Governor St. 
Clair, then Governor of the Northwest Territory, and in- 
cluded a small portion of Northwestern Ohio, a strip of 
Northern Indiana, and the lower peninsula of Michigan, in 
which were then introduced the laws governing the North- 
west Territory. At the same date the laws of Canada be- 
came a dead letter and ceased to be operative. They were 
formally repealed Sept. 16, 1810. 

No special inconvenience resulted from this sudden change 
of legal status. 

The different Territorial courts were held at Detroit as 
the county -seat of Wayne County. In 1800, Indiana Ter- 
ritory was organized from the old Northwest Territory, and 
in 1802, Ohio was raised to the dignity of a State. 

From 1802 to 1805, Michigan formed a part of Indiana 
Territory. In the latter year it was erected into a separate 
Territory. The Governor and judges then became the law- 
making power, and continued so until 1824, when the Legis- 
lative Council was established. This continued until 1835, 
when the State constitution was adopted. In 1837, Michi- 
gan became a State, and her new constitution became the 
organic law. The constitution was revised in 1850, and, 
with some minor amendments, continues in force. 


The first court established in the Territory of Michigan 
was the Supreme Court, consisting of one supreme judge 
and two associates, appointed by the President and con- 
firmed by the Senate of the United States. This court was 
originally organized by Governor Hull and Judges Woodward 
and Bates, on the 24th of July, 1805.* It had original and 
exclusive jurisdiction of all cases, both in law and equity, 
where the title of land was involved ; and original and con- 
current jurisdiction in all cases where the matter or sum 
in dispute exceeded two hundred dollars ; appellate juris- 
diction in all cases whatsoever ; and original and exclusive 
jurisdiction in all criminal cases where the punishment was 
capital, and in cases of divorce and alimony.^ 


On the 25th of July, 1805, the same authority created 
District Courts, dividing the Territory into four judicial 
districts, viz., Erie, Detroit, Huron, and Michilimackinac. 
The jurisdiction of these courts was " over all persons, 
causes, matters, or things which shall exceed the value of 
twenty dollars, whether brought before them by original 
process or by any legal ways or means whatsoever, except 
in cases exclusively vested in some other court." Justices 
of the peace were given cognizance of all actions where the 
amount in dispute, or the penalty to be inflicted, did not 
exceed twenty dollars ; and the marshal of the Territory 
and his deputies were the executors of the processes of the 
courts and justices. 

* The persons nominated by President Jefferson and confirmed by 
the Senate as judges of the new Territory were Augustus Brevoort 
Woodward, Samuel Huntington, and Frederick Bates. Mr. Hunt- 
ington declined the office, and in 1806 his place was filled by John 
Griffin. [Campbell.] 

| The first code of laws for the Territory was framed and adopted 
within three months after the appointment of the judges. 

The judges of the Territory of Michigan were required 
to hold the District Courts on their first creation ; but on 
the 2d of April, 1807, the act creating these courts was 
amended, and the Governor was empowered to appoint for 
each district one chief judge and two associates, — " persons 
of integrity, experience, and legal knowledge," — residents 
of the district in which the court was held, to hold their 
offices during good behavior, and to appoint their own clerk. 
They were also empowered to levy and collect the district 
taxes for court charges. No new counties were organized 
during General Hull's term of office. The subdivisions 
were the four judicial districts. 

The District Courts, after a brief existence, were abol- 
ished on the 16th of September, 1810; though all rights 
acquired between June 2, 1807, and Sept. 1, 1810, were 
reserved. All unfinished business on their respective dock- 
ets was transferred to the Supreme Court and the Courts 
of Justices of the Peace, according to the respective juris- 
diction of each, that of the latter being extended to sums 
not exceeding one hundred dollars ; that of the former 
being extended to all sums and matters exceeding one hun- 
dred dollars, and to the probate of wills. 

During the period of British occupation the machinery 
of the courts was continued in operation by proclamation 
of Proctor, the British Military Governor, who also assumed 
the office of civil magistrate, and made Judge Woodward 
secretary. Little or no judicial business was done under 
this occupation. With the return of peace and the occu- 
pation of the country by the Americans, the ante-bellum 
status was restored. 


On the 24th of October, 1815, the County Courts were 
established by act of the Governor and judges. They were 
to be held by one chief justice and two associate justices, 
and were given original and exclusive jurisdiction in all 
civil matters, both in law and equity, where the matter in 
dispute exceeded the jurisdiction of justices of the peace, 
and did not exceed one thousand dollars, but had no juris- 
diction in cases of ejectment. These courts also had exclu- 
sive cognizance of all offenses the punishment of which was 
not capital, and had the same power to issue remedial and 
other processes (writs of error and mandamus excepted) as 
the Supreme Court. They were intermediate courts, with 
powers and constitution similar to the former District Courts. 
They had appellate powers of justices of the peace, whose 
jurisdiction extended to matters not exceeding twenty dol- 
lars, unless the person voluntarily confessed judgment, in 
which case their jurisdiction was enlarged to cases involving 
one hundred dollars. The judges of the County Courts 
were appointed by the Governor. Judgment could be ren- 
dered against the plaintiff if he was found culpable or 
indebted. Executions included the body, unless sufficient 
property was found to satisfy iU The law exempted from 
seizure one sheep, one hog, and the apparel, bedding, and 
tools of the defeated party. 

A grand jury was established for the Supreme Court in 
1805, and the provisions of the act were extended to the 
county courts, Dec. 31, 1817. Upon the organization of 
the county courts the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court 



was confined to all matters where the amount in dispute 
exceeded one thousand dollars, except in actions of eject- 
ment, over which it had exclusive jurisdiction. 

The powers. of a Chancery Court were extended to the 
county courts June 13, 1818, and the Supreme Court was* 
given concurrent jurisdiction with, and appellate powers 
over, the county courts, and the Governor was authorized 
to appoint a master commissioner in chancery for either 


The Circuit Courts of the counties of the Territory were 
created by the Legislative Council in August, 1824, and 
reaffirmed in April, 1825, the act to take effect in Sep- 
tember of the same year. These courts were held in each 
of the organized counties by the justices of the Supreme 
Court. They had original jurisdiction, within their re- 
spective circuits, in all civil actions at law where the amount 
due or demanded exceeded the sum of one thousand dollars, 
and concurrent jurisdiction with the county courts in all 
civil actions where justices of the peace had not jurisdic- 
tion, and of all actions of ejectment and capital criminal 
cases, and appellant powers over the county courts. 

On the 15th of April, 1833, the Circuit Court of the 
Territory of Michigan was created, and all the organized 
counties of the Territory were made to constitute one cir- 
cuit. The presiding judge was appointed by the Governor, 
was styled the u circuit judge," and was required to be a 
person learned in the law. He held his position for four 
years. Associated with him were two judges, appointed in 
each county, who held their offices for two years. Any two 
of the judges might form a quorum for the transaction of 
ordinary business, but no flagrant crime could be tried in 
the absence of the circuit judge, unless the person charged 
therewith consented to a trial. 

These courts possessed chancery and common-law juris- 
diction, original in all civil cases where justices had not 
jurisdiction, and had cognizance of all offenses not similarly 
cognizable by justices, and appellate powers over justices. 

The Circuit Courts existing at the date of the passage of 
the act were denominated by the act " the Superior Circuit 
Courts of Michigan," but the business on their dockets was 
transferred to the new tribunal. 

The State constitution of 1835 provided for a Supreme 
Court, and as many others as the Legislature should choose 
to provide, including a probate court in each county. 

The Supreme Court was to consist of one chief and three 
associated justices, appointed by the Governor, on nomina- 
tion of the Senate, to serve for seven years. In 1837 the 
Legislature divided the State into four judicial circuits, the 
justices of the Supreme Courts holding the courts in the 
several counties. The jurisdiction of the courts remained 
the same as under the Territorial organization, except in 
chancery cases. Two associate judges were to be chosen in 
each county, one of whom was required to sit with the pre- 
siding judge. In 1840 the associates were empowered to 
hold courts in the absence of the presiding judge. 

In April, 1848, the Legislature made a change in the 
courts ; the Supreme Court was reorganized, and made to 
consist of one chief and four associate justices, and the 
State was divided into five judicial circuits. The supreme 

j ustices were each to hold at least two terms in each county 
in the circuits assigned them, and in the execution of that 
duty to be styled circuit judges. 

The constitution of .1850 vested the judicial powers of 
the State in one Supreme Court, Circuit Courts, Probate 
Courts, and justices of the peace. Municipal courts were 
to be provided at the will of the Legislature. 

The judges of the Circuit Court in each of the eight cir- 
cuits of the State were to form, for the next six years, the 
Supreme Court of the State, after which the Legislature 
was to provide for a reorganization of the latter court by 
the election of one chief and three associate justices for 
terms of eight years, the term of one to close every alter- 
nate year; the Legislature to change the limits and in- 
crease the number of circuits ; and the courts had original 
jurisdiction in all matters, civil or criminal, not excepted by 
the constitution nor prohibited by law, and appellate and 
supervisory powers over all inferior tribunals. The county 
clerks are clerks of the court. 


This court, which was provided for in the constitution of 
1835, was created in 1837, and its early sessions were held 
at Detroit up to the year 1840. Its powers were similar 
to those of the Chancery Courts of England. The pre- 
siding judge was called a chancellor, and was appointed by 
the President of the United States. Registers were ap- 
pointed for each district. 

In 1839 this court was given cognizance of the banks, 
and in 1841 the power was extended to partition and sale 
of lands, concurrent with the Circuit Court. The Supreme 
Court possessed appellate powers over this court. 


Under the ordinance of 1787, for the government of the 
Northwest Territory, provisions were made for regulating 
the line of descent and for administering upon estates and 
wills. The widow's right of dower was made inviolate, and 
wills were to be attested by three witnesses, and when 
proven, were to be recorded within one year in the offices 
provided for such purposes. On the 31st of August, 1805, 
Governor Hull and Judges Woodward and Bates passed an 
act providing for the probate of wills and the administra- 
tion of estates in the Territory of Michigan. Wills were 
to be recorded in the office of the clerk of the District 

In January, 1809, this act was materially amended, and 
in 1810 the whole was repealed. In January, 1811, a new 
probate law was enacted and a register provided for, with 
the authority of a judge in the probate of wills, and in 
granting administration upon intestate estates ; and wills 
were recorded in his office. A register was provided for 
each judicial district. Power to compel specific perform- 
ance, on contracts of decedents for conveyance of land, was 
vested in the register, and also the power to decree the sale 
of lands to pay the debts of decedents. 

On the 27th day of July, 1813, the Governor and 
judges passed an act creating a Probate Court in each or- 
ganized county, which was held by a judge appointed by 
the Governor. A register of wills was also appointed by 



the same authority, who was also register of deeds until 

The Probate Court had full cognizance of mortuary 
matters, and the Supreme Court had appellate jurisdiction 
over the same. The probate law was amended from time 
to time by the Territorial authority, and by State authority 
since its admission into the Union, until at the present time 
the administration of estates is made very simple, and 
almost free from costs of court, the judge receiving an 
annual salary and keeping his own records. Litigation, of 
course, entails its own expenses upon the parties. In 1837 
the power to sell real estate for the payment of debts was 
given the Probate Court, concurrently with the Circuit and 
Chancery courts. 

The courts which are regularly held at Kalamazoo at the 
present time are the Circuit Court of the Ninth Judicial 
Circuit, which is constituted of the counties of Kalamazoo 
and Van Buren. Four terms of this court are held annu- 
ally at Kalamazoo, in January, March, August, and 

The officers of this court are as follows : Circuit Judge, 
Hon. Josiah L. Hawes ; Prosecuting Attorney, Edwin M. 
Irish ; Clerk, Theron F. Giddings ; Reporter, George F. 
Hitchcock; Sheriff, Lyman M. Gates; Under-Sheriff, G. 
M. Gates ; Deputy Sheriffs, George Patterson, Sheldon 
Allen; Circuit Court Commissioners, Edwin M. Clapp, Jr., 
Volney H. Lockwood. 

The Probate Court is set for the first Monday in each 
month, but its sessions are varied to suit circumstances. 

The present judge is George M. Buck. The judge of 
this court keeps his own records. 


The State is divided into two districts, known as eastern 
and western, Kalamazoo belonging to the western district. 
The courts are held at Detroit for the eastern, and at Grand 
Rapids for the western district. 


The first court held in the county was in 1831. The 
following, taken from the court records in the county clerk's 
office, is conclusive evidence of the time and place : 

"At a county court holden in and for the county of Kalamazoo, at 
the house of Abram* I. Shaver, in said county, on the third Tuesday 
of October, a.d. 1831. 

" Present, Bazel Harrison, Stephens Hoyt,f Justices. 

" Court called and opened in pursuance of law. The court was ad- 
journed to the school-house near John Insley's, in Brady township, J 
at one of the clock, p.m. 

" Court opened at the school-house in pursuance of adjournment. 

"The grand jury was then called, empaneled, and sworn. 

"Stephen Vickery appointed foreman. 

"Panel of jurors' names: Thomas M. Stanley, John McComsey, 
James Noyes, John Kelley, John Cowgell, Jonathan Wood, Thomas 
Barber, Ransford C. Hoyt, John Insley, Isaac Sumner, Hosea B. 
Huston, Stephen Vickery, Josiah Rosecrantz, Justin Clark, Samuel 

" Charles A. Williams called and sworn to attend the grand jury. 

* This name is indiscriminately written in the record Abram and 
Abraham. We give the correct orthography — Abram. 

f This name is written Stephens Hoyt on the court record, but we 
believe it was properly Stephen. 

| Brady township then comprised the south half of the county. 

" George Shaw vs. A. I. Shaver and Ephraim Harrison. Appeal 
entered on docket. $ 

"On motion to strike the foregoing appeal from the docket, and on 
hearing arguments of counsel, it is adjudged by the court that the 
motion be denied, upon condition that the appellants enter into good 
and sufficient recognizance on the 19th day of October present. 

"October 19th. Court opened in pursuance of adjournment. 

" A. I. Shaver and Ephraim Harrison, appellants, adv. George 
Shaw, appellee. 

" On motion of L. I. Daniels, one of the attorneys in the case, 
ordered by the court that the recognizance in this case, signed by the 
above-named appellants and Bazel Harrison, as security, be filed as 
the recognizance in said cause. Which cause was then adjourned to 
the next term of the county court, in 1832. 

At this court the grand jury presented an indictment 
against Isaac Tolland for perjury, and also one against 
Henry Whipple, which were filed. The indictment in 
Tolland's case was quashed, on motion of Lyman I. Daniels, 
on the ground that Abram I. Shaver, who administered the 
oath to Tolland, was not a legal justice of the peace. 

The grand jury and constable were allowed by the court 
a compensation of seventy-five cents per day each for their 

It is said (sotto voce) by old settlers that the occasion of 
the sitting of the first court was made one in which judges, 
attorneys, jurors, and clients all joined in a grand social and 
bibulous reunion, where 

" Mirth and fun grew fast and furious/' 

which, if true, is no special discredit to the " wise and rev- 
erend seigniors" of Kalamazoo County, for they only imi- 
tated their equals of earlier days, and anticipated many 
another jolly occasion since, perchance. The clerk of the 
court was Stephen Vickery, and by his chirography it 
would appear that he was a scholarly gentleman, and fa- 
miliar with business forms. 


The first court held at the present county-seat, then 
called Bronson, in honor of one of its founders, was on the 
16th day of October, 1832, on which occasion there were 
present Bazel Harrison, chief justice, and Stephens Hoyt, 
associate. Tf 

The first case was the United States vs. Hannah Carpen- 
ter, indicted for the crime of the woman whom Jesus of 
Nazareth bade "go, and sin no more." Hannah not ap- 
pearing to answer the charge, her recognizance was ad- 
judged forfeited, and she was fined twenty-five dollars and 
costs, and execution ordered issued. 

At this term, John Hascall, Esq., was admitted to prac- 
tice law at the bar of the County Court of Kalamazoo 

The appeal suit of George Shaw vs. A. I. Shaver and 
Ephraim Harrison was tried at this term, and the defend- 

$ This case had been before William Duncan, a justice of the 
peace, previously, and an appeal taken to the county court. It was 
a case of trespass. 

|| This court, according to George Torry, was held at the house of 
Titus Bronson. Several of the early courts were held in a school 
building which stood on the site of the Jewish Church, on South 
Street. The first court-house was erected in 1837. 

f It has been stated that Titus Bronson officiated as associate justice, 
but his name does not appear of record. 



ants were fined forty dollars and costs, the whole amounting 
to sixty-one dollars and twenty cents. 

At this term, also, Titus Bronson appeared as a litigant 
against Chauncy C. Merwin, in which case the jury brought 
in a verdict of thirty dollars and costs. 


The first session of this court for the county of Kala- 
mazoo was held on Monday, Nov. 4, 1833.* William A. 
Fletcher, circuit judge, presiding, with Caleb Eldred and 
Cyren Burdick for associates. 

The grand jury was composed of the following citizens : 
Seth Taft, Philip Gray, John E. Howard, Edwin H. Loth- 
rop, Thaddeus Smith, Asa Briggs, Jr., James Noyes, John 
Chandler, Rezin Holmes, Elijah Fletcher, James Taylor, 
Erastus Smith, Franklin Howard, N. E. Mathews. Edwin 
H. Lothrop was appointed foreman. In the absence of 
Cyrus Lovell, the district attorney, Judge Fletcher ap- 
pointed Lyman I. Daniels in his place for the term. The 
petit jury was composed of the following persons : John F. 
Gilkey, Daniel A. Plummer, Simeon Mills, David H. Dan- 
iels, Samuel F. Brown, Willard Mills, Samuel Brown, Sam- 
uel Woodruff, Levi S. White, C. Northrup, Loyal II . 
Jones, Phineas Hunt, Jr. 

L. More and J. Humphreys were admitted to practice 
law at this court. The committee appointed by the judge 
for examining candidates was composed of Lyman I. Dan- 
iels, A. MeGuffy, and C. Lancaster. 

In the case of Shaw vs. Shaver and Harrison, appealed 
from the county court, the judgment was confirmed. At 
this term the grand jury presented bills of indictment for 
assault and battery against a number of individuals, among 
whom were Lyman I. Daniels, Erastus A. Jackson, Guy C. 
Merrill, and Robert Frakes. They were bound over to ap- 
pear at the next term in sums varying from fifty to two 
hundred dollars each. On the day of trial Daniels plead 
guilty and paid his fine. Bob Frakes also plead guilty -, and 
was fined ten dollars and costs. It would appear as if they 
had engaged in a general fisticuff all around. Nathan Har- 
rison, who kept the ferry at Kalamazoo, also appears in the 
same rdle about this time. 

The record shows that Hezekiah G. Wells was admitted 
to practice before the Circuit Court on the 23d of May, 

At the May term of 1834, Nathan Harrison was licensed 
to keep a ferry over the Kalamazoo River, at Kalamazoo, 
and the following rates of toll were established : two horses 

* " This eourt, it is said, was held in the blacksmith-shop which, old 
residents well remember, stood on the corner of Portage and South or 
Cherry Streets, east of the residence of James Taylor, Esq. From 
the time that the grand jury first began to find presentments until 
the court-house was erected, in 1837, they were obliged to hold their 
sessions in some convenient place outside of and away from the seat of 
justice. When the old jail was inclosed, a room was fitted up for the 
grand jury there, and that august body, after assembling to receive 
instructions from the judge, would take up their line of march for 
the shade of some greenwood tree, or meander gracefully away 
through the woods to the jail, and in either place, as the case might 
be, deliberate and decide upon the fate of the evil-doer, and then re- 
turn * with solemn steps and slow' to the presence^ of his Honor, and 
disclose the result of its labors." — [George Torry's History of Kala- 
mazoo, published in 1867.] 

and ivagon, twenty-five cents ; each additional horse, six and 
one-quarter cents; one yoke of oxen and wagon or cart, 
twenty-five cents; each additional yoke, twelve and one- 
half cents ; one horse and wagon, eighteen and three-quar- 
ter cents ; one person and horse, twelve and one-half cents ; 
each foot-passenger, six and one-quarter cents ; each horse, 
led or driven, four cents. 

The first declaration of a foreign-born citizen of his in- 
tentions to become a citizen of the United States was filed 
by Richard Knight, a native of Queen's Co., Ireland, born 
in 1811, on the 18th of November, 1834. 

At a session of this court, held at Bronson, on the 21st 
of November, 1834, Robert Mcintosh was indicted for 
gaming and for selling liquor to the Indians. This same 
man appears to have been a subject of a foreign power, for 
he entered his declaration to become an American citizen 
on the 29th of January, 1835. 

Joseph Vickery appears as associate judge in 1835. In 
1837 this was the Circuit Court of the then third judicial 
circuit of the State of Michigan. 

At a session of the Circuit Court held at Kalamazoo, in 
October and November, 1836, Epaphroditus Ransom ap- 
pears as circuit judge, and Joseph Vickery and Caleb El- 
dred as associates. Stephen Vickery served as clerk until 
1837, when Jeremiah Humphrey appears. Among the 
associate justices were William Logan in 1838, and David 
E. Deming in 1839. Luther H. Tr&sk was clerk in the 

latter year. 


Probably the most interesting cause ever tried at Kala- 
mazoo was the celebrated Vanderpool murder case, before 
Judge Charles R. Brown, of the Circuit Court, which com- 
menced on the 19th of October and ended on the 21st of 
November, 1870. It was the most noted trial in the his- 
tory of Western Michigan, and produced an immense 
amount of excitement during the twenty-seven days of its 

George Vanderpool was arrested and tried at Manistee, 
in the spring of 1870, for the murder of Herbert Field. 
The jury found him guilty, and he was sentenced to the 
penitentiary for the term of his natural life. The murder 
of Field occurred on the 5th of September, 1869. 

Vanderpool was incarcerated in the penitentiary, but 
within a few months thereafter, through the efforts of his 
counsel, of David Ward, of Oakland County, and others, a 
new trial was obtained, and the case was transferred to 
Kalamazoo County by order of Judge Ramsdell. The 
transfer was made on account of the pressure of public 
opinion in Manistee County. The prisoner was then taken 
to the jail in Kalamazoo, where he remained for a period of 
several months, awaiting the regular term of the Circuit 

The case was taken up on the 19th day of October. On 
the part of the prosecution, the State was represented by 
General McCutcheon, of Manistee,. George V. N. Lothrop, 
of Detroit, and Attorney-General Dwight May, of Kalama- 
zoo. On the part of the defense appeared Hon. John Van 
Arman, the noted criminal lawyer of Chicago, D. Darwin 
Hughes, of Marshall, Mich., and- Mr. Benedict, of Manistee 



The jury consisted of the following persons, selected from 
a panel of eighty-three citizens of the county : Richard A. 
Sykes, of Kalamazoo ; William E. Freer, of Pavilion ; 
William Oliver and Theodore L. Andrews, of Alamo; Milton 
Chamberlain, Wm. M. Woodard, Alonzo W. Ingerson, and 
Wm. T. Finch, of Cooper ; John Darling, Leverett Crooks, 
John F. Chandler, and Harrison Cray, of Comstock. 

The trial continued for a period of twenty-seven days, 
creating intense interest as it progressed to the final close 
on the 21st of November. Very able arguments, continu- 
ing through several days, were made by counsel upon both 
sides, and the judge's charge to the jury was lengthy 
and elaborate. The wife of the prisoner attended at his 
side through the entire trial, and her presence — dressed in 
black — had a marked influence upon public opinion. But 
after all the long-continued examination of witnesses, the 
exhaustive arguments of counsel, and the able charge of 
the court, the jury were unable to agree, standing seven to 
five for conviction, as follows : 

For conviction : Alonzo W. Ingerson, Harrison Gray, 
Milton Chamberlain, William E. Freer, John Darling, 
William M. Woodard, John F. Chandler. 

For acquittal : T. L. Andrews, William Oliver, R. A. 
Sykes, William T. Finch, Leverett Crooks. 

For twenty-seven days the jury had been absent from 
their homes, and when they were dischaged by the court 
there was quite an affecting meeting between them and 
their wives, who had come into court on the last day of 
the trial. 

This case was tried a third time at Hastings, in Barry 
County, and the jury rendered a verdict of acquittal. 


This somewhat noted case was first tried at the term of 
the Circuit Court held at Kalamazoo, in March, 1878. 
The plaintiff, Nancy J. Newcomer, brought suit against 
Dr. E. H. Van Deusen, medical superintendent of the 
Michigan Asylum for the Insane at Kalamazoo, for alleged 
false imprisonment and improper treatment. She was 
brought to the asylum from Calhoun County, in 1874. 

The trial continued for two weeks, and resulted in a ver- 
dict of six thousand dollars for the plaintiff. 

The counsel engaged for the plaintiff consisted of J. 
Logan Chipman and Fraser & Gates, of Detroit, 0. W. 
Powers and Thomas R. Sherwood, of Kalamazoo ; and on 
the part of the defense, of Gen. Dwight May, of Kalama- 
zoo, H. F. Severens and D. Darwin Hughes, of Marshall. 

Great interest was manifested by the community generally ; 
the court-room was filled to its utmost capacity, and among 
the audience was a goodly proportion of ladies. The ap- 
pearance and testimony of Mrs. Newcomer produced a 
powerful influence in her favor, which probably had more 
or less bearing upon the action of the jury. 

The case was submitted to the Supreme Court, which 
returned it to Kalamazoo for trial, at the same time virtu- 
ally deciding it in favor of the defendant. But, notwith- 

standing this, the second trial was insisted upon by the 

The case was taken up on the 13th of October, before 
Judge Shipman, and concluded on the 21st of November. 
After one argument had been made to the jury, the court 
interrupted the proceedings with an opinion in which he 
stated his reasons for instructing the jury to render a ver- 
dict for the defendant. This opinion was to the effect that 
the Supreme Court had virtually decided that if Dr. Yan 
Deusen had exercised good faith in receiving and retaining 
the plaintiff, then he would be absolved from all liability in 
the present action. There was no evidence showing bad 
faith, but, on the contrary, there was evidence of good faith 
on his part, and hence, there being no conflict of testimony, 
there was no question of fact for the jury to determine, and 
the court instructed them to render a verdict of " no cause 
for action" without leaving their seats. 

The opinion in this trial, so far as the public was con- 
cerned, was quite different from that manifested at the first 
hearing. The feeling naturally engendered by the appear- 
ance of the plaintiff, and which we may say is quite uni- 
versal in like cases, having had time to subside, the " sober, 
second thought" showed the case in a different light, — to 
which result, no doubt, the action of the Supreme Court 
contributed to a considerable extent. Another important 
factor in the guidance of public feeling was the unblem- 
ished character and quiet and manly bearing of Dr. Van 
Deusen, who, in all his intercourse with the people, has 
ever commanded their highest respect. 

The case, in many respects, was a most remarkable one. 
There were about eighty witnesses sworn, including friends 
of the plaintiff from Toledo, Ohio, where she was prac- 
ticing medicine at the time of her seizure, the medical 
staff and attendants of the asylum, and others. The plain- 
tiff claimed that she was in possession of an income of 
seventy-five dollars per month from her practice, and that 
her health was seriously imperiled by reason of her confine- 
ment and certain drugs administered to her at the asylum. 
She fixed the amount of her damages at forty thousand 

The testimony in the case covered twelve thousand folios, 
and the total expense of the long and tedious trial reached 
many thousand dollars. 

After the close of the trial it was learned that the jury 
would have stood on a ballot nine for the defense and three 
for the complainant. 

The decision of the court created a profound sensation ; 
but, with the exception of the plaintiff, her counsel, and a 
few friends, it was very generally received with great satis- 
faction, and Dr. Van Deusen was made the recipient of a 
most hearty ovation by hundreds of his friends a few even- 
ings after the trial. 

The charge and opinion of Judge Shipman in this case 
is spoken of as a model of judicial literature. Judge 
Hawes was on the bench in the first trial, but declined to 
sit at the second hearing. 





Court of General Quarter Sessions — County Commissioners — Board of 
Supervisors — County Buildings — County Asylum or Poor-Farm — 
Valuation and Taxation. 


An act establishing a Court of General Quarter Sessions 
of the peace for each county in the State was passed Nov. 
25, 1817. The justices of the county courts and justices 
of the peace constituted this court. The clerk was ap- 
pointed by the Governor of the Territory. The court was 
made a board of audit for all county business, and had the 
management of assessments and taxation. Its sessions 
were held on the first Mondays of March, June, September, 
and December. 

The act was repealed May 30, 1818, and in the place of 
the Court of Quarter Sessions a board of three County 
Commissioners was established, the members to be appointed 
by the Governor, and to receive thirty dollars each per an- 
num for services rendered. The county clerk was clerk of the 
board, with a salary not exceeding fifty dollars per annum. 

The County Commissioners continued until April 12, 
1827, when an act was approved abolishing them and estab- 
lishing a Board of Supervisors, to be elected from the sev- 
eral towns of the county. They appointed their own clerk. 
They were to meet annually on the third Mondays of January, 
April, July, and October, and at such other times as they 
might deem necessary, not exceeding eight days (additional) 
in the year. The BoardLof Supervisors was abolished and 
the Board of County Commissioners restored in 1838, 
which continued until 1842, when it was superseded by the 
Board of Supervisors, which is still continued. 

The earliest fiscal managers of the county of Kalamazoo 
were a Board of Supervisors. The earliest record of their 
transactions to be found in -the county commences in 1834. 
Whether there really was any public business attended to 
previous to that year we have not been able to determine 

When the county was erected, by act of the Territorial 
Legislature, July 30, 1830, the entire county was included 
in the township of Brady, and up to that time had formed 
a part of St. Joseph County. An act of the same date 
divided the county through the centre, east and west, into 
two townships, the southern to be called Brady, and the 
northern Arcadia.* 

The county-seat was located at Bronson in 1831, and in 
1832 a new township — Richland — was created. The town- 
ship of Comstock was erected in March, 1834, and at the 
first recorded meeting of the Board of Supervisors, in Octo- 
ber, 1834, the county had been divided into the townships 
of Brady, Arcadia, Richland, and Comstock. It also in- 
cluded the counties of Allegan, Barry, Kent, Ionia, etc., 
attached for civil purposes. 

The following paragraphs are copied verbatim from the 
earliest record in the county clerk's office : 

"At a meeting of the supervisors of Kalamazoo County in the 
Territory of Michigan, holden at the clerk's office in said county 

* See map on previous page. 

on the seventh day of October, a.d. 1834, pursuant to law, were 

" Rix Robinson, Supervisor of Kent township, William Earl of 
Comstock, Elisha Belcher of Arcadia. 

" On motion the meeting adjourned to 10 o'clock to-morrow morn- 

" October 8th, a.d. 1834. 
" Board met pursuant to adjournment ; 

"Present "Rix Robinson, x 

"William Earl, ( 

., -. t, > Supervisors. 

"Elisha Belcher, f r 


" On motion, Resolved, that Rix Robinson be appointed Chairman 
of the Board, and Stephen Vickery clerk for the term of one year 
from the date hereof. 

" The following accounts were then presented, and allowed by the 
Board, to wit : 

" No. 1, in favor of Hosea B. Huston, for $8.50. 

" No. 2, in favor of Hosea B. Huston, for 4.51 . 

"No. 3, in favor of Cornelius Northrup, for 10.00. ' 

" On motion Resolved unanimously that Jeremiah Humphreys, one 
of the Supervisors for Brady Township, who has appeared and taken 
his seat at this Board, be appointed chairman pro tent. 

"The following accounts were presented and allowed by the Board, 
to wit : 

"No. 4, in favor of C. Lovell, for $70.00. The meeting, on motion, 
adjourned to meet to morrow at 9 o'clock, a.m. 

" Oct. 9, 1834. 

"The Board met pursuant to adjournment. 

" Present as yesterday. 

"On motion, by J. Humphreys, Resolved, That the valuation of 
real estate in the Township of Comstock be raised by adding one- 
fourth to the value thereof, according to the assessment roll of the 
present year. 

" On motion, by J. Humphreys, Resolved, That the valuation of 
Real Estate in the Township of Arcadia, according to the assessment 
roll of the present year, be raised by adding thereto one-third. 

" On motion, Resolved, That the non-resident lands in the Town- 
ship of Allegan be reduced in their valuation, according to the assess- 
ment roll of the present year, one-third. 

" On motion, Resolved, unanimously, That there be levied and col- 
lected in the several Townships of this county for Township expenses, 
the sum of six hundred and sixty-five dollars, to wit: In the Town- 
ship of Comstock, seventy dollars; in the Township of Richland, 
seventy -five dollars; in the Township of Brady, the sum of one hun- 
dred dollars; in the township of Kent, seventy dollars; in the Town- 
ship of Allegan, one hundred and twenty-five dollars; in the Town- 
ship of Arcadia, two hundred and twenty-five dollars, one hundred 
of which is for a bounty on wolf scalps. 

" On motion of J. Humphreys, Resolved, That three hundred and 
fifty dollars be levied and collected in this county for the contingent 
expenses thereof for the current year. 

" On motion, adjourned to 9 o'clock to-morrow morning. 

"Oct. 10th, 1834. 

" Board met pursuant to adjournment. 

" Present as yesterday. 

"On motion, Resolved, That the non-resident lands in the Town- 
ship of Richland be increased in their valuation, according to the as- 
sessment of the present year, one-third. 

" The following accounts were then presented, and allowed by 
the Board, viz. : - 

"No. 5, in favor of E. Walters $3.75 

No. 6, in favor of S. Vickery 10.00 

No. 7, in favor of J. Humphreys 4.00 

No. 8, in favor of R. Robinson 8.00 

No. 9, in favor of Hull Sherwood 5.00 

No. 10, in favor of E. Belcher 25.00 

No. 11, in favor of W. Earl 17.00 

" On motion, William Earl, Supervisor of Comstock Township, was 
unanimously selected by the Board to represent the supervisors of 
Kalamazoo County at the next meeting, to be holden at Ann Arbor, 
for the purpose of apportioning the money appropriated by the Gen- 

f The record does not show where Sherwood belonged, but proba- 
bly in Richland. 



eral Government on the Territorial Road, between Sheldon's and the 
mouth of the St. Joseph, and for transacting such other business as 
may come before them. 

" On motion, the meeting adjourned sine die. 

" S. Vickery, " Rix Robinson, 

"Clerk. "Chair man." 

At the meeting of March 3, 1835, there were present: 
Rix Robinson, from Kent township ; Isaac Barnes, from 
Richland; William Earl, from Comstock; Hull Sherwood, 
from Allegan ; and Elisha Belcher, from Arcadia. 

At a meeting, Oct. 8, 1835, the clerk of the county was 
authorized to procure " a standard of Wine measure, com- 
posed of copper and lined with lead ; also a standard of Dry 
measure, composed of wood and hooped with iron, to be 
painted ; also a patent scale-beam, with the necessary appa- 
ratus for weighing six hundred." Twenty-five dollars were 
appropriated in payment of the same. 

" It was ordered by the Board that there be levied and collected in 
the county of Kalamazoo, to defray the expenses of the current year, 
the sum of Four hundred dollars, and for defraying the Township ex- 
penses of said county the sum of nine hundred and fifty-five dollars, 
to wit : 

"In the township of Allegan $85.00 

In the township of Ionia . 40.00 

In the township of Richland 100.00 

In the township of Comstock 200.00 

In the township of Arcadia 200.00 

In the township of Kent 30.00 

In the township of Brady ; 300.00 

Total $955.00" 

At the meeting of April 19, 1837, the supervisors were: 
Brady, Edwin H. Lothrop ; Prairie Ronde, Samuel Hackett; 

Pavilion, Austin ; Comstock, Lyman Tubbs ; Cooper, 

David E. Deming ; Richland, Mumford Eldred ; Kalamazoo, 
Cyren Burdick; Barry, Isaac Otis. At this meeting a 
bounty of four dollars was authorized for each scalp of a 
wolf killed within the county. 

The Board of Supervisors was abolished in 1838, and a 
board of three county commissioners established in its place. 
The first board of commissioners, which met and organized 
and drew for their respective terms of office on the 27th of 
November, 1838, consisted of Edwin M. Clapp, David E. 
Deming, and E. Lakin Brown. Brown drew for three 
years ; Deming, for two years ; and Clapp, for one year. 

The first meeting for business was held on the 8th of 
January, 1839. At this meeting they appointed superin- 
tendents of county poor, and licensed Hosea B. Huston 
and Amos Brownson as auctioneers for Kalamazoo, in bonds 
of two thousand dollars each. They also made out the 
assessment rolls for the year (given in another connection), 
and made an appropriation for the support of the poor. 

In 1841, John P. Marsh appears as one of the commis- 
sioners, and also James Weed, in the place of Deming and 
Clapp, retired. 

The Board of County Commissioners was short-lived, for 
in 1842 they were superseded by a Board of Supervisors. 
The new board met on the 4th of July, 1842, and consisted 
of the following persons : Portage township, Caleb Sweet- 
land ; Pavilion, Jacob Ramsdell ; Prairie Ronde, P. J. 
McCreary ; Kalamazoo, Mitchell Hensdill ; Comstock, 
Horace H. Comstock ; Charleston, Peter Eldred; Ross, 
Elias M. Dibble ; Richland, Uriah Upjohn ; Cooper, Bar- 
ney Earlej Alamo, Mahlon Everittj Oshtemo, William 

Price ; Texas, James Weed ; Schoolcraft, Edwin H. Lo- 
throp ; Brady, Nelson Wilcox. 

At the June session for 1848, Joseph Hemenway appeared 
and took his place in the board from Wakeshma. 

In 1850 the board fixed the salaries of certain county 
officers as follows : prosecuting attorney, four hundred dol- 
lars ; county clerk, three hundred dollars ; county judge, 
five hundred dollars; county treasurer, five hundred dol- 


In 1854 the two squares now constituting the park were 
leased to the village of Kalamazoo for the term of ten years, 
for the purpose of being improved and ornamented as a 
public park. The west one had been occupied for jail pur- 
poses by the first jail constructed in the county. The east 
one had been occupied by an academy, and the building 
was then standing on the northeast corner. The two squares 
were known respectively as " Jail Square" and " Academy 
Square." The academy building was removed in 1857. 
At the expiration of this lease, in 1864, the grounds were 
again leased to the village for the same purposes for a 
period of ninety-nine years, dating from Jan. 8, 1865. 

There had been some claims advanced to this property by 
the heirs of Stephen H. Richardson, the original owner, 
and, to settle all difficulties, in 1856 the Board of Super- 
visors appropriated and caused to be paid the sum of one 
hundred and fifty dollars, in full for all claims by the said 
heirs against the property. Hon. H. G. Wells settled the 
matter on behalf of the county and obtained the release. 
We believe these claims pertained only to that portion of the 
park known as " Academy Square." 

In 1856 the County Board expended about one thousand 
dollars in draining the surplus waters of Austin and Long 
Lakes. Four hundred dollars of the amount was appro- 
priated by the county, two hundred dollars by the township 
of Brady, one hundred and fifty dollars by Portage town- 
ship, and the balance came from other sources. 

The principal amount was expended on a ditch running 
south from Lake Austin to the Portage Creek. It was 
three hundred and sixty-five rods in length, sixteen feet 
wide on top, twelve feet at bottom for seventy-six rods, and 
for the remainder of the way, two hundred and eighty-nine 
rods, twelve feet on top, eight feet at bottom, and three feet 
deep. The outlet of Long Lake was also cleared out. This 
ditch was deepened to five feet in 1877. Large sums have 
been expended for drainage at Yorkville and in other local- 



The first legislation looking to the erection of a court- 
house, which we find of record, was on the 28th of April, 
1836, when a resolution was passed to raise the sum of six 
thousand dollars for the purpose, five thousand to be bor- 
rowed on the bonds of the county. H. H. Comstock was 
appointed a committee to negotiate the loan. A committee, 
consisting of H. H. Comstock, E. Ransom, and J. and C. 
Burdick, was also appointed to prepare a plan for the 

At a meeting held Oct. 4, 1836, H. H. Comstock made 

* See history of Kalamazoo village. 



a proposition to loan the county five thousand dollars, as 
follows : one thousand dollars on the first of March ; one 
thousand on the first of May; fifteen hundred on the 
first of June ; and fifteen hundred on the first day of 
August, next ensuing, for the terms of seven, eight, nine, 
and ten years, payable in equal payments, at seven per 
cent, interest, payable semi-annually. This proposition 
was accepted, and, on motion, Justus Burdick was ap- 
pointed to superintend the erection of the new building. 
The bond required of him was twelve thousand dollars. 

The building was erected in 1837,* and probably occu- 
pied in that year, though there is nothing in the record to 
positively show the time of its completion. It probably 
cost the amount of the appropriation, $6000. It is still 
standing, and constitutes the main portion of the present 

The building has been many times repaired, and in 1866 
eight thousand dollars were expended in making a large 
addition and in thoroughly overhauling it. The following 
items are from a local paper issued in 1877 : 


" The court-room of the Circuit Court of Kalamazoo County has 
undergone a decided change into something rich and not heretofore 
peculiar to that temple of justice. Under the direction of Judge 
Hawes and Sheriff Gates, properly authorized to do so, the walls have 
been retouched in many places, handsomely calcimined to a light-blue 
tin|; the desks and the judgment-seat grained, varnished, and re- 
fitted ; the floor within the bar newly carpeted ; the chairs cushioned, 
and everything made bright and becoming. Judge Hawes has pro- 
cured the portrait of Judge Ransom, the first circuit judge of Michi- 
gan, and this hangs above the judge's seat. On the right is a fine 
photograph of Judge Graves, on the left another of Judge Hawes, 
while the large and fine portrait of the martyr-sheriff", Col. Orcutt, 
occupies a fine position over the main entrance to the room. 

"The space back of the court- room proper has been made into a 
fine library, in which there is now collected the largest and finest 
county library in the State, and which Judge Hawes hopes to make 
a great deal more valuable than it now is through the liberality of the 
Board of Supervisors in making appropriations for books. In this 
department are portraits of Judge Pratt, the late Joseph Miller, Jr., 
Horace Mower, Judge Marsh Giddings, a smaller photograph of Judge 
Ransom, an engraving representing Chief Justice Chase and his asso- 
ciates, and other pictures. Off from this is a snug little room for the 
judge's private office. 

" This is a mere outline of the improvements. The air of snug- 
ness, cleanliness, and comfort which now pervades our place of hold- 
ing courts cannot be described. It is a most excellent performance, 
and Messrs. Hawes and Gates deserve the thanks of every person 
who has business before that tribunal. The supervisors will still be 
asked for an appropriation for a few more desirable objects, especially 
the pictures of some of the more noted judges who have adorned the 
bench of this circuit. Those who visit the court-room next Monday 
will see a very different looking court-room than they have been 
accustomed to gaze at." 

The court-house, as it stands to-day, probably represents 
an outlay, exclusive of interest, of about twenty thousand 
dollars. It is in a tolerable state of repair, and answers 
the purposes of a temple of law, but certainly does not fitly 
represent the wealthy county in which it is situated. The 
court-room is by far the best part of it, the offices in the 

* Mr. George Torry, in his history, published in 1867, states that 
the first court-house was erected in 1838. He also states that the 
plan was drawn " by a gentleman from Montpelier, Vt., the same 
who designed the state-house at that place." The architect who de- 
signed and erected the Vermont capitol was Ammi B. Young, who 
also erected the Boston custom-house. 

first story being small, badly lighted, and ill ventilated. 
Kalamazoo County well deserves a better structure. 


In 1851 action was taken by the Board of Supervisors 
looking to the erection of a fire-proof building for county 
offices, and one thousand dollars was appropriated. An 
additional two hundred and fifty dollars was subsequently 
added, and the building was completed and occupied in 
1854 by the county clerk and register of deeds. About a 
thousand dollars has been laid out in repairs since the 
building was erected. It is too small and inconvenient for 
the present needs of the county, v and better facilities will 
be required for both courts and county officers before many 


The earliest legislation touching a county jail we find to 
have been at a meeting of the Board of Supervisors held 
on the 3d of March, 1835, when, 

" On motion of Rix Robinson, it was ordered by the Board that 
Hosea B. Huston, sheriff of the county of Kalamazoo, be, and he is 
hereby authorized to build and complete a jail of the following de- 
scription, and that he plan the same on jail square, f in the village of 
Bronson, to wit: 

" Thirty-two feet by sixteen, one story high, and divided into two 
apartments ; one of which is to be twenty feet by sixteen, and framed 
in a substantial and workmanlike manner; the other is to be twelve 
feet by sixteen, of sound white-oak timber, one foot square. The 
floor, above and below, to be laid with timber of same quality and 
dimensions. The whole to be well boarded with good whitewood 
siding, planed, and covered with pine shingles in a workmanlike 
manner. The door of jail-room to be composed of plank, three inches 
thick, doubled and riveted. In the other apartments are to be three 
windows, each fifteen * lites,' eight by ten inches." 

This building was erected in 1835, at a probable expense 
of less than a thousand dollars. The record gives no state- 
ment of its cost. It answered its purpose for a number of 
years; but in 1843 it began to be apparent that better ac- 
commodations were needed, and at the supervisors' meeting 
in April of that year a resolution was passed " that the 
committee on county buildings take into consideration the 
advisability of erecting a new jail and repairing the court- 

At the December meeting, in the same year, Caleb Sweet- 
land, William Price, H. EL Comstock, P. Eldred, and 
Ephraim Delano were appointed a committee to erect a jail 
and dwelling at an expense not exceeding two thousand 

In 1844 this committee was superseded by another, con- 
sisting of Israel Kellogg, Caleb Sweetland, and Samuel 
Percival, appointed for the same purpose. At this time 
the furniture in the old jail was reported by an inspecting 
committee to consist of three woolen blankets, one straw 
bed, a cook-stove, and a borrowed pump. Two dollars were 
appropriated to purchase the pump. 

The new jail was erected in 1845. J Israel Kellogg (who 
is living at this writing, Dec. 12, 1879) had the contract, 
and states that it was erected on the ground occupied by 

f Now the west part of Bronson Park. The jail stood near the 
mound, in which a cellar was excavated for use by the jailer. 

J The old jail was sold in the latter part of 1845. It was removed 
from the park by the village authorities, to whom the grounds were 
leased about 1854. 



the present jail building, and was constructed of heavy 
square timber on all sides and overhead, and then bricked 
up on the outside with a wall sixteen inches thick for the 
first story. 

At the January meeting of 1847 the sheriff was author- 
ized to erect a kitchen in the rear of the jail, for the conve- 
nience of his family, at an expense not exceeding two 
hundred dollars. In 1859 a committee, appointed for the 
purpose, reported the jail " unfit and unsafe" for prisoners. 

During the Rebellion there was very little legislation 
looking to new county buildings, but soon after its close 
the question of a new jail came before the supervisors, and 
there was more or less discussion, but nothing was done for 
several years. In December, 1867, in consequence of the 
dilapidated and unsafe condition of the building, occurred 
the memorable attempt to rescue prisoners by outside par- 
ties, which resulted in the death of Col. Benjamin F. Or- 
cutt,* then sheriff of the county. This melancholy affair 
aroused the authorities to the necessity of action. The 
matter had been discussed at the previous October meeting, 
and it now assumed definite form. Forty thousand dollars 
was authorized to be raised by a vote of the people of the 
county, to whom the question had been submitted in April, 
1868. At this time the question of a perfect title to the 
ground on which the county buildings stand was examined 
by a special committee, and a favorable report made by 
them. A committee, consisting of Luther H. Trask, Allen 
Potter, and Thomas S. Cobb, was appointed to superintend 
the erection of the new buildings, which were to consist of 
a jail proper and a commodious dwelling for the use of the 
sheriff and family, or whoever should act as jailor. 

The buildings, which are large, roomy, substantial, and 
convenient, cost in the aggregate $40,200,f as appears from 
the record of the supervisors' proceedings. They were 
erected and completed in 1868-69, and are an honor to the 
county. With the addition of a court-house corresponding 
to this, the county would be well provided with buildings 
for its courts and public offices. 


Upon the organization of the Territory of Michigan, in 
1805, an act was passed October 8th of that year for the 
support of the poor, by the Governor and judges of the 
Territory. A supplementary act was passed Feb. 1, 1809. 
The overseers were to be appointed by the judges of the 
district courts. On the 25th of November, 1817, the 
jurisdiction was changed, and the judges of the courts of 
quarter sessions were appointed to have exclusive jurisdic- 
tion of matters relating to paupers. In those days the 
keeping of the poor was sold by the sheriff to the lowest 
responsible bidder at public sale. 

Under the act of July, 1817, the county commissioners 
were authorized to look after the county poor, and in April, 
1827, an act was passed making each township responsible 
for its own poor, with overseers appointed in each. 

On the 22d of July, 1830, an act was passed authorizing 
the Board of Supervisors to erect poor-houses and purchase 

* See notice of Col. Orcutt in another part of this volume, 
f The $200 accrued from premiums on the county bonds, which sold 
above par. 

land, and also to appoint a board of from three to seven 
directors to look after such matters. The directors were to 
appoint a superintendent to take the immediate charge of 
the poor. All paupers were to be supported by the county, 
but the necessary taxation was to be apportioned among the 
respective towns in proportion to the number of paupers 
belonging to each. 

In March, 1833, another act was passed by the Legisla- 
tive Council, abolishing the Board of Directors and substi- 
tuting the Board of Supervisors in its place. On the 22d 
of April, following, an act was passed making it obligatory 
upon each township to support its own poor, under the su- 
perintendence of a township Board of Directors. Down to 
the year 1834, the insane paupers had been kept with the 
others, but on the 7th of March, in the last-named year, an 
act was passed requiring their confinement in the county 

In 1838 the Board of Supervisors was again abolished; 
and a county board of three commissioners substituted in 
its place. 

Under their management, at their first meeting for busi- 
ness, in January, 1839, Sherman Comings, Delamore Dun- 
can, and Jonathan G. Abbott were made a board of super- 
intendents of the county poor. Their first appropriation 
for the poor, in 1839, was fifty dollars, and in 1840 they 
set apart eight hundred dollars for the purpose. 

In 1842 the Board of Supervisors was once more restored, 
and superintendents of the poor were chosen from that 
body. The record shows that from 1839 to 1842, inclusive, 
the county authorities expended one thousand and sixty- 
seven dollars and fifty-six cents for the use of the poor. 

Although counties had possessed authority to purchase 
land and erect suitable buildings from 1830, Kalamazoo 
County rented the lands and buildings for the occupation 
of its poor as late as 1846. In October, 1847, the Poard 
of Supervisors made an appropriation of two thousand five 
hundred dollars for the county poor, fourteen hundred dol- 
lars of which sum was to apply on the purchase of a farm. 

The first county-farm was purchased of Simeon Mills and 
wife, the deed bearing date March 10, 1847. It consisted 
of the east half of the southeast quarter of section 23, 
eighty acres ; a part of the west half of the northeast quar- 
ter of section 25, twenty acres; and a part of the west half 
of the northeast quarter of section 25, eleven acres, — making 
a total of one hundred and eleven acres, all in Richland 
township. The consideration paid was thirteen hundred 

On the 19th of February, 1849, the county sold this 
property to L. Van Dewalker for fifteen hundred dollars, 
and on the same day purchased of him the farm now owned 
by it on section 23, Comstock township, containing one 
hundred and seventy- three acres, for which he was paid 
three thousand dollars. This farm had formerly belonged 
to a society known as the " Alphadelphian Society," for an 
account of which see history of Comstock township, in this 

The building now used for a dwelling was erected by the 
Alphadelphian Society. It is of wood, two stories in 
height, and in the form of an L. The county erected, in 
1872, a new barn, costing seven hundred dollars. The old 



granary and horse-barn were also moved back from the 
road, new foundations built under them, and general re- 
pairs made, at a cost approximating two hundred and fifty 
dollars. A new corn-house and hog-house were built, at an 
expense of about one hundred and fifty dollars each, and a 
separate infirmary building for the sick has been added, 
costing two hundred and fifty dollars. Also a wash-house, 
costing about one hundred dollars. About one thousand 
dollars have been expended on new roofs and other repairs, 
and recently a new heating-furnace has been put in at a 
cost of about two hundred and fifty dollars. Over a mile 
of new fence has been built, and all the fences are now in 
excellent order. A young apple-orchard has also been 
planted, which is in a very thrifty condition. 

For many years the incurably insane paupers were main- 
tained by the county, but under a recent act of the Legisla- 
ture they go to the State Asylum. The county supports 
them at the asylum for the first two years, but after that 
they are supported by the State. The children mostly go 
to the State Public School, at Cold water, which receives 
those between the ages of three and twelve years. 

The main building, occupied for a dwelling, is not suffi- 
ciently roomy and convenient for the purposes to which it 
is dedicated, though it is utilized to the best possible advan- 
tage ; and it will be necessary for the county authorities to 
enlarge the facilities before many years. The total amount 
invested in the property at this time approximates seven 
thousand dollars, though this does not indicate the actual 
value of the property, as the original purchase was made at 
a very low rate. 

In 1854 the committee appointed to visit the farm re- 
ported the number of paupers, then supported by the county 
at the farm, at thirty-one, — sixteen adults and fifteen chil- 
dren. Five of the adults were insane. A school was at 
that time in operation, under the management of a lady 
teacher, who received one dollar and fifty cents per week for 
her services. Twelve of the children were in attendance, 
the remaining ones being under school age. 

A comparison of the amounts expended by the county in 
this connection for various years is herewith appended : 
1839, f 50; 1840, $800 ; 1839 to 1842, total, $1067.56 ; 
1847, $1000 ; 1850, on account of poor fund, $3383.35 ;* 
1856, on account of poor fund, $5899.63;* 1860, on ac- 
count of poor fund, $4500 ;* 1870, on account of poor fund, 
$10,000 ;* 1878, on account of poor fund, $5500. 


The overseers of the county poor-fajm since its purchase, 
in 1847, have been : McFarlane, from 1847 to 1851 ; 
Andrew Crumb, from 1851 to 1855 ; John Kenyon, from 
1855 to 1858 ; Isaac Mason, from 1858 to 1870 ; Peter S. 
Carmer, from 1870, still in office. 

The position is by no means a sinecure, and the salary 
is far from being large, but these officers have very gen- 
erally discharged their duties promptly and efficiently ; in 
several instances their wives coming in for a full share of 
the credit in the management of the institution. 

*The larger sums include money expended for all purposes in con- 
nection with the county poor. 

The following statements show the comparative valuation 
and assessments at various periods since 1857. We preface 
them with the earliest tax-list we can find — 1837 : 

" To the Treasurer op Kalamazoo County. 

" The following is a true statement of the amount of tax-bills deliv- 
ered to the several collectors of the county, to wit : 






Ira Burdick 

Chester Crook 

Charles Fisher 

David Bates 

Wm. McAllister... 

Timothy Mills 

Luther Follett 

Ambrose Mills./... 








Pavilion , 




Prairie Ronde 











"Dated at Kalamazoo, Nov. 14, 1837. 

" Samuel Hacket, Lyman Tubbs, 
H. B. Huston, Mumford Eldred, Jr., 

Moses Austin." 

The total tax by townships for 1838 was as follows : 

Cooper $137.87 

Comstock 200.00 

Hastingsf 266.30 

Johnstownf 286.65 

Barryf 330.75 

Thornapplef 150.00 

Pavilion 110.55 

Climax 212.76 

Portage 266.11 

Prairie Ronde 63.38 

Brady 255.90 

Texas 74.64 

Alamo 85.33 

Richland 640.00 

Kalamazoo 797.35 

Charleston 171.84 

Total $4049.43 

The first regular valuation which we find is for the year 
1839, and is as follows, by townships : 

* Townships. Real Estate. Personal Property. Aggregate. 

Comstock $104,752 $12,104 $116,856- 

Charleston 90,126 13,470 103,596 

Climax 71,471 5,685 77,156 

Ross 61,785 5,801 67,586 

Pavilion 48,974 6,724 55,698 

Alamo 63,362 2,482 65,844 

Cooper 86,645 5,640 92,285 

Oshtemo 100,171 9,623 129,794 

Richland 122,107 22,135 144,242 

Kalamazoo 223,685 30,184 253,869 

Brady 211,534 36,772 248,306 

Prairie Ronde 123,553 15,035 138,588 

Texas 72,293 9,493 88,786 

Portage 97,850 8,764 106,614 

Total $1,483,308 $183,912 $1,669,220 

The State and county tax for 1842 was as follows : 

State tax $1,968.34 

County tax 3,936.68 

Total $5,905.02 

The expenses of the county for 1850 were : 

State tax $3,856.63 

County tax : 

Poor fund $3,382.35 

Current expenses 2,450.00 

Salaries 1,560.00 

Agricultural Society 100.00 

Interest 448.00 

Overdrawn by poor-fund 478.02 


f Now in Barry County. 



For 1856 the estimated assessments for the years 

expenses : 

State tax $1,406.59 

Interest on county loan 448.00 

County poor purposes 5,899.63 

Salaries of county officers 1,900.00 

Agricultural Society 300.00 

Repairs of county buildings 450.00 

Supervisors 2,897.67 

Incidentals 1,603.58 

Jurors' fees...., 500.00 


In 1858 the outstanding indebtedness of the county. 

principally on account of the court-house, was $8067. 

Assessment valuation in 1860, by townships: 

Alamo $144,424 

Brady 139,723 

Charleston 256,953 

Comstock 366,293 

Climax 185,456 

Cooper 246,437 

Kalamazoo 1,223,233 

Oshtemo 243,384 

Portage 228,075 

Pavilion 145,669 

Prairie Ronde 278,204 

Richland 284,185 

Ross 205,600 

Schoolcraft 405,069 

Texas 175,303 

Wakeshma 88,114 

TAXES FOR 1860. 

State tax $5,618.70 

County poor 4,500.00 

Agricultural Society 125.00 

Jury fees.... 1,000.00 

County canvassers 70.00 

Supervisors 400.00 

Salaries 2,750.00 

Orders drawn 3,000.00 

County House * 1,280.00 


The valuation of the county for 1864, according to the 

assessments, was $4,796,092.61. The taxes levied were as 

follows : 

State tax $14,805.99 

Salaries 2,990.00 

County orders 3,002.15 

Jurors' fees 1,800.00 

Interest 210.00 

Supervisors 1,000.00 

Bonds issued for relief of soldiers' families.. 12,700.00 

County farm 4,000.00 

Court-house debt 1,000.00 

Repairs county buildings.. 500.00 


In 1867 the total assessed valuation was $5,987,010, 
and the total expenses for the year were $68,536.28. 

The total valuation in 1871 was $11,523,570. Total 
tax, $69,572.00. Tax of 1870, $76,103.26. 

The State tax for 1873 was heavy, amounting to $39,- 
289.22, divided for various purposes as follows : 

State Agricultural College $1,495.92 

Asylum for Insane, at Kalamazoo 6,760.00 

General purposes 12,000.00 

Deaf, dumb, and blind 1,840.00 

Military fund 1,335.30 

New State Capitol 8,000.00 

State Prison building 2,000.00 

State Public School 1,720.00 

State Reform School 1,358.00 

University 2,780.00 


The total receipts of the county treasurer's office for 1877, 
from all sources, were $107,171.38. 

The following table shows the equalized assessment for 

1879 of real and personal property, the total valuation, and 
the State and county tax : 

Townships. Real Estate. Personal. Total Value. State Tax. °^ 1y 

Alamo $501,616 $71,400 $573,016 $1,307.53 $1,021.87 

Brady 547,060 108,110 655,170 1,495.00 1,168.38 

Cooper.. 741,963 120,700 862,663 1,968.46 1,538.42 

Comstock 1,013,359 137,610 1,150,969 2,626.42 2,052.63 

Charleston 752,146 109,040 861,186 1,965.10 1,535.77 

Climax 693,046 81,015 774,061 1,766.29 1,380.41 

Kalamazoo 4,563,196 1,213,690 5,776,886 13,181.99 10,302.12 

Oshtema 750,720 117,280 868,000 1,980.64 1,547.93 

Prairie Ronde 708,349 60,630 768,979 1,754.70 1,371.24 

Pavilion 548,920 109,140 658,060 1,501.59 1,173.54 

Portage 678,215 103,810 782,025 1,784.47 1,394.61 

Richland 900,640 280,510 1,181,150 2,695.21 2,106.38 

Ross 746,625 137,190 883,815 2,016.73 1,576.13 

Schoolcraft 1,158,811 186,240 1,345,051 3,069.25 2,398.68 

Texas 617,787 60,370 678,157 1,547.45 1,209.27 

Wakeshma 578,482 50,980 629,462 1,436.33 1,122.52 

$15,500,935 $2,947,715 $18,448,650 $42,097.16 $32,899.90 



Officers from 1830-80. 


Isaac Barnes, 1832-34; Mitchell Hinsdell, 1834-44; David B.Web- 
ster, 1844-48; John Sleeper, 1848-60; Marsh Giddings, 1860-68; 
Henry C. Briggs, 1868-76; George M. Buck, 1876-80. 


Cyrus Lovell, 1831-38;* Mitchell Hinsdell, 1838-40; David B. Web- 
ster, 1840-42 ; Nathaniel A. Balch, 1842-44 ; Joseph Miller, Jr., 
1844-54; Dwight May, 1854-60; Charles S. May, 1860-62; 
Henry C. Briggs, 1862-66; Julius C. Burrows (resigned), 1866- 
67; Charles A. Thompson (appointed), 1867-68; George M. 
Buck, 1868-75; Edwin M. Irish, 1875-81. 


Delamore Duncan, 1830-34; Hosea B. Huston, 1834-36; Lawrence 
Vandewalker, 1836-38; Joseph Hutchings, 1838-40; John Par- 
ker, 1840-42; Caleb Sweetland, 1842-44; Alfred Thomas, 1844- 
46 ; George W. Rice, 1846-50 ; George Rix, 1850-54 ; Benjamin 
F. Orcutt, 1854-58; William E. White, 1858-62; John Baker, 
1862-66; Benjamin F. Orcutt, 1866 to December, 1867 ;f John 
H. Wells, December, 1867-71 ; Lyman M. Gates, 1871-75; Charles 
Gibbs, 1875-77; Lyman M. Gates, 1877-80. 


Stephen Vickery, 1834-36 ;J Theodore P. Sheldon, 1836-38; Amos 
Brownson, 1838-40; Hosea B. Huston, 1840-42; Henry Gilbert, 
1842-44; Caleb Sweetland, 1844-46; George T. Clark, 1846-52; 
Orrin N. Giddings, 1852-60 ; Josiah B. Judson, 1860-62 ; James 
M. Neasmith, 1862-68; Benjamin B. Wilson, 1869-74 ;§ James 
B. Cobb (appointed), March, 1874, to January, 1875; Reuben 
Spencer, 1875-77 ; Enos T. Lovell, 1877-81. 


Isaac Sumner, 1830 to May, 1833; Stephen Vickery, May, 1836-38; 
Abraham Cahill, 1838-40; Alexander Buell, 1840-44; Charles 
A. Sheldon, 1844-48 ; David G. Kendall, 1848-52 ; James Henry, 
Jr., 1852-60; Ephraim T. Mills, 1860-66; Henry Bush, 1866- 
72 ; Robert J. Williamson, 1872-78; Henry T. Smith, Jan. 1, 1879. 

* The first term of the Circuit Court was held at Bronson, in No- 
vember, 1833. 

f Col. Orcutt was mortally wounded in the discharge of his duty, 
Dec. 3, 1867. 

J Mr. Vickery was undoubtedly the first county treasurer, and may 
have acted previous to 1834. He died at Schoolcraft, Dec. 11, 1857. 

I Died in office, March, 1874. 

I Dr. Nathan Thomas was the first deputy register, in 1831. 



William Duncan, Oct. 1, 1830-34; Stephen Vickery, 1834-36;* Isaac 
Vickery, 1836-38 ;f Luther H. Trask, 1838-40; Alexander H. 
Edwards, 1840-42* William G. Austin, 1842-44; Merritt Cobb, 
1844-48; Amos D. Allen, 1848-52; James K. Knight, 1852-54; 
Isaac Vickery, 1854-56 ; Amos D. Allen, 1856-60 ; Daniel Cahill, 
1860-66; James W. Hopkins, 1866-72; Henry S. Sleeper, 1873- 
79; Theron F. Giddings, 1879. 

Ebenezer Hoskins, 1853-57; John F. Alley, 1857-61; William W. 
Peck, 1861-65 ; Charles A. Thomson, Jr., Julius C. Burrows, 
1865-67; George M. Buck (resigned), 1867-71; Rufus H. Gros- 
venor (appointed), 1871-75; Oscar T. Tuthill, 1871-75; J. M. 
Davis, 1875-79 ; E. M. Clapp, Jr., 1879 ; Volney H. Lockwood, 


We do not find any record of a county surveyor previous 
to 1838, when the first one appears to have been elected. 
Stephen Vickery, Jesse Turner, and probably some of the 
deputy government surveyors, did considerable work for 
private parties between 1830 and 1838. As we have been 
able to trace them, from imperfect data, they stand as fol- 

Rufus S. Clapp, 1839-40; William R. Watson, 1841-44; Amos C. 
Roberts, 1845-48; Simon Traver, 1849-50; Luther H. Trask, 
1851-56; J Seth Pratt, 1857-58; M. O. Streator, 1859-60; Fan- 
cher Stimson (resigned), 1861-68 ; Francis Hodgman (appointed), 
1868-72; Edward Strong, 1873-74; Francis Hodgman, 1875 to 
present time. 

We have been able to find a majority of these names on 
official bonds at the treasurer's office. The remainder are 
given from record and individual information, and are be- 
lieved to be correct. 



Law and the Legal Profession^ — The Medical Profession, with Lists 
of Practitioners. 


In the history of anj portion of our country there is a 
manifest propriety in giving place to the members of the 
legal profession. No one will deny that it has had among 
its numbers, wherever civilization has advanced, a large 
proportion of active, well-balanced minds, men who have 
given shape and form to good government, and who were 
the instrumentalities in laying broad and deep the founda- 
tions for the welfare of their fellow-men. Law is based on 
what is true and right. The object of evidence is to find the 
truth, and, without the legal profession, no other body of 
men now or heretofore existing would, in all probability, 
have given to the world such a complete and systematic set 
of rules of evidence as now exists, by which truth is to be 
reached and determined. The doctrines and rules of evi- 

* The duties of clerk, register, and treasurer were combined from 

| The duties of clerk and register combined from 1836-38. 

t Mr. Trask was elected for two years in 1850, and again in 1852. 
At the fall election of 1854 there does not appear to have been any 
person voted for as county surveyor, and Mr. Trask must have served 
through 1855 and 1856. 

§ Prepared by Hon. Hezekiah 0. Wells. 

dence have been laid down in plain and perspicuous lan- 
guage by an American, who has no superior as a law 
writer. Simon Greenleaf, as a professor in the Law School 
of Harvard, at Cambridge, Mass., has given fame to that 
institution, and has gained for himself position as a law 
writer in the English as well as American courts. Evi- 
dence, according to this practically-educated lawyer, in 
legal acceptation, includes all the means by which any al- 
leged matter of fact, the truth of which is submitted to 
investigation, is established or disproved. Without the aid 
of the legal profession, doubt and uncertainty would have 
still clouded the moral atmosphere, and mental philosophy 
would yet be indulging in abstractions that held fast the 
mind of men before America was discovered. 

The responsibility of the lawyer in every community is 
recognized, because, as Professor Greenleaf expresses it, 
" his profession leads him to explore the mazes of falsehood, 
to detect its artifices, to pierce its thickest veils, to follow and 
expose its sophistries, to compare the statements of its dif- 
ferent witnesses with severity, to discover truth and separate 
it from error. Our fellow-men are well aware of this, and 
probably they act upon this knowledge more generally and 
with a more profound respect than we are in the habit of 
considering. The influence, too, of the legal profession 
upon the community is unquestionably great, conversant as 
it daily is with all classes and grades of men in their do- 
mestic and social relations, and in all the affairs of life, from 
the cradle to the grave." I need not further attempt an 
argument to demonstrate the necessity of holding in fair 
respect and giving prominence to the Bar as a body of men 
y who have greatly aided in sustaining virtuous conduct, in 
condemning vice, and in making the world better. Without 
passing from our own nation, whose history is compassed 
by a little more than a century, names might be mentioned 
that would be known as the highest type of ability wherever 
moral excellence or mutual greatness is recognized. 

Chief Justice John Marshall, Chief Justice Roger 
B. Taney, and Justice Joseph Story, of the Supreme 
Court of the United States, may be named as the pillars on 
which the judicial structure of our country rests. Others 
may imitate, but none surpass them, in originality of 
thought, power of argument, or clearness of expression. 
Of practicing lawyers, distinguished in argument to their 
fellow-men under our jury system, the country has fur- 
nished a legion ; possibly a score of this number above the 
others in the ability that enabled them to master the whole 
science of law and the possibly greater ability to impart 
their learning to others. What is necessary in the educa- 
tion of the lawyer ? First, a sound constitution, — " for 
what," as another has said, " is a lawyer worth to his client, 
or how can he assist the court, if his digestion is impaired, 
or his activity of mind or body controlled by excesses ?" 
A sound mind and a diseased body, — the latter always a 
hindrance to the former. The cup that intoxicates is not 
the only enemy to advancement in training the mind of. the 
lawyer to accuracy of thought, the ability to demonstrate, 
and the power to control the minds of others. There are 
other vices, fatal always to advancement. Close application, 
intense study, actual labor to learn, and to learn well and 
accurately, are always the essentials in reaching eminence 



at the bar. Much may be learned by the scholar of to- 
day in reading the biographies of those who have been 
distinguished as advocates. If the daily work of Luther 
Martin, of Maryland, John Sargent, of Philadelphia, 
William Wirt, of Baltimore, and Rufus Choate, of 
Boston, could be carefully estimated and studied, the law 
student would learn that constant, never-ending labor was 
the price to be paid for eminence at the bar. Not one of 
these great lawyers reached high position at a single bound. 
Close, careful study through a series of years, work, and 
much of it, ga^e to each that power to reason and the ap- 
propriate language and line of thought with which they 
swayed the minds of courts and juries. 

A distinguished member of the bar in Philadelphia thus 
writes of Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, a Baltimore 
lawyer, who spent some years in England as a commis- 
sioner under Jay's treaty, " That he attained the highest 
place in the eye of the profession ever reached by any 
lawyer in the United States." Chief Justice Taney thus 
speaks of Pinckney : " He came to every case fully pre- 
pared with his argument and authorities arranged ; and no 
temptation could induce him to speak in a case, great or 
small, unless he had time to prepare for it, and he argued 
each one as carefully as if his reputation depended upon 
that speech. I have heard almost all the great advocates of 
the United States, both of the past and present generation, 
but I have seen none equal to Pinckney." This brief out- 
line of a great advocate, by so distinguished a jurist as 
Chief Justice Taney, is well worth the contemplation and 
study of any one who desires to hold a good position at the 
bar. I add another name to the list of distinguished advo- 
cates already mentioned, — Heverdy Johnson, of Balti- 
more. T quote the language of Judge William A. Por- 
ter, of Pennsylvania : " When Great Britain paid to the 
United States the fifteen and a half millions of dollars 
awarded at Geneva, Congress created a court of five judges, 
taken from as many different States in the Union, for hear- 
ing and deciding upon the claims to the fund. This court 
sat in Washington for two years and a half, and entered 
judgments in two thousand and sixty-eight cases, amount- 
ing to nine million three hundred and sixteen thousand on,e 
hundred and twenty dollars and twenty-five cents. It was an 
arduous work, but it had one great attraction, that of bringing 
together in one court-room leading lawyers from many of 
our seaboard cities, — Portland, New Beford, Boston, New 
York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, New Orleans, and San 
Francisco. It has seldom, if ever, happened in the history 
of the country that so many lawyers were convened from 
so many different points of the Union. Some of the claims 
involved legal points of sufficient interest to stimulate their 
advocates to the highest professional exertions. It was 
specially instructive to observe, from hour to hour, the 
different styles of speaking : they ranged from the extreme 
of coldness to the most ardent oratory ; and I must admit 
that, contrary to all my preconceived theories, it was diffi- 
cult to tell, when both styles of speaking were displayed in 
the same case by men of real ability, which told most on 
the result. One of the ablest arguments was delivered by 
Mr. Johnson, in opposition to that of Mr. J. A. J. Cres- 
well, from the same State, who ably represented the United 

States. Mr. Johnson was then approaching his eightieth 
year. The sight of one of his eyes had been impaired by 
an accident, and that of the other by long-protracted study. 
His health appeared to be extremely vigorous. He stood 
erecr^ and, although rather under the middle size, his pres- 
ence was very commanding. He spoke without notes ; oc- 
casionally his son-in-law and colleague read from books and 
documents passages which the speaker indicated. The 
whole speech was bold, strong, and manly. Every word 
seemed to fall naturally into its proper place. The facts 
w T ere arranged in their most natural order, and stated with 
admirable clearness. The authorities cited were all perti- 
nent to the question. The citations from the proceedings 
at Geneva were all pointed to the question before the court. 
His delivery was marked by an energy and earnestness 
more commonly found in the speeches of younger men. 
Mr. Johnson lost his case, but he lost none of his reputa- 
tion. This was one of his last efforts. Not long after- 
ward, while attending the Supreme Court at Annapolis, 
he died suddenly from the effects of a fall. Thus went out 
one of the great lights of the American bar." 

It is not my province on this occasion to speak especially 
of the distinguished men who have held judicial position 
in the District, Supreme, or Chancery Courts, under Terri- 
torial and State rule, here in Michigan, and who are 
now dead: Judges Woodward, Witherall, Sibley, 
Morell, Wilkins, Fletcher, Kansom, Whipple, 
Wing, Miles, Mundy, Pratt, Martin, Farnsworth, 
Manning, Bacon, and Longyear. All of these were 
suited for their respective positions, and it might with truth 
be inscribed on a monument to their memories that each 
had the first quality of a judge, integrity of character. 
They were learned in the law, and had diligence and appli- 
cation to fill well the positions assigned them. I pass to the 
lawyers of the county of Kalamazoo, and note among the 
pioneers of the profession Lyman I. Daniels, Jeremiah 
Humphrey, John Hascall, Elisha Belcher, and 
Cyrus Lovell. 

Lyman I. Daniels emigrated, at the age of twenty- 
five years, from Otsego Co., N. Y., and, after a delay of a 
few weeks in Detroit, ventured West in the fall of 1831, 
and located in Schoolcraft, the then most important point 
in the county of Kalamazoo. Prairie Bonde, in the 
centre of which this village is located, contained at that 
time more than one-third of the population of the county. 
Its people had pioneered into the new country and were 
possessed of limited means, and the demand for the services 
of able advocates, wise counselors, and men learned in the 
law was not as great as at the present day. Few contracts 
had been made, and little resort to the courts for their vio- 
lation. Criminal accusations were limited, and the services 
of the grand jury were frequently compassed in finding a 
single indictment for the sale of whisky to the Indians, 
which, if tried, had its ordinary result in a verdict of not 
guilty. The pioneer lawyers, having then but limited pro- 
fessional business, found occupation to some extent in ex- 
amining the lands of the country, and recommending to 
Eastern capitalists particular localities for investments. 
Mr. Daniels devoted much time to this business, and his 
judgment gave profit to many who were fortunate in ob- 



taining his services. The old records of the court terms in 
Kalamazoo County during Territorial days, and the first 
years of the State government, exhibit that he had a fair 
share of practice in presenting questions of law to the court. 
He always exhibited careful research, and received respectful 
attention from the court; and his arguments to the jury 
were often very stroug, persuading the " twelve men, good 
and true," that his client personified injured innocence, and 
was entitled to a favorable verdict. In 1832 an alarm pre- 
vailed throughout the county of Kalamazoo, during what 
was called the " Black Hawk war." Troops were raised, and 
a commission was issued as lieutenant-colonel to Mr. Daniels, 
who accompanied his regiment in the short march that it 
made to the West, and thus secured for him the military 
title of colonel, by which he was ever afterwards known. 
Col. Daniels was called on business to Cassville, Wis., where 
he died in 1838. 

Jeremiah Humphrey located at Schoolcraft, in the 
year 1832, removing from Connecticut. During his resi- 
dence in the county of Kalamazoo, unlike all other of his 
professional brethren, he did not speculate in land. He 
made no horse-trades, but devoted himself to the law, and 
with his professional brethren acquired much reputation as 
a critically-accurate lawyer, well skilled in the elementary 
principles of the law, and familiar, by a careful examination, 
with cases adjudicated in the courts. His memory was 
singularly retentive as to volume, page, and title of cases 
and points ruled in the reports, and his professional brethren 
were often glad to obtain for him a retainer as associate 
counsel, and thus avail themselves of his more extensive 
and careful reading. He removed to the State of Iowa, and 
died in 1849. 

John Hascall was born in Connecticut and resided 
some years in Genesee Co., N. Y., where he devoted him- 
self to the practice of the law ; served as a soldier in the war 
of 1812, and participated in several of its battles. In 
1830 he came to Kalamazoo County and settled on what 
was subsequently known as Genesee Prairie. In his earlier 
life he was an active politician ; widely known in Western 
New York in the years 1826 and 1828 ; during the anti- 
Masonic excitement receiving political position from his 
demonstrations through the press against Masonry. His 
success as a lawyer in Genesee County, until he ventured 
into political life, was marked. In Michigan he gave a 
limited attention to the practice of the law, devoting much 
time to the process of harvesting and thrashing grain by 
machinery. It is claimed, by those who had the oppor- 
tunity to observe, that with him originated the machine 
invention of cutting grain, which has given to the prairies 
of the West the ability to supply the world with bread. 
John Hascall died at Kalamazoo in a.d. 1853. A wide 
circle of acquaintances testified that he possessed the quali- 
ties of integrity and useful ability. 

Hon. Cyrus Lovell, born in Windham Co., Vt., emi- 
grated to Michigan, and settled in the village of Kalamazoo, 
in a.d. 1832 ; building in that year, as his place of resi- 
dence, the first frame dwelling-house in the place. This 
building was located near the corner of South and Church 
Streets, on the lot now occupied as a place of residence by 
Joseph Perrin, Esq. While a resident of Kalamazoo he held 

the offices of supervisor, justice of the peace, and prosecuting 
attorney. He was a soldier in the " Black Hawk war," 
and for his services a grateful government rewarded him 
with one hundred and sixty acres of bounty land. As a 
lawyer he had been well instructed, and always maintained 
in the estimate of the court and his professional brethren a 
character for ability. In 1836 he removed to Ionia, Mich., 
and was honored by the people of that county with an elec- 
tion as a member of the Constitutional Convention of 1850, 
that presented to the people the constitution under which 
we are now living. In the discussions of that convention 
he took an active part, and always enlisted the attention of 
his associates. If his counsel had been listened to and 
acted upon, it would have freed the people from some very 
obnoxious provisions in that instrument. Mr. Lovell was 
subsequently twice elected a member of the House of Rep- 
resentatives, in the State Legislature, and during one ses- 
sion was elected Speaker, and served with credit to himself 
and with the approbation of his fellow-members. He has 
also held the office of receiver of the United States land- 
office at Ionia, and now in his seventy-fifth year, has a 
vigorous, active mind, and expresses opinions upon im- 
portant legal questions with a perspicuity and clearness that 
would be creditable to a much younger man. 

Elisha Belcher, born in Boston, Mass., in 1800, went 
to Ohio, thence emigrated to Michigan, locating at Ann Arbor 
in 1826, and thence removing to Ionia. He was employed 
in some of the limited number of cases that were prosecuted 
among the early settlers of that sparsely-populated portion 
of the Territory. Mr. Belcher's primary education and his 
knowledge of the law were acquired in the evenings after 
the toil of the day in field or shop was past. His industry 
was proverbial, and in his younger days he had acquired a 
fair knowledge of all farm employments, and had also fitted 
himself for many kinds of mechanical labor. All these 
qualifications made him a very useful man in the neighbor- 
hood of his residence. He came to Kalamazoo in 1834, 
and was soon recognized as one of the leading lawyers of 
Western Michigan. His plain, unostentatious appearance, 
his sympathy with any of his neighbors in trouble or mis- 
fortune, gave him a strong hold on the affections of all 
the old settlers. Each one seemed to recognize him as 
a member of his own family, and his counsel and advice 
was sought for in many matters outside of his profession. 
He was peculiar in his efforts at the bar. His address 
always exhibited respect for the court, and his plain way of 
talk and apparently sincere manner gave him power with 
the jury. His practical knowledge of all employments in 
newly-settled portions of the West often gave him an 
advantage in his cases at the bar- over the opposing 
attorney. His facility in describing minute details in 
every-day matters enabled him to reach the comprehension 
of ordinary minds, and by this means he held power with 
the jury. His addresses were without oratorical effort; 
they were talks ; but he made his audience believe as he 
professed to believe. Mr. Belcher, in manner, mind, and 
peculiar ways as a lawyer, and in form and face as a man, 
may have had his peer and like, or duplicate, in some other 
part of the world, but never in Western Michigan. He 
removed to Otsego, Allegan Co., Mich., where he soon 



acquired his old-time influence as in Kalamazoo. He died 
in 1852. 

Joseph Miller was born in Litchfield Co., Conn., Oct. 
29, 1779. He was a graduate of Williams College, and a 
practicing lawyer at Winsted, Conn., until 1834, when he 
removed with his family to Richland, Kalamazoo Co., Mich. 
He appeared in court in 1835 at Kalamazoo, Judge Fletcher 
presiding, and on motion was admitted to the bar, but never 
resumed practice in the West. He died at Richland, June 
29, 1 864, at the advanced age of eighty-five years. Through- 
out his long life he was held in high esteem by all who knew 

James Miller, son of Joseph Miller, was admitted to 
the bar in Kalamazoo, and for a short time was in practice 
in the county, but subsequently removed to Grand Rapids, 
where for many years he sustained himself as a leading 
member of the bar and useful citizen. He died in the 
latter part of the year 1879. 

Joseph Miller, Jr., was born at Winsted, Conn., Dec. 
13, 1816. He completed his literary education at the 
academy of that place, and commenced his law-reading in 
the office of his father, at Winsted, in 1833, and completed 
his course and was admitted to the bar at Kalamazoo in 
1837. For many years he was associated in his law practice 
with Hon. Charles E. Stuart, and subsequently with J. D. 
Burns, Esq. He held the office of prosecuting attorney 
for the county of Kalamazoo several years, and subse- 
quently, during the administration of President Buchanan, 
was appointed United States district attorney for the Dis- 
trict of Michigan, and discharged its duties until some 
time after the incoming of President Lincoln's administra- 
tion. Mr. Miller's reputation as a well-educated lawyer 
extended over a large portion of Michigan. His marked 
capacity for the careful preparation of all cases in which he 
appeared was recognized by the courts and his professional 
brethren. When he cited an authority from an elementary 
work, or the reports, it was almost invariably in point, and 
sustained the position for which it was cited. In his argu- 
ments to court and jury he had the power of condensation, 
and yet his brief speeches were very effective. In the 
public offices which he held, no fault was found in his 
action ; it was a fearless and able discharge of duty. A 
host of people, now living in Kalamazoo and adjoining 
counties, can testify that he never encouraged litigation ; 
his intervention was for peace and friendly adjustments 
whenever it was practicable. He died at Kalamazoo, April 
9, A.D. 1864, aged forty-eight years. On the day of his 
funeral the buildings of the village were draped in mourn- 
ing, all business was suspended, and the sorrowing multi- 
tude in the procession attested that a good man had gone 
down to his grave. 

Hon. Samuel Clark was born in Cayuga Co., N. Y., 
in January, 1800. His earlier years were spent on a farm. 
He graduated at Hamilton College, New York, and pursued 
his law reading at the office of Judge Hulburt, of Auburn, 
and commenced practice as a lawyer at Waterloo, N. Y., 
in 1828, and continued with an increasing business until 
1833, when he was elected representative from the Twenty- 
fifth Congressional District of the State of New York. 
Serving one term, he resumed and continued his practice of 

the law at Waterloo, until 1842. when he removed to Kal- 
amazoo. In his new home he soon took good rank in the 
profession, and was recognized as one of the leading lawyers 
of the State. He was elected a member of the Constitu- 
tional Convention of Michigan in 1850, and was prominent 
in the discussions upon the more important topics in that 
body. He favored by a strong argument the establishment 
of an independent Supreme Court, releasing its judges from 
Circuit Court duties. He was elected a member of the 
House of Representatives in Congress in 1853, serving one 
term, and was recognized as one of the leaders of the Michi- 
gan delegation. The pioneers in Western Michigan have a 
well-defined recollection of Mr. Clark's ability as a lawyer, 
his generous hospitality at his home, and his valuable ser- 
vices to his country in every public position which he held. 
He died at Kalamazoo, Oct. 2, 1870, aged seventy years. 

Hon. Epaphroditus Ransom was born in Hampshire 
Co., Mass., in 1799, and moved with his father's family, in 
his early childhood, to Windham Co., Vt. He was edu- 
cated at Chester Academy, Windsor Co., Vt., an institu- 
tion which has furnished educational advantages to many 
leading men in Michigan. Among them, Governor Barry, 
Chancellor Farnsworth, — both well known by reputation to 
the people of our State, — Mitchell Hinsdill, and Isaac W. 
Willard, who will be remembered by the people of Kala- 
mazoo County for many years to come. Mr. Ransom was 
educated, professionally, in the law school at Northampton, 
Mass., his law preceptor before attending this school being 
Peter R. Taft, of Townshend, Vt., father of Alphonso Taft, 
of Cincinnati, late attorney-general of the United States. 
He graduated at the law school in 1825, and was in suc- 
cessful practice at Townshend, Vt., until 1834, when he 
removed to Kalamazoo, Mich. 

While a resident of Vermont he was twice elected a 
member of the Legislature. On the 19th of November, 
1834, he was admitted to the bar at Kalamazoo, and soon 
afterwards was associated with Hon. Chas. E. Stuart in an 
extensive law practice. He was appointed one of the 
judges of the Supreme Court of Michigan in 1836, and 
subsequently, in 1843, chief justice, and remained in the 
position until 1848. In 1847 he was elected Governor of 
the State of Michigan, which office he held for two years 
from 1st of January, 1848. He was a member of the 
House of Representatives in the Legislature of Michigan 
for 1853. 

Governor Ransom was a man of commanding presence, 
in height over six feet, in weight exceeding two hundred 
pounds, with massive head, and a voice of power. As a 
judge, when off the bench, it was his pride to mingle with 
the people, and lead them into talks about their farm and 
mechanical employments ; and he carefully noted the details 
of their experience, and made effort to profit by it. He 
delighted in agriculture, and his home for many years was 
a well-cultivated farm, with pleasant surroundings, form- 
ing now a part of the village of Kalamazoo. His herds 
of improved cattle and carefully-bred flocks of sheep won 
for him, among farmers and the mass of people accus- 
tomed to manual labor, a popularity rarely attained by any 
public man in Michigan. A change came, — he sold his 
comfortable farm-home at a time of great business depres- 



sion, invested his means in banking and other enterprises, 
all of which proved disastrous ; his resources had vanished, 
but his energy of character was yet with him. He removed 
to the Territory of Kansas, and there received the appoint- 
ment of receiver of public moneys in the United States 
land-office, and was encouraged to believe that he could 
still restore his broken fortunes. His bright earthly future 
was destroyed by his death, which occurred at Fort Scott, 
Nov. 9, 1859. His remains were brought back to Michi- 
gan, and repose in " Mountain Home Cemetery," at Kala- 
mazoo. I repeat again, no man ever held a stronger hold 
on the affections of the people in Western Michigan than 
Epaphroditus Ransom. 

Walter Clark came to Kalamazoo from the State of 
New York in 1836, a graduate of Union College, under the 
especial pupilage of Dr. Knott, its president. He was ad- 
mitted to the bar at Kalamazoo, May 2, 1837. During 
most of his practice he was associated with Hon. N. A. 
Balch. He died at Kalamazoo in January, 1842. He was 
remarkable for scholarship and literary acquirements, and 
was a very active and successful business man. 

Mitchell Hinsdill came to Kalamazoo from Vermont, 
and was admitted to the bar Nov. 19, 1834. He officiated 
as prosecuting attorney for Kalamazoo County in 1835, and 
was elected and served as judge of probate from 1836 to 
1844, sustaining himself officially and in the profession 
with great credit. In his later years he devoted his time 
to farming, and had the reputation of being one of the most 
skillful cultivators of the soil in Kalamazoo County. He 
died in 1854. 

Zephaniah Platt was admitted to the bar, and com- 
menced practice, at Kalamazoo, Nov. 1, 1836. In his former 
practice, in the State of New York, he had sustained him- 
self as an able lawyer, especially in chancery practice, and 
he lost none of his reputation during his residence in Mich- 
igan. He returned to New York City, and there and in 
Washington, D. C, prosecuted a successful business in his 
profession for many years. 

Horace Mower, born in Vermont, and a graduate of 
Dartmouth College, read law with Hon. Andrew Tracy, at 
Woodstock, Windsor Co., Vt. He emigrated to Michigan, 
and was admitted to the bar at Kalamazoo in August, 1839. 
He served one term as a member of the House of Repre- 
sentatives in the Legislature in 1847, and was subsequently 
appointed judge of the court in the Territory of New Mex- 
ico, serving two years. 

Judge Mower, during his practice in Kalamazoo, and 
while holding his official position in New Mexico, acquired 
and held the reputation of being a critically-accurate lawyer 
with all his professional brethren. His fine collegiate at- 
tainments gave him notice wherever he was known in 
Michigan, and his polished address made him a very effect- 
ive speaker in his efforts with the court and jury. He died 
at Kalamazoo, Dec. 11, 1860, while yet a young man, and 
there are many persons in Kalamazoo and the adjoining 
counties who remember, with regret, when his brilliant 
prospects were cut off by an untimely death. 

Volney Hascall, born Feb. 2* 1820, in Genesee Co., 
N. Y.,came with his father's family to Kalamazoo in 1830, 
and was educated at the branch of the university, then lo- 

cated at that place, becoming a finished scholar in Latin, 
English literature, and mathematics. He read law with 
Elisha Belcher, and was admitted to practice in 1843. He 
also mastered the art of printing in all its branches, became 
an editor, and in this vocation had no superior in Michigan. 
He edited a paper for the benefit of the people, and not to 
serve his own private purposes. He visited Europe several 
times, and in his talks about his travels always held the 
attention of his auditors. He served as a member of the 
Constitutional Convention from Kalamazoo County in 1850 ; 
and held the position of register of the United States 
land-office for Western Michigan during the administra- 
tion of President Buchanan. He died at Kalamazoo, in 
February, 1870, and his acquaintances remember him as 
an honest man and useful citizen. 

Walter O. Balch was born at Kalamazoo April 9, 
A.D. 1843. Educated in the common schools, and gradu- 
ated in the law department of Michigan University ; was 
admitted to the bar at Kalamazoo, A.D. 1866. He was asso- 
ciated with his father, Hon. N. A. Balch, in practice at 
Kalamazoo, but failing health compelled him to withdraw 
from the more active duties of the profession. He died in 
December, 1876. His kind and courteous manners, and 
his remarkable acquirements in a literary point of view, 
gave him the friendship and admiration of a wide circle of 

David B. Webster, born in Chittenden Co., Vt., re- 
ceived an academical education, and was admitted to the 
bar at Essex, Chittenden Co. He practiced at Montpelier, 
and thence removed to Kalamazoo, Mich., in 1836, and was 
associated in practice with Hon. Charles E. Stuart. He 
served a term as prosecuting attorney, and was elected in 
1845 judge of probate for the county of Kalamazoo, 
serving four years. He was appointed, during the admin- 
istration of President Taylor, receiver of public moneys in 
the United States land-office for the Western District of 
Michigan, and served three years. He died May 8, 1860, 
at Kalamazoo. Judge Webster was a genial, pleasant man, 
discharging official duties faithfully and well, and holding 
the confidence of his fellow-citizens. 

Hon. Marsh Giddings came to Kichland, Kalamazoo 
Co., Mich., with his father's family, in 1830, from the State 
of Connecticut. His advantages for education were confined 
mainly to the common schools of the Territory and State as 
they existed during his minority. He read law with Judge 
Mitchell Hinsdill at Richland. After his admission to the 
bar at Kalamazoo, in 1841, he was associated in practice 
with Gen. Dwight May for several years. He was elected a 
representative in the Legislature of Michigan for the year 
1849, and subsequently elected judge of probate for the 
county of Kalamazoo, serving from 1861 to 1868, inclusive. 
Judge Giddings was also elected to and served in the Con- 
stitutional Convention of Michigan, which held its session 
at Lansing, in 1867. He was appointed Governor of the 
Territory of New Mexico, and served in that capacity until 
his death, which occurred at Santa Fe, in the month of 
September, 1875. His remains were brought to Michigan, 
and repose in " Mountain Home Cemetery," at Kalamazoo. 
As a jury lawyer, Judge Giddings was eminently successful. 
As judge of probate, he satisfied the people of his county, 



tenderly caring for the interests of the widow, the orphan, 
and those who were measurably without a protector. At 
Washington it stands on record that the affairs of New 
Mexico were administered during the term of Governor 
Giddings' service with ability and for the best interests of 
the people of that Territory. 

George D. Rice was for many years a resident of 
Kalamazoo, and was admitted to the bar in 1849. He de- 
voted much of his time to maturing plans for the organiza- 
tion of the Grand Rapids and Indiana Railroad Company, 
and for the construction of its road, and thus largely bene- 
fitted the interests of his fellow-citizens. He died at Kala- 
mazoo, 1869. 

David Hubbard read law in the office of Stuart & 
Miller, and was admitted to practice in 1848, and subse- 
quently located for the practice of his profession at School- 
craft. He entered the United States military service during 
the war with Mexico, in the regiment commanded by Col. 
Thomas B. W. Stockton, and in the company commanded 
by Capt. F. W. Curtenius, and, landing at Vera Cruz, 
marched to Orizaba. After the return of the regiment with 
which he served, and its discharge, he resumed the practice 
of the law, but failing health compelled him to abandon his 
profession. He died at Kalamazoo in 1852, recognized by 
his acquaintances as a young man of much promise. 

Charles A. Thompson was admitted to practice at 
the bar of Kalamazoo in 1862, after graduating with first 
honors at the University of Michigan in 1855, and conclud- 
ing his studies with May & Giddings, at Kalamazoo. He 
officiated as Circuit Court commissioner, and was afterwards 
elected prosecuting attorney for the county of Kalamazoo. 
He joined the 19th Regiment of Michigan Infantry, com- 
manded by Col. Gilbert, and was commissioned by Governor 
Blair a captain. He died June 8, 1871, at Kalamazoo, 
from disease contracted during camp-life in the army. Capt. 
Thompson was known by his professional acquaintances as 
a lawyer skilled in office practice, — no one of his years his 
superior in the preparation of papers, — and his record as a 
soldier is well established, giving him credit for bravery. 

Charles B. Hayden was admitted to the bar in 1859, 
after completing at Kalamazoo his studies in the law office 
of Stuart & Miller. He died at Cincinnati, April, 1864, 
after a faithful service in the war of the Rebellion, holding 
rank as lieutenant-colonel of his regiment. He was greatly 
beloved by his associates at the bar, at whose instance reso- 
lutions of deep regret and affection were spread upon the 
records of the Circuit Court for the county of Kalamazoo. 

William H. De Yoe, for many years an active busi- 
ness man and successful practitioner at the bar of Kalamazoo 
County, and associated with Hon. Nathaniel A. Balch, 
died Nov. 20, 1863. Mr. De Yoe's diligent attention to 
the business of his profession and his many gentlemanly 
traits of character endeared him to a large circle of friends. 

Clement C. Webb, admitted to the bar, and for a 
short time in practice at Kalamazoo, gave every evidence of 
future success in his profession. He was elected captain 
of a company in the 13th Regiment of Michigan Infantry, 
in the second year of the war of the Rebellion. His record 
as a soldier is pointed at with pride by his comrades in 
arms. In the brave discharge of his duty he was wounded 

at the battle of Stone River, Dec. 31, 1862, and died in 
hospital at Murfreesboro', Feb. 14, 1863. 

James K. Knight was admitted to the bar at Kalama- 
zoo in 1855. He was subsequently elected clerk of the 
county of Kalamazoo, in which position he was a universal 
favorite with the people. He removed to St. Louis, Mo., and 
there succeeded to an extensive and lucrative practice in his 
profession. He was elected judge of the Circuit Court, in 
which position he earned for himself great popularity as a 
sound lawyer among his professional brethren, and the 
people gave him credit for holding the scales of justice 
nicely and fairly adjusted. He died by accident in the 
vicinity of St. Louis, in December, 1875, and his remains 
repose in the cemetery at Schoolcraft, Kalamazoo Co. All 
of James K. Knight's old acquaintances at Kalamazoo will 
remember him well for his fine personal appearance, his 
genial manners, and his great excellence of character. 

Paul Rawls, a graduate of the University of Michi- 
gan, acquired his profession in the office of Stuart & 
Miller, and was admitted to the bar at Kalamazoo in 1848. 
He entered the military service of the United States dur- 
ing the war with Mexico, in the regiment commanded by 
Col. Thomas B. W. Stockton, and in the company of Capt. 
F. W. Curtenius ; was discharged with the regiment, and 
died at Kalamazoo soon after from disease contracted during 
military service. He was deemed one of the most estima- 
ble young men of his time, — his collegiate education giving 
him remarkable qualifications as a scholar, and his law- 
reading furnishing evidence of great promise in the pro- 

Gen. Dwight May was born Sept. 8, 1822, in Berk- 
shire Co., Mass. In June, 1834, he removed with his 
father's family to Michigan. By teaching and farm-labor 
he prepared for college, entered an advanced class at the 
University of Michigan in September, 1846, and grad- 
uated in 1849 ; read law with Lothrop & Duffield, at De- 
troit, and was admitted to the bar in July, 1850. He com- 
menced practice at Battle Creek in 1850, removed to Kal- 
amazoo in 1852, and was then associated with Hon. Marsh 
Giddings. While a resident of the village of Kalamazoo 
he was elected one of its trustees, twice its president, several 
times superintendent of its schools, and in 1866 was elected 
Lieutenant-Governor of Michigan. In 1868 he was elected 
attorney-general, holding the office two terms. In April, 
1861, his war record commenced by his election as cap- 
tain of Company I, 2d Regiment. Under an order of the 
War Department, he reached Washington in June, 1861, 
and participated in the battle of Bull Run. In December, 

1861, he resigned his position in the army, and resumed 
and closed up his law business at Kalamazoo. October 8, 

1862, he was commissioned lieutenant-colonel of the 12th 
Michigan Infantry, and in June, 1865, he was promoted 
colonel of the same regiment, and with his regiment was 
mustered out of service March 5, 1866. 

Gen. Dwight May, for years a sufferer from disease con- 
tracted in camp-life, died Jan. 28, 1880, and his remains 
were placed in " Mountain Home Cemetery," Kalamazoo, on 
the following Saturday, a bleak and gloomy day. A long 
line of his Masonic brethren were in his funeral procession. 
Judges of the Supreme Court and members of the bar of 



Kalamazoo and adjoining counties were present, out of re- 
spect for one whose learning and legal character they recog- 
nized and admired. Many of his old comrades in the 
army came from far and near to honor the dead soldier,-— 
the citizens of the town and county, young and old, were 
present to testify that death had stricken down one who 
had lived among them and had not lived in vain ; all agreed, 
in sad look and word, that a man, useful and patriotic in 
life, had left for all time his sorrowing family and friends. 

Of the legal men of Kalamazoo County I have spoken 
of the dead, with a single exception. Two of the pioneer 
lawyers of the county are yet with us, well advanced in 
years, and it is proper that I should name them as pre-emi- 
nent in ability, and so recognized by all their old associates 
in the profession, — Hon. Nathaniel A. Balch and 
Hon. Charles E. Stuart. 

Hon. Nathaniel A. Balch was born in Windham 
Co., Vermont, on the 22d of January, 1808. He read 
law, medicine, and some theology, in his native State, and 
was principal of Bennington Academy, Vt. He came to 
Kalamazoo in 1837. He has also been a college professor 
of mathematics. If you wish to find a more accomplished 
Greek and Latin scholar, don't look for him among the 
clergy, lawyers, or medical men of Kalamazoo County, for 
you can't find him. He is filled with acquired knowledge, 
and has worked like a high-pressure engine to get it. 
He has been the prosecuting attorney of the counties of 
Barry and Kalamazoo, and during his service put bad 
men and rogues to a vast deal of trouble. He was an able 
member of the Senate of Michigan in 1847, and, to the 
utter disgust of the good people of Detroit, exerted all 
his power to move the capitol of the State from the com- 
mercial metropolis, and set it down in the woods. He is a 
master in argument, and the opponent at the bar who has 
attempted to push him off the bridge has often found him- 
self in the water. He is now the president of the Bar 
Association in Kalamazoo County, and commands the re- 
spect and friendship of his associates for his learning and 
great excellence of character. 

Hon. Charles E. Stuart was born in Columbia Co., 
N. Y., in 1810 ; emigrated to Michigan in 1835, and com- 
menced as a lawyer the same year in Kalamazoo, obtaining 
a business within a brief time greater than any other lawyer 
in Western Michigan. The court records in Kalamazoo 
and adjoining counties show his name in connection with 
almost all the important cases during 1836 and the fifteen 
succeeding years. He was elected a member of the House 
of Representatives for 1842 in the Legislature of Michigan ; 
was for two terms a member of the House of Representa- 
tives in Congress, and for six years a member of the United 
States Senate. During his last term of service in the 
House of Representatives in Congress he moved, and made 
a persistent effort for and accomplished, the passage of 
the law making a landed appropriation for the construction 
of Sault St. Marie Canal, — a law that has added more to 
the wealth of Michigan than any other that was ever en- 
acted. An associate member of the United States Senate, 
himself greatly distinguished, once said that Mr. Stuart 
was the ablest presiding officer of a deliberative assembly 
he had ever known ; that his rulings on questions of par- 

liamentary law and practice were rarely at fault. Always, 
at the bar, and in every political position he has held, he 
has evinced ability ; now, in his seventy-first year, his mind 
is vigorous and active. His fluent conversational ability 
and remarkable memory enable him to entertain with 
stores of valuable facts and abundance of anecdotes of men 
who have come within his knowledge. 

The following list embraces the names of attorneys, now 
living, admitted to the bar in Kalamazoo, most of them en- 
gaged in professional business : John W. Breese, Thomas 
R. Sherwood, John M. Edwards, Charles S. May, A. A. 
Knappen, Henry F. Severens, Arthur Brown, Robert F. 
Judson, William W. Peck, F. E. Knappen, Rufus H. 
Grosvenor, J. Davidson Burns, Robert Burns, James W. 
Hopkins, William G. Howard, Dallas Boudeman, Nathaniel 
H. Stewart, Allen M. Stearns, Edwin M. Clapp, Jr., Volney 
H. Lock wood, Elbert S. Roos, Thomas D. Trumbull, Sam- 
uel W. Oxenford, James H. Johnson, Luther Williams, 
William Shakespeare, Germain H. Mason, Henry C. Briggs, 
Hampden Kelsey, H. G. Wells, J. Franklin Alley, Geo. M. 
Buck, Edward Ranney, Kalamazoo, Mich. ; Charles W. 
Lowrie, Gibson Browne, Keokuk, la. ; Charles R. Brown, 
Port Huron, Mich.; W. L. Booth, New York City; 
George L. Otis, St. Paul, Minn. ; William B. Williams, 
Allegan, Mich. ; Chandler Richards, Paw Paw, Mich. ; 
Joseph W. Huston, Dakota; Harrison A. Smith, Con- 
necticut ; Cyrus B. Wilson ; A. C. Kingman ; T. C. Cut- 
ler ; A. L. Moulton ; Charles R. Brown, Port Huron, 
Mich. ; Josiah L. Hawes, Kalamazoo, Mich. ; Mitchell J. 
Smiley, William J. Stuart, Grand Rapids, Mich. ; Henry 
A. Ford, Cleveland, Ohio ; A. J. Mills, Paw Paw, Mich. ; 
William Fletcher ; James W. Reid ; Henry H. Riley, Con- 
stantine, Mich. ; James M. Severens ; C. E. Bailey ; G. P. 
Doane, Mendon, Mich. ; J. C. Bishop, Vicksburg, Mich. ; 
Arthur A. Bleasby, Big Rapids, Mich. ; C. K. Turner ; 
E. S. Smith, Chicago, 111.; Lawrence N. Banks; Charles 
K. Turner, Kalamazoo, Mich. ; Elisha W. Frazer, Jasper 
C. Gates, Detroit, Mich. ; Rufus P. Edson ; Samuel A. 
York, New Haven, Conn. 

Among those in the foregoing list of lawyers are some 
whose reputation is not circumscribed by the lines of the 
States in which they reside, and the entire list will compare 
favorably with any equal number of their profession to be 
found elsewhere on the score of ability and integrity. 


Among u the ills that flesh is heir to," sickness and 
accidental injury are, and always have been, conspicuous. 
They give occasion and create the necessity for experts in 
medicine and surgery ; and hence it is that wherever ag- 
gregations of civilized humanity are found, there " the doc- 
tor" is a recognized and an existing institution. Sickness 
and accidental injury, common enough everywhere, are pe- 
culiarly the liability and often the lot of the pioneer. 

Away from the old home, its associations, its comforts, 
and its consolations, — away from an organized society reg- 
ulated by law and accustomed to order,-— away from the 
newspaper, the market, the school, and the church, each of 
which ministers to a civilized human want; and in the 

* Prepared by Foster Pratt, M.D. 



pressure of danger from an unaccustomed climate, from 
man and beast, from land and water, from forest and prairie, 
from hunger, heat, and cold, and from an imagination that 
conjures up many other dangers, real and unreal, — thus 
environed by danger to health, life, and limb, the pioneer 
naturally regarded the doctor as a guardian angel and his 
advent as an epoch in pioneer history. 

Of the doctors entitled to rank among the real pioneers 
of Kalamazoo County, there are four who deserve conspic- 
uous and honorable mention in its local history. These are 
Dr. N. M. Thomas, of Schoolcraft; Dr. David E. Brown, 
first of Schoolcraft and afterwards of Pavilion ; Dr. J. G. 
Abbott, of Kalamazoo ; and Dr. D. E. Deming, of Cooper. 

Of these but one is now living, — Dr. Thomas, who was 
probably the very first physician who made a home in the 
county, settling (in what is now Prairie Konde) in the 

He studied medicine at Mount Pleasant with Drs. Isaac 
Parker and William Farmer. After attending the Medical 
College of Ohio at Cincinnati, on the 3d of March, 1828, 
he was examined in that city by the censors of the First 
District Medical Society of Ohio, and the right to practice 
physic and surgery was conferred upon him by that body. 
He was engaged in the practice of medicine between one 
and two years in Ohio, when he came to Prairie Ronde 
and commenced practice in June, 1830. He became a 
member of the medical society of the Territory, and took 
such steps as enabled him to practice physic and surgery 
without a violation of law. The country being sparsely 
settled, his practice had a wide range, and some of his 
early visits were made at Diamond Lake, thirty miles dis- 
tant. He had quite a contest with " steam doctors," which 
caused some prejudice against him for a time. In less 


spring of 1830. He yet lives ; and in his hale old age 
preserves to a remarkable degree his faculties, mental and 

Nathan M. Thomas, M.D:,* the first physician who 
located in the county of Kalamazoo, and the second in 
Western Michigan who engaged in the practice of medicine, 
was born at Mount Pleasant, Jefferson Co., Ohio, Jan. 2, 
1803. His parents, Jesse and Avis (Stanton) Thomas, 
were Quakers. His maternal ancestors were of the same 
faith from near the origin of that church, and are traced 
back to Thomas Macy, the first settler on the island of 
Nantucket. His surroundings at his native place were 
such that he grew up with temperate habits. Under the 
teachings of Charles Osborn and Benjamin Lundy he 
became imbued with anti-slavery sentiments in early life. 

* From material furnished by Dr. Thomas. 

than three months after his arrival he had an attack of 
fever, and, while it lasted, he fully realized all the priva- 
tions of log-cabin life. He prescribed for himself for some 
days, but finally felt the importance of yielding his case to 
other hands. The fact that the nearest physician was Dr. 
Loomis, of White Pigeon, presented an obstacle to be over- 
come. A messenger was dispatched for him, but found, 
upon his arrival at White Pigeon, that Dr. Loomis could 
not be had. He learned, however, of another physician 
who had temporarily located at that place, and he was 
obtained. Under his treatment, Dr. Thomas speedily re- 
covered. For the first two years after he located on the 
prairie his practice was not large, and but little more than 
paid expenses. He had barely sufficient means to enable 
him to practice medicine, with a few dollars in his pocket. 
Under such circumstances he could derive no benefit from 
the pre-emption law, nor purchase any government land until 




September, 1832, when he attended land-sales at White 
Pigeon, and purchased ninety acres of prairie land for three 
hundred dollars, a large part of the purchase-money being 
borrowed capital. The land sold at that time had been held 
back from market because it had been selected for the uni- 
versity, but, as a number of sections on the prairie had pre- 
emption claims on a portion of them, it was decided that the 
university could not hold the remainder of those sections. 
They were, therefore, thrown back into market and sold 
at a heavy advance on government price. 

After he had spent two years in the country circum- 
stances were so changed that he worked speedily into a 
lucrative practice. Improvements had commenced at the 
village of Schoolcraft ; Thaddeus Smith, J. A. Smith, E. 
Lakin Brown, Lyman I. Daniels, and Jeremiah Humphrey 
had preceded him in locating at that point. Others soon 
followed, and the indications were that Schoolcraft would 
very soon become the centre of business for Big Prairie 
Ronde, Gourd-Neck, and the surrounding country. Such 
being the case, he did not hesitate to change his residence 
to that place. His practice from the 1st of July, 1832, to 
1841 was extensive. He applied himself closely to business, 
and for more than five years after he came to Schoolcraft 
did not spend twenty-four hours at a time beyond the range 
of his practice. During that five years, with all the loss of 
sleep and other conditions incident to the practice of med- 
icine in a sickly country, his health was never so far im- 
paired as to prevent him from attending regularly to his 
patients, which he attributes to the exercise of riding on 
horseback. He rarely rode otherwise during the first four- 
teen years which he spent in the country. 

For a few^ years previous to the location of physicians at 
Paw Paw village, his practice extended to that place and 
to the Agard settlement. His brother, Dr. Jesse Thomas, 
assisted him in the practice of medicine during the summer 
of 1836, having previously studied with Dr. William Ham- 
ilton, of Mount Pleasant, Ohio. He attended a course of 
lectures at the Medical College of Ohio in the winter of 
1836-37, and resumed practice with his brother the follow- 
ing spring. In 1838, from the 1st of July to the 1st of 
October, there was not a suflicient fall of rain to lay the 
dust. The marshes, lakes, and water-courses settled to a 
low stage. It was a very sickly year, and consequently in 
the months of August and September their practice was 
incessant and laborious. Their patients were numerous, 
and their business larger than in any other year during their 
professional life. The country was sickly for ten or eleven 
years of its first settlement, but after that period it passed 
to a more favorable condition, and gradually became as 
healthful as any part of the United States. 

The 17th of March, 1840, Dr. Nathan M. Thomas was 
married to Pamela S. Brown, daughter of Thomas and 
Sally Brown, of Plymouth, Windsor Co., Vt., and sister to 
Hon. E. Lakin Brown, of Schoolcraft. 

Previous to 1841 the purchase of land, making improve- 
ments, and other business began to claim the attention of 
Dr. Thomas to such an extent that between 1841 and 1844 
it was his intention to gradually surrender his professional 
business to his brother within a few years ; but meanwhile 
a surplus capital had accumulated from their earnings, and 

their attention was turned to the West, as presenting the 
better opportunities for profitable investments. Accord- 
ingly, in the summer of 1845, Dr. Jesse Thomas, in com- 
pany with Hiram Moore, made an exploration of what is 
now Green Lake Co., Wis., and the country adjacent 
thereto. This led, in 1846, to the purchase of a large, tract 
of land near Green Lake, and Dr. Jesse's removal to it in 
the spring of 1847. The largest part of the accumulated 
capital that Dr. Thomas realized from the practice of med- 
icine he invested in land and the improvement of it, and at 
the time he retired from practice he was the owner of some 
two thousand acres of improved and unimproved land, with 
the larger part of the latter, producing no income. He 
therefore gradually sold the greater part of it, and invested 
the money in such a way as to produce a larger income than 
could be obtained from the practice of medicine. But the 
greatest and most important benefit was an exemption from 
the exposure incident to practice in a new country. It is 
now twenty-seven years since he relinquished practice. In 
1859, after he had retired, he received the following official 
notice of being chosen an honorary member of the State 
Medical Society, of which Dr. Allen was president : 

" Wyandotte, Jan. 27, 1859. 
" Dr. N. M. Thomas : 

" Dear Sir, — I have the honor to notify you that at the last meet- 
ing of the Michigan State Medical Society, held at Lansing, January 
19th, you were, on motion of Dr. Gunn, elected an honorary member 

of that society. 

" Yours respectfully, 

" E. P. Christian, Secretary." 

Dr. Thomas' early education led him to adopt advanced 
views in relation to the anti-slavery cause. As it was both 
a moral and political question, he rejected the idea of rely- 
ing on moral suasion alone, but adopted the plan advocated 
by Benjamin Lundy, of carrying the question at once to 
the ballot-box, and using this great moral and political force 
as the lever for the overthrow of American slavery, which 
he reduced to practice in 1838 and 1839. In 1840 he 
favored the organization of the Liberty party, and voted 
for its candidates at the Presidential election of that year. 
In 1837, Dr. Thomas united with four hundred and twenty- 
two male citizens of the townships of Prairie Ronde and 
Brady in petitioning Congress against the annexation of 
Texas to the United States. He was induced to do so be- 
cause slavery existed in that country, — and that, too, after it 
had been abolished by Mexican law. He sent the petition 
to Lucius Lyon, one of the United States senators from this 
State, who acknowledged its reception with the remark, 
" This is the ,first memorial on this subject that has been 
received from Michigan, though many have come in from 
other portions of the United States." Dr. Thomas also 
united with other citizens, at different times, running 
i through a series of years, in petitioning Congress on the 
same subject, for the abolition of slavery in the District of 
Columbia, and against the admission of any more slave 
States. In 1839 he united with other anti-slavery men for 
the establishment of a paper in this State devoted to the 
anti-slavery cause, which required quite an effort and much 
pecuniary sacrifice for its accomplishment. In 1845 he was 
nominated by the Liberty party for Lieutenant-Governor, on 
a ticket with James G. Birney for Governor, which received 



some three thousand five hundred votes. When the Lib- 
erty party was merged in the Free-Soil or Free Democratic 
party, in 1848, he became a member of that party, and as 
such was on the electoral ticket in this State for John -P. 
Hale, when he was a candidate for President, in 1852. 
Whep the State mass convention was held in Jackson, in 
July, 1854, which organized the Republican party in this 
State, Dr. Thomas was one of the committee of sixteen 
chosen by a State mass convention of the Free Democracy, 
held at Kalamazoo, to represent that party in the Jackson 
convention, and in accordance with instructions, upon the 
adoption of a platform approved by that committee, the 
Free Democratic party was dissolved and merged in the Re- 
publican party. He was appointed one of the nominating 
committee which selected for the convention the Republican 
State ticket. Being a supporter of the Republican party, 
he was also a supporter of the government through the war 
of the Rebellion. From the time hostilities commenced he 
favored the extinction of slavery, as the only sure and speedy 
way of ending the war. He therefore sent a petition to 
Congress in November, 1861, signed by one hundred and 
sixty-seven citizens of Schoolcraft and vicinity, calling the 
attention of that body to the subject, of which the follow- 
ing is a copy : 

" To the Senate and House of Representatives of the United 
States : 
" In accordance with justice, the spirit of the age, and to meet the 
approval of the good and the true throughout the world, and with a 
view of restoring four million native Americans to their rights, and 
bringing the war in which we are involved to a speedy termination, 
the undersigned, citizens of Kalamazoo County and State of Michigan, 
respectfully pray your honorable body to so exercise the right with 
which you are invested, under the war power of Government, as to 
declare slavery by act of Congress totally abolished." 

Dr. Thomas was connected with the " underground rail- 
road," — one of the organizers of the company, — and was 
the Schoolcraft station agent. The first " train" which 
arrived brought a single fugitive, who had escaped from 
the far South. He entered the State in Cass County, in 
October, 1838, and passed Schoolcraft, Battle Creek, Mar- 
shall, Jackson, and Detroit. Other fugitives soon followed 
on the track, and the underground railroad became estab- 
lished on that line, extending from the Slave State border, 
north and east, through Michigan to the Canada line. It 
was in existence nearly twenty years, and the numbers that 
passed over the line have been variously estimated at from 
one thousand to fifteen hundred. Some of the fugitives 
became permanent settlers in Michigan, but the great body 
passed on to Canada. During the Rebellion many of these 
fugitives had a strong desire to enlist, and, with the first 
opportunity, were mustered into the service and made brave 
soldiers. Four active young men, fugitives from Ken- 
tucky, came on the underground railroad to the Schoolcraft 
station in 1856. They went no farther, but remained in 
the State, and when the war commenced they were among 
the number who desired to enlist. After much delay and 
great effort, they succeeded in being accepted in different 
regiments and were mustered into service. In the course 
of events they came together at the capture of Charleston, 
and joined in singing the John Brown song as they 
marched through the streets of that city. 

Dr. Thomas, appreciating the advantage of a good educa- 
tion and the general diffusion of knowledge among the 
masses as indispensable to the maintenance of republican 
government, has been at the expense of giving his children 
a collegiate education. His eldest, Avis, since deceased, 
graduated at Hillsdale College (the university not being 
then open to girls), married John J. Hopkins, a graduate 
of the same institution, and spent her short married life in 
Ohio. His youngest three children have received their 
education at the University of Michigan. Stanton, now a 
resident of Cassopolis, graduated in 1863, and Ella, at 
present teaching at Paw Paw, in 1875. His youngest, 
Malcolm, is a member of the class of 1880. 

Dr. Thomas has now arrived at the ripe old age of sev- 
enty-seven years. His life is drawing to a close, and the 
end of everything earthly is near at hand. His efforts to 
push forward the cause in which his mind has been deeply 
enlisted in early manhood, and through mature life to old 
age, though not fully completed, their consummation is fast 
approaching, and he has strong hopes and expectations 
that reform movements will go forward in the future as in 
the past half- century to a full restoration of political 
rights, so that every human being of lawful age, sound 
mind, and unconvicted of crime, can have the full and un 
contested right to a free ballot, without regard to class or 

During the summer of 1879 a controversy sprang up in 
relation to the date of the organization of the Republican 
party in Michigan, and Dr. Thomas, in common with 
numerous others to whom letters had been addressed on the 
subject, furnished what facts were in his memory regarding 
the matter. The following is a copy of his letter : 

" To the Editor of The Post and Tribune : 

" In response to your inquiries, without any record before me, I will 
state a few facts as I recall them in regard to the organization of the 
Republican party. I attended the Free-Soil or Free Democratic con- 
vention held at Jackson on the 22d of February, the mass convention 
at Kalamazoo, on the 21st of June, and the mass convention at Jack- 
son, on the 6th of July, 1854. The old anti-slavery men, previous to 
the origin of the Republican party, had felt the necessity of a com- 
bined effort against slavery and the aggressions of the slave-power of 
the country, and had been acting politically against that institution 
for years. In accordance with established usage, the Free Democracy, 
as the representation of their principles, met in convention at Jack- 
son, on the 22d of February, adopted resolutions, and in nominating 
the State ticket the canditates were selected with a view of reconcil- 
ing the feelings of the various shades of anti-slavery men and placing 
a strong ticket in the field. With that idea in view Kinsley S. Bing- 
ham was nominated for Governor. A strong desire was manifested 
by a few leading anti-slavery Whigs for a union of the Free-Soil and 
Whig parties on a State ticket. The late Judge Emmons, I well re- 
member, as one of their number, was present to make known their 
wishes upon that point. But the time for its consummation had not 
then arrived, nor was it foreseen that so great an aggression upon the 
rights of the free States as the repeal of the Missouri Compromise was 
so near in the future as the end of May of that year. The catastrophe 
occurred when I was on my way to visit friends in New England. 
Some ten days elapsed, and I was in Boston to witness the first opening 
in Faneuil Hall of the great fugitive slave case, where the voices of 
Parker and Phillips were heard presenting the fact of there being 
( once a Boston and Massachusetts, but no Boston nor Massachusetts 
now/ The slave-power was supreme to the Canada line. A few days 
passed, and a war- vessel was in the port of Boston, and, under orders 
from the government of t^e United States, took Anthony Burns and 
returned him to slavery, from which he had just escaped. A few 
days later a line from a friend reached me in Vermont, urging my 



return home, as a State Free-Soil Convention had been called during 
my absence. On my return I attended that convention, which was 
held at Kalamazoo to meet the emergency that had just been sprung 
upon the country and aroused the public mind to a greater extent 
than any event that had transpired since the memorable struggle 
against the admission of Missouri as a slave State, and led to the call 
of the mass State convention to be held at Jackson on the 6th of July. 
Under these circumstances the Free Democracy determined to meet 
at the time appointed in the mass convention at Jackson, and unite 
in a new organization, provided a platform was adopted embracing 
their principles. A committee of sixteen was appointed for the pur- 
pose of carrying out the will of the Kalamazoo convention. They 
met in Jackson, and, upon a platform being adopted that met the ap- 
proval of the committee, the nominations previously made were with- 
drawn, and the Free Democratic party of this State was dissolved and 
absorbed in the new organization, under the name of the Republican 
party, as adopted by the convention. When the organization was 
completed and the State officers nominated, the convention closed 
with a feeling pervading the mass that a great work had been accom- 
plished. Michigan was undoubtedly the first State to organize under 
the name of Republican. Ohio and one or two other States called 
conventions of those opposed to the repeal of fhe Missouri Compro- 
mise on the 13th of July following, as the anniversary of the adop- 
tion of the ordinance of 1787, but the Republican party was not, of 
course, fully organized as a national party previous to the holding of 
the national convention at Philadelphia, in 1856. 
" Respectfully yours, 

" N. M. Thomas. 
" Schoolcbaft, June 27, 1879." 

Dr. David E. Brown, who came to Schoolcraft in Oc- 
tober, 1830, was bom June 20, 1795, in Loudon Co., Va. 
He was a graduate of the medical department of the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania, at Philadelphia, and was in many 
respects a marked man. Naturally frank, open-hearted, 
hospitable, and generous, he had many warm friends ; brim- 
ful of mirth and humor, he was highly entertaining and 
attractive in social life ; his clear perceptions, sound reason, 
and general good sense commanded universal respect ; and 
all these, together with his energy, high-bred courtesy, and 
integrity, made him a successful man. As a physician he 
was, for the time, remarkably well educated ; his mind was 
well trained in professional thought, and his memory well 
stored with medical science. For some time (just how long 
cannot be ascertained) he was the Professor of Practice in 
a medical school established at La Porte, Ind. In 1852 he 
moved to his farm in Pavilion township, and made that his 
home until about the time of his death, which occurred 
May 13, 1871, at Boone, Iowa. His remains He in the 
township burial-ground of Schoolcraft. 

Dr. Abbott came to Kalamazoo in 1831, and was a 
prominent character in nearly all the early affairs of the 
township. He was its first postmaster, he held several town- 
ship offices, and he was its first physician. His professional 
experience embraced much that was interesting to the his- 
torian, and especially to the medical man, but it is impos- 
sible, within the space allowed for this article, to give the 
details of his life. It is enough to say that, healthy and 
vigorous himself, he did a large amount of professional 
work, — his rides radiating from his home to New Buffalo, 
to Ionia, to Union City, and to Muskegon ; and that, with- 
out being remarkable or noteworthy on account of his en- 
dowments or his attainments, he was a careful and honor- 
able physician, a kind and good man, who had many and 
warm friends, and whose death one year ago was lamented 
by all who knew him. 

Dr. Deming, who came to Cooper in 1834, was a man 

of many good and remarkable traits. A good physician, a 
kind neighbor, a true friend, and a faithful worker, he did 
great good in the north part of this county, and in Allegan 
and Barry Counties. (A fuller account of his life and death 
will be found in the history of Cooper township.) 

Passing now to the medical generation in Kalamazoo 
only, immediately following these pioneers, we notice Dr. 
Stuart, the father of Hon. Charles E. Stuart, a man of 
marked intellect and character, who lived to a great old 
age, and died only a few years since. 

Dr. Lewis F. Starkey, a native of New York, a grad- 
uate of the University of Pennsylvania, and for a while 
assistant surgeon in the navy, came to Detroit in 1836, 
and to Kalamazoo in 1837. In 1842 he was elected State 
senator from this district, and for years was prominent in 
the politics of the State. He died May 19, 1848. 

Dr. Edwin N. Colt settled in 1836, and left in 1843. 
He was postmaster at Kalamazoo in 1841-42. 

Dr. Starkweather, another man of marked character, 
came about the same time, prospered in his practice, and 
died in the spring of 1854. 

Dr. C adm an, also for many years in practice, was prom- 
inent in all the reformatory measures of the day, and has 
gone to his rest. 

Dr. Howard, gentlemanly, pleasant, and popular, died 
about 1860. 

Drs. Axtell (brothers), of whom the elder died from 
a dissecting wound about 1854 ; the younger immediately 
thereafter retired from practice, and still lives in the county. 
Dr. J. Adams Allen, a graduate of Middlebury (his 
father was a professor in the college), came to Kalamazoo 
about 1848, and soon became eminent in his profession. 
He was for several years a professor in the medical school 
at Ann Arbor, but removed, in 1860, from Kalamazoo to 
Chicago, where he has since occupied with great distinction 
the chair of practice in Rush Medical College. 

Dr. George J. Longbottom, a native of England, a 
distinguished graduate of the London University Medical 
College in 1838, came to Kalamazoo in 1849. During a 
successful practice here of fifteen years he gained a large 
amount of popular confidence in his professional knowledge 
and skill, and by his keen, quick sympathy with trouble 
and distress won the hearts of all with whom he became 
intimate. He died Oct. 4, 1864. 

Dr. Thomas Bradshaw, also a native of England, a 
graduate of the London University, and a man of remark- 
able intellectual endowments and professional attainments, 
a visiting surgeon of one of the Liverpool hospitals, and 
for several years a general practitioner in that city, came to 
Kalamazoo early in 1851. (He made Pavilion his later 
home.) He was, for some occult reason, an eccentric, mis- 
anthropic recluse, scorning all conventionalities, but com- 
manding attention and respect from all who had intelligence 
enough to appreciate his knowledge and mental powers. 
He died in December, 1872. 

Dr. Coates, for some time associated in practice with 
Dr. Longbottom, left here about 1850, and has since died. 
Dr. Wells Marsh, a Kalamazoo boy, a graduate of 
Michigan University, and a surgeon during the late war, 
also practiced awhile in Kalamazoo. 



Dr. R. C. Kedzie for a short time was professionally 
located in Kalamazoo, but for a long time has been Pro- 
fessor of Chemistry at the State Agricultural College, near 
Lansing. In this position, while winning laurels for him- 
self, he has conferred reputation on his school and honor 
upon his profession. He is a member of the Michigan 
State Medical Society, and has been its president. He is 
an active and useful member of our State Board of Health. 
He is a permanent member of the American Medical Asso- 
ciation, and also of the National Health Commission. 

Dr. J. H. White, coming to Kalamazoo in 1847, stayed 
but a few years, left on account of his health, and is now 
dead. He was a genial man and a good physician. 

Drs. Mack and Boles, both dead, were, each of them, 
a short while in practice among us. Dr. Mack removing 
to Kankakee, 111., became wealthy and politically prominent 
in the State, and died there. 

Dr. George W. Lyon, a native of Connecticut, a grad- 
uate of Bellevue College, New York, and twice a member of 
the Legislature of New York, came to Kalamazoo in 1858. 
Finely endowed by nature with personal and intellectual 
gifts, he had added thereto by study a fine literary culture, 
unusual professional acquirements, and a polish of manner 
which made him a pleasant companion and a successful 
physician. Health failing, travel did not restore it, and he 
died in 1876, in the prime of life. 

Dr. Edward Lee, too, a talented and accomplished phy- 
sician and gentleman, came from his home in New York, 
on the Hudson, practiced here for about a year, and returned 
to his old home and died soon after of consumption. 

Drs. Forbes, Chase, Fitch, Latjbenstein, and Up- 
john, Sr., each practiced for a time in Kalamazoo. All 
are living, but all have left this field. Dr. Upjohn, Sr., has 
been for many years a practitioner in the county, and now 
lives at Richland. 

Dr. Charles V. Mottram, after practicing here for 
several years (much of the time associated with his brother 
William), went to Kansas, where he is now a highly-suc- 
cessful physician. During the war he was surgeon of the 
6th Regiment of Michigan Infantry, serving with distinction 
and success. 

Dr. Edward Clapham, a native of England, a nephew 
of our old druggist, James P. Clapham, and a well-educated 
physician, practiced here a few years. While yet quite 
young he died, his death occurring in Canada, Oct. 5, 1879. 

The preceding catalogue is believed to comprise all rep- 
resentatives of regular medicine who have practiced in Kal- 
amazoo, and who, because of death or removal, are not now 
here. Of those now here and in practice, the oldest is Dr. 
William Mottram, who came here in 1851, from Not- 
tawa Prairie. With him for years was associated his 
brother, Charles V., now of Kansas; and, more recently, 
his grandson, Dr. Arthur Ransom. Dr. Mottram has 
been president of the local medical society and a delegate to 
the American Medical Association. 

Next in order of settlement is Dr. Foster Pratt, who 
came in 1856. Dr. Pratt has been twice president of the 
local society ; once vice-president and acting president of 
the State Medical Society, and once its president by election ; 
a permanent member of the American Medical Association, 

and a member also of its judicial councils ; surgeon during 
the war of the 13th Regiment Michigan Veteran Volunteer 
Infantry. He was also, in 1 858, a representative of the 
Kalamazoo district in the State Legislature ; and in 1871-72 
the president of Kalamazoo village. 

Dr. Homer 0. Hitchcock also came (later) in 1856. 
Dr. Hitchcock has been twice president of the local society, 
president of the State society, member and president of the 
State Board of Health, permanent member of the American 
Medical Association, and also of the American Social Sci- 
ence Association. 

During the late war came Drs. I. W. Fiske, W. B. 
Southard, and Moses Porter. Since the war, Drs. 
W. T. Stillwell, Henry U. Upjohn and his sister, 
Mrs. Helen M. Upjohn Kirkland, J. M. Snook, H. 


L. Tousley, and Morris Gibbs have been added to the 
catalogue of medical practitioners in Kalamazoo. 

Drs Fisk, Southard, Porter, Stillwell, Upjohn, 
and Snook have each been president of the local society 
and delegate to the American Medical Association. Be- 
sides these, living here, but not now in practice, are Drs. 
L. C. Chapin and W. H. Johnson. 

Medical Societies. — Prior to 1866, several attempts 
were made to form a medical society, but with no success. 
In 1866 a society was formed, which took the name of 
" Kalamazoo Valley Medical Society," and embraced as its 
territory Calhoun, Kalamazoo, Allegan, and Van Buren 
Counties. This organization lived about one year, and died 
because it covered too much territory. Immediately upon 
the demise of this society, another was born to inherit its 
" effects," which was christened the " Kalamazoo County 
Medical Society," its territory being indicated by its title. 
But very soon it was discovered, after a careful diagnosis, 
that it had inherited the infirmity of its parents, — too much 
territory, — and the diagnosis was triumphantly vindicated 
by its speedy dissolution. 

Feb. 11, 1868, the "Kalamazoo Medical Association" 
was organized by Drs. Pratt, Hitchcock, Southard, Fiske, 
W. Mottram, Chapin, Johnson, and Porter, and all who 
are now practicing regular medicine in Kalamazoo are 
members of it. The only feature that distinguishes this 
from any other medical society is a provision in its law 
that it shall meet monthly at the homes of its members, as 
may be convenient, whereby sociality is cultivated as well 
as science. Its present president is Dr. Pratt, and Dr. 
Snook is secretary and treasurer. During the twelve 
years of its existence it has done much good not only to its 
members, but, by its example, to other doctors in other 

On the 27th day of February, 1878, another organization, 
known as the " Kalamazoo District Medical and Surgical 
Association," was organized, a constitution and by-laws were 
adopted, and officers elected. It, too, though scarcely two 
years old, has also prospered and is doing a good work. Dr. 
Edwin H. Van Deusen, of Kalamazoo, is now the presi- 
dent, and Dr. J. M. Snook is secretary. Its membership 
includes all who have been previously named as practicing 
in Kalamazoo, and who are members of its local society ; 
and, in addition to these, it also includes the following, 



viz., Drs. B. Barnum, Schoolcraft ; D. M. McLay, Prairie- 
ville ; S. B. Davis, Alamo ; 0. F. Seeley, Climax ; E. B. 
Dunning, Paw Paw ; M. Hill, Pavilion ; Milton Chase, 
Otsego; J. F. Failing, Oshtemo; 0. B. Nichols, Martin; 
J. L. H. Young, Cooper; L. C. Yan Antwerp, Vicksburg; 
L. D. Knowles, Kendall ; J. W. Sackett, Prairieville ; J. 
M. Elliott, Hickory Corners; J. M. Rankin, Richland; 
Fred. E. Grant, Mattewan ; 0. F. Thomas, Lawton ; C. H. 
McKain, Pavilion ; Geo. C. Pease, Wakeshma ; E. C. 
Adams, Alamo ; M. Spencer Bradley, Oshtemo ; H. J. 
Turner, Way land. 

Neither the medical history of Kalamazoo nor its list of 
medical men can be completed without a mention of another 
class of physicians, who came here not as other medical 
men, to locate and enter into general practice, but who 
came appointed to perform duty as medical officers in the 
" Michigan Asylum for the Insane." First and foremost 
among all these is Edwin H. Yan Deusen, from 1856 till 
1878 the distinguished medical superintendent of the in- 
stitution. Among the assistant medical superintendents 
were Drs. Tyler and Geo. C. Palmer, the latter being now 
the medical superintendent. Dr. Henry M. Hurd, for 
years assistant physician, is now the medical superinten- 
dent of the similar institution at Pontiac, Mich. Worthy 
of honorable mention among them are Dr. Emerson, resigned 
to enter general practice, and Dr. E. G. Marshall, who went 
from here to a similar institution in Wisconsin, and there 
died of a dissecting-wound inflicted while engaged in scien- 
tific investigation. Now in service at the institution, in 
addition to the superintendent, Dr. Palmer, are Drs. Adams, 
Wood, Worcester, Savage, and Miss Bissell, — all ornaments 
to their profession, and eminently fitted for their responsible 


The following fragmentary information and anecdotes of 
a most eccentric but at the same time most remarkably 
endowed individual, who for many years was a citizen of, 
or at least a dweller in, Kalamazoo County, have been 
mostly gathered by A. D. P. Yan Buren, Esq., and oblig- 
ingly placed at the disposal of the historian. 

Dr. Isaac E. Lamborn was a native of Leesburg, Lou- 
don Co., Ya., where he was born towards the close of the 
last century.* 

He is said to have graduated at the University of Penn- 
sylvania, at Philadelphia, where he also studied medicine 
under Professor Gibson, a man of well-known reputation. 
Dr. Mottram says he graduated an M.D., and thinks he 
also graduated at William and Mary College in Yirginia. 

Dr. Uriah Upjohn says of him : " Theoretically he knew 
everything in the science of medicine ; was learned — pro- 
foundly versed — as a physician," though he never engaged 
in regular practice. He was like Washington in one re- 
spect — he seldom laughed. He seems either to have been 
regularly bred a Quaker or subsequently adopted the Quaker 
manner of expression. 

Dr. Thomas says he came of Quaker parentage, and the 

* Dr. Thomas met him in September, 1828, in Mount Pleasant, Jef- 
ferson Co., Ohio, and Hon. S. F. Brown thinks he lived in that State 
for a few years when young. Dr. Thomas and others think he first 
came to Michigan in 1840. Others say in 1830. 

doctor also thinks he studied medicine near the place of his 
birth. He also states that his father was noted for his 
eccentricities, of which his neighbors often made sport. 

About 1824 he visited Washington, D. C, where he 
was employed as a stenographer or reporter during the 
administration of John Quincy Adams. In that depart- 
ment his reputation was unrivaled. In the capital of the 
nation he formed the acquaintance of many prominent 
statesmen and politicians, and, having a superior capacity 
and a most retentive memory, acquired a remarkable knowl- 
edge of not only the principal actors in the political arena, 
but of the most profound principles of human government. 
His penetration of character was wonderful, and Dr. Mott- 
ram says his analysis of the character, peculiarities, and 
special traits of all the noted men of his time was better 
than a phrenological delineation by the ablest lecturer upon 
the (so-called) science. 

While in Washington he turned his attention mostly to 
American politics, and, as in the case of his study of med- 
icine, he soon mastered the subject. His knowledge of 
men and principles was most wonderful. As a prominent 
gentleman of Kalamazoo puts it : " He seemed to have no 
common sense, but had the greatest store of imcommon 
sense of any man I ever knew." Whatever subject he 
investigated he seemed to grasp at once and become profi- 
cient in. With all his other acquirements he had a very 
wide knowledge of history. 

Dr. David E. Brown was from the same part of Virginia, 
and an old-time friend of his ; and when he removed to 
Michigan, about 1830, Dr. Lamborn came also. Dr. 
Brown was a Whig and Dr. Lamborn a Democrat, though 
a very independent one, reserving tenaciously the right of 
private judgment.f He and Dr. Brown had many a " pas- 
sage-at-arms" upon political matters, and it is said that Dr. 
Brown was always discomfited, or at least overwhelmed, in 
the argument. 

But, like many a great man before him, he had a weak 
spot in his armor ; he was open to flattery. Dr. Mottram 
relates an instance in point: The Michigan Central and 
Southern Railway Companies got into difficulty about 
crossing each other's lines south of Chicago. One day 
Dr. Mottram made the statement to Dr. Lamborn that the 
two companies had agreed to refer the matter in dispute to 
two distinguished umpires in England. The latter gentle- 
men had desired to have associated with them some eminent 
American, and Mr. Brooks, superintendent of the Michigan 
Central Railroad, requested Dr. Mottram to secure the coun- 
sels of Dr. Lamborn. The latter was wonderfully pleased 
at this distinguished recognition of his abilities. A few 
days after this announcement Dr. Lamborn said to Dr. 
Mottram, " Has thee heard anything more about the matter 
from Superintendent Brooks?" The doctor would make 
some explanation for the time being, and the matter would 
drop for a few days, when Dr. Lamborn would again inquire, 

f Dr. Upjohn, according to Mr. Van Buren, reverses this statement, 
and makes Dr. Lamborn a Whig and Dr. Brown a Democrat. It is 
not material. Others make him a strong Abolitionist, and he seems 
to have been an adept at argument on all sides of a political question. 

Dr. Brown was a Whig till 1854. After the formation of the Re- 
publican party he became a Democrat. Dr. Lamborn was a pupil 
of Madison, and always a Democrat. — Dr. Pratt. 



in an eager whisper, " Has thy friend Brooks yet decided 
when the matter of adjudicating this railroad difficulty shall 
take place ?" Some plausible excuse had finally to be framed 
for the failure to call upon him. 

Dr. Upjohn says, in answer to a question as to whether 
Dr. Lamborn graduated from any literary institute, — 

" I think he did ; there is not much doubt of it ; but, be that as it 
may, one thing is certain, he knew enough to have graduated from a 
half-dozen of the best colleges in the land. 

"I first met him at Gun Plains, where I learned that he was to de- 
liver a lecture on stenography. I went and heard a masterly lecture 
on that beautiful art." 

Among his multitudinous accomplishments was that of a 
practical knowledge of surveying. Upon this subject he 
took great pleasure in discoursing, and had an excellent 
understanding of the system of surveys adopted by the 
United States authorities about 1785. He was a most 
accomplished mathematician. 

Keligiously he was a Hicksite Quaker, and his opinions 
were not kept to himself in this direction any more than in 
political matters. He was outspoken, earnest, able, and 
cuttingly critical, a most remarkable debater, and furnished 
with an unfailing stock of repartee. He was habitually of 
a melancholy temperament, which was said by those who 
knew him to have been caused by a disappointment in an 
affair of the heart in early life. 

Mr. E. M. Clapp furnishes some interesting information 
which we have drawn upon. 

On one occasion the old doctor had been exceedingly 
active in procuring signatures to a petition which he had 
drawn up to be presented to the Legislature. He secured 
a large number and forwarded it, sanguine of success, to the 
Legislature. But although his name, like that of " Abou 
Ben Adhem," led all the rest, the petition was never after- 
wards heard of. The doctor could not bear to be foiled. 
He was intensely restive under what he deemed restraint. 
At that time Edwin H. Lothrop, an old acquaintance, was 
a member of the Legislature, and for some reason the 
doctor believed he was instrumental in suppressing the 
lost document. Cut to the quick by what he considered 
a flagrant act of injustice, he exclaimed, " The right of 
petition, the most sacred right of an American citizen, — a 
right conceded by all legislative bodies where man is free, — 
this right is denied us in Michigan ! Edwin H. Lothrop 
has done an act that would have cost Louis Napoleon his 
head !" 

He was sometimes remonstrated with for being so posi- 
tive and outspoken ; and the suggestion was ventured that 
it would be better for him to curb himself and use milder 
language. He replied, " It was born with me ! I was 
once put in a barrel by my parents for some disobedience ; 
but I could not brook restraint. I rolled my prison over 
and got out !" 

In the days when Mormonism had a foothold in south- 
western Michigan, on one occasion there was a meeting of 
the " faithful" held in the log school-house in Mr. E. M. 
Clapp's neighborhood. Several able preachers were present, 
the house was crowded, and in the course of the proceedings 
considerable feeling was beginning to manifest itself, when 
of a sudden the shrill voice of Dr. Lamborn was heard 
piping harshly out as he entered upon a most searching 

and logical castigation of the Mormon theories and doc- 

Yery few in the neighborhood were familiar with the 
doctor, and the inquiry, " Who is it ? who is it ?" passed from 
mouth to mouth. 

The few who happened to know him understood well 
that the subject would be exhaustively treated in his hands, 
and the "saints" soon found that an "enemy was within 
the gates" who would thoroughly expose the whole business. 
Their leaders replied to him, but the more they said the 
worse they made matters appear, and their arguments were 
so skillfully parried and turned against them that they very 
soon were ready to exclaim, with Sir Andrew Aguecheek, 
"An' I thought he had been valiant and so cunning in 

fence, I'd have seen him d d ere I'd have challenged 


The result was like that where the belligerent hornet got 
into the camp-meeting, — the " meetin" broke up. 

That log school-house in after-years was often pointed 
out as the spot where " old Dr. Lamborn routed the i Latter- 
Day Saints.' " 

He was known among the students of the old branch of 
the university at Kalamazoo as the " Wandering Encyclo- 
pedia" and the " Bodleian Library in boots." We give a 
couple of characteristic anecdotes: During the exciting 
political campaign of 1844, he happened to step into a 
Whig meeting at Battle Creek, and in the course of events 
made a brief speech, in which occurred this passage : 

" Fellow-cit-i-zeHs / I come among you a Christ-mn, pat-n'©#, and 
scholar ! Really there are but three great men in A-mer-i-ca ; Dan- 
i-el Webster is one, Henry Glay is another, and the third modesty 
forbids me to mention V* 

Dr. Lamborn and Judge Pratt. — In the fall of 1848, 
Messrs. Pratt and Hughes, of Marshall, came to Cassopolis 
to examine the testimony taken in the celebrated "Ken- 
tucky Slave Case," which was to be used before the Dis- 
trict Court of the United States. 

While here their headquarters were at the oflice of Geo. 
B. Turner, Esq., who was connected with the case. Those 
acquainted with Judge Pratt will remember him as a man 
of commanding personal appearance, an inveterate joker, 
and a most unmerciful antagonist to those who dared meas- 
ure swords with him in a contest of wit and humor. Dur- 
ing their stay the judge had been unusually successful in 
playing his jokes upon Hughes, and the latter " acknowl- 
edged the corn." 

One day Hughes and Turner were standing in the door 
of the office looking out upon Main Street, when Dr. Lam- 
born came along. Turner, knowing his political dislike of 
Judge Pratt, whom the doctor had never met, proposed to 
turn the tables upon the judge. Dr. Lamborn was ac- 
cordingly invited in, and the three gentlemen walked into 
a back room where the judge was lying upon a lounge. As 
they reached the centre of the room, Turner remarked to 
the doctor, — 

" I would like to have your opinion concerning the three prominent 
Democrats of Michigan. First, what do you think of Judge Ran- 
som ?" 

Dr. Lamborn. — " What do I think of Bpaphroditus Ransom ? I 
will tell thee. He is not a great man, but I think him an honest one, 
and a good judge. In politics he is a mere boy." 



Turner.— " What of Judge Felch ?" 

Br. Lamborn. — " Alpheus Felch has proven himself to be an ex- 
cellent judge. He was a man of much culture, but too honest for a 

Turner. — "Now, doctor, what is your opinion of Abner Pratt, of 
Marshall ?" 

Dr. Lamborn. — " Well, I will tell thee" (raising his voice and ac- 
centing it as only the doctor could). "When Abner Pratt was born 
they were destitute of souls, and they gave him a gizzard !" 

At this point Turner and Hughes became convulsed with 
laughter. The doctor looked in a bewildered way, first at 
them and then at the stranger on the lounge, who was get- 
ting very red in the face, and seemed to ask what was all 
this uproar about. At length Turner controlled himself 
sufficiently to rise, when he turned to the doctor and said, 
" Dr. Lamborn, allow me to introduce you to Abner Pratt." 
It was now the doctor's turn to look embarrassed, but he 
proved equal to the emergency ; extending his hand to the 
judge,- he remarked, " Abner Pratt, what I said of thee I 
only meant politically." 

It is related that the judge used unparliamentary lan- 
guage for a moment, but finally his features relaxed, and he 
acknowledged the jokes even. During the remainder of 
their stay, Hughes was master of the situation. 

In this connection we venture to give another item, 
which, though not classical in its language, is at leabt fully 
as characteristic of the man. At one time, when the doctor 
was well along in years, and becoming more and more 
eccentric, he visited Kalamazoo, when the boys treated him 
with less respect than he was wont to claim. At length 
they gathered around him, and, remarking upon his outre 
appearance, jokingly inquired who he was and what his 
business was. The doctor turned upon them a withering 
look, and, in his inimitable way, replied; — 

" I am an agent of his Satanic Majesty, who has commissioned me 
to look up a new place to locate Hell, and I think I shall recommend 

Mr. Van Buren tells a good one in which he was an un- 
willing actor. At a Free-Soil meeting in Centreville, St. 
Joseph Co., in the autumn of 1848, after several speakers 
had addressed the gathering, suddenly, from an obscure 
corner of the room, came the sound of a squeaking voice, 
exclaiming, " Fellow- citizens." The peculiar, nervous, 
tremulous, but deliberate tones, attracted all ears, and the 
assembly beheld a medium-sized man of sixty years, earn- 
estly and emphatically pouring forth a torrent of eloquence 
which astonished them all. At length the president of the 
meeting, Hon. Albert Metcalf, turned to Mills Hammond, 
the secretary, and in an earnest tone exclaimed, " Who in 
the name of Free-Soilism have we got among us ?" Ham- 
mond, who knew the fiery stranger, replied, " We've got old 
Dr. Lamborn among us, and I see he is on the aggressive, 
and unless we get rid of him soon there will not be much of 
Free-Soilism left." He then whispered to Mr. Van Buren, 
who was assistant secretary of the meeting, and said, " Van, 
do you know that we have caught a Tartar ?" Van Buren 
replied that he was well aware of it, and unless he was 
stopped soon he would make havoc of the previous speeches 
and use up a good amount of time. 

In the mean time the doctor was warming to his subject, 
and slashing right and left with a blade as keen as Saladin's 
of old. Great political questions were being manipulated 

under his dexterous logic in a manner worthy of a Chatham 
or a Mirabeau. 

His eloquence and wonderful reasoning thrilled and 
aroused the Free-Soil element to indignant resentment, 
which the old doctor seeing, he poured out his vials of 
wrath and biting sarcasm more profusely than before. Said 
he, " You are displeased when I tell you that you are un- 
true to the fundamental principles of republican liberty, — 
principles for which Al-gernon Sidney died, for which Lord 
William ~Rus~sell suffered, and for which John Hampden 
fell !" 

Time was precious, and finally the president spoke and 
said he hoped the gentleman would be brief, as others de- 
sired to speak; but the doctor went on, until some of the 
audience, getting exasperated at his screaming invectives 
and unsparing sarcasm, began to shuffle their feet to drown 
his voice or disconcert him. At this he turned in their 
direction, and, pointing his index finger, exclaimed, " Ye 
do the work of your masters well ! Ye would hiss them 
for a bribe, ye hireling brood ! ye recreant sons of Mich- 
igan ! I have the floor, ye cannot hiss me down !" 

Thus he went on until he exhausted himself, and finally 
sat down, to the joy of all. 

At the noted malpractice trial at Kalamazoo in 1844, 
before Judge Ransom, wherein Dr. N. M. Thomas was de- 
fendant and a Mr. Beals, of Schoolcraft, plaintiff, Dr. 
Lamborn was subpoenaed as ^ witness. Among the eminent 
medical men present and interested were Dr. Brainerd, 
president of Bush Medical College, Chicago ; Professor 
Meeker, president of the Laporte Medical College, Indiana ; 
Dr. Z. Pitcher, of Detroit; Professor Shipman, of Cin- 
cinnati ; and many others from various parts of Michigan. 
The counsel consisted of Hon. Charles E. Stuart for the 
plaintiff, and Messrs. Balch and Gordon for defendant. 

The question was, Could a fracture be so successfully 
treated that you could not determine whether the bone had 
been broken or not ? 

Dr. Lamborn gave his testimony so understandingly and 
so composedly — never faltering or found at fault under the 
most searching examination — as to completely surprise 
everybody. He showed conclusively that Sir Astley Cooper 
had made the statement in his writings that a fracture may 
be so successfully treated that it cannot be told by observa- 
tion whether the bone has been broken or not. 

After the trial, Sam Bice, to please the doctor, told him 
that Charles E. Stuart, N. A. Balch, and Dr. Stone had 
said that he gave the most learned testimony of any phy- 
sician who had been upon the stand. He replied, " Thank 
God, Samuel, that there are three men in Kalamazoo who 
can appreciate talent ! " 

The doctor always rode an Arabian horse, and wandered 
about throughout the southwestern counties of Michigan 
as long as he could ride. He was very simple in his habits, 
ate but little, and that of the plainest kind of food. A 
thousand pages might be written of him. It has been 
said that no man could hear him converse five minutes 
without being convinced that he was a remarkable man. 
He was a man whom a Scott or a Dickens would have been 
delighted to encounter, and of whose characteristics they 
would have woven pages of romance more interesting than 



" Ivanhoe" or " Little Dorrit." He was of medium stat- 
ure, stoop-shouldered in his latter days, light-complexioned, 
and light-haired. He wore the brown Quaker garb. He 
was a great admirer of John Quiney Adams. G. B. 
Turner, of Cassopolis, says of him, " He was everywhere 
a welcome guest, because of his quaintness, simplicity, in- 
telligence, and honesty." He died in the Cass County 
poor-house in the summer of 1873. 

The following anecdote is furnished by G. B. Turner, of 
Cass County : 

" In one of his rambles through the county the doctor put up at the 
house of Wm. Jones, of Penn township, a wealthy and influential far- 
mer. During the conversation of the evening Jones stated his intention 
of looking up and purchasing the best blooded Durham bull that could 
be found. The doctor professed to know all of the celebrated stock- 
raisers in the United States, and all about their herds, and suggested 
to Jones that for a moderate commission he would make the purchase 
for him. At first Jones seemed greatly taken with the idea j but as 
the doctor grew earnest and demonstrative, and began to talk business 
in the shape of dollars and cents, he began to look for some hole to 
crawl out of, and after arguing for some time with the doctor, bluntly 
announced his intention of making his own selection, and thus save 
the commission. The doctor was disgusted at this result, and, pick- 
ing up his budget, went to Vandalia, a neighboring town, where he 
met an old acquaintance, to whom he told the story of his interview 
with Jones, concluding as follows : ' Friend Stephen, thee has heard 
my story. Now, which does thee think is possessed of the greatest 
amount of common sense, William Jones, of Young's Prairie, or a 
well-bred Durham bull ? I leave that question for thee to determine. 
Farewell.' Picking up his budget and throwing it over his shoulder, 
he moved on and was soon lost to view." 



Agricultural — Kalamazoo Town Agricultural Society — Patrons of 
Husbandry — Pioneer Association — Bible Society — Insurance Com- 

It appears from old files of the Kalamazoo Gazette of 
1837 that a county agricultural society was organized in 
that year. The first meeting, which was merely a prelim- 
inary one, was held in Kalamazoo, May 27th in that year. 

Roswell Ransom was chairman and George A. O'Brien 
secretary of the meeting, which resolved to organize a 
county society, and appointed a committee of five to draft 
a constitution. The committee were A. G. Hammond, A.' 
H. Edwards, Isaac W. Willard, P. Grey, and Luther H. 
Trask. The meeting adjourned to meet on the 10th of 
July following. 

At the regular meeting held on that day a society was 
formed, and the following officers were chosen : E. H. Loth- 
rop, President ; Mitchell Hinsdell, 1st Vice-President; Ros- 
well Ransom, 2d Vice-President; F. W. Curtenius, 3d 
Vice-President; Isaac W. Willard, 4th Vice-President; 
George A. O'Brien, Secretary ; A. G. Hammond, Treas- 
urer ; H. H. Comstock, G. Torrey, E. B. Anderson, L. H. 
Trask, J. H. Smith, Caleb Eldred, Trustees. 

As we find no further notice of its proceedings, we con- 
clude that the society never held any fairs, and possibly 
never did any further business. 

A club known as the Kalamazoo Jockey Club, " for im- 
proving and training horses," was also formed in the same 

year ; but we find no further notice of it. Gen. Burdick 
was president, and Charles E. Stuart secretary. 


This is the oldest county organization of a similar kind 
in the State. The Adrian Horticultural Society antedates 
it two years, but that had nothing to do with agricultural 
matters, strictly speaking. 

The society was organized at a meeting of the citizens 
of Kalamazoo County, held on the 10th day of January, 
1845, in the village of Schoolcraft. 

Hon. Edwin H. Lothrop was chairman of the meeting, 
and William H. Edgar acted as secretary. 

The following preamble was adopted : 

"We, the undersigned, citizens of the County of Kalamazoo, to 
promote the more general dissemination of the true principles and 
science of Agriculture throughout the County; to encourage the in- 
troduction of superior stock and improved modes of culture, and, by 
a generous rivalry, to foster and advance that interest which is para- 
mount to all others in our County, — The Farming interest, — do hereby, 
by our mutual agreement, form and constitute an Agricultural Soci- 
ety, and adopt a Constitution," etc. 

The following persons were then chosen officers for the 
ensuing year: President, Andrew Y. Moore; Treasurer, 
Samuel P. Cobb ; Secretary, William H. Edgar ; Corre- 
sponding Secretary, Edmund Bice. 

The records of the earliest fairs have not been preserved, 
but it is presumed that they were held in 1846, '47, and 
'48, at the village of Schoolcraft. The fourth annual 
fair was held at Kalamazoo, Oct. 10 and 11, 1849, upon 
grounds leased of Dr. Starkweather, adjoining the lot occu- 
pied by the Axtell race-course. The address was delivered 
by Hon. Joseph E. Williams, of Constantine, Mich. 

The total amount of premiums awarded was one hundred 
and sixty-nine dollars and twenty-five cents. 

At the meeting of 1849, John Milham was chosen Pres- 
ident; Alexander Shelden, Secretary; and John Sleeper, 

At the annual fair of 1850, held at Kalamazoo, Hon. 
Lewis Cass delivered the address. The aggregate of pre- 
miums paid was one hundred and ninety dollars. The re- 
ceipts were seventy-four dollars for membership and gate- 
money, and one hundred and sixty dollars from the Board 
of Supervisors, making a total of two hundred and thirty- 
four dollars, f 

From 1850, for a period of eight or ten years, the affairs 
of the society were in a prosperous condition, though the 
amount of its receipts and expenditures was not large. 
Addresses were delivered in 1851, by Hon. Frederick W. 
Curtenius; in 1852, by Hon. Edwin Lawrence; and in 
1853, by Hon. Charles E. Stuart. 

In 1856 the total receipts were seven hundred and thirty- 
three dollars and ninety-four cents, and the expenditures 

* The first attempt at the formation of an agricultural society in the 
county was made in the spring of 1837. The following notice ap- 
pears in the Kalamazoo Gazette of April 29th, in that year : 

" Notice. — The farmers and other citizens of Kalamazoo County 
are requested to meet at the District School-house in Kalamazoo on 
Saturday, the 27th of May next, for the purpose of forming an 
Agricultural Society.'* 

f It is probable that in the preceding years the Board of Supervi- 
sors had appropriated about one hundred dollars annually for the use 
of the society. 



seven hundred and nineteen dollars and fifty -nine cents, 
leaving a surplus of fourteen dollars and thirty-five cents. 
In 1857 the receipts were eight hundred and fifty-three 
dollars and fourteen cents, and the disbursements eight 
hundred and fifty-three dollars and twenty-one cents. In 
1860 the receipts, including one hundred and twenty-five 
dollars received from the county, exceeded the disbursements 
by three hundred and seventeen dollars and ninety-two cents ; 
but in 1861 the disbursements exceeded the receipts by 
two hundred and thirty dollars and sixteen cents. 

Owing to the great civil war then raging, no fair was 
held in 1862. The lease of the grounds also expired in 
that year. The amount of funds in the hands of the 
treasurer at that date was one hundred and one dollars and 
thirty-three cents. 

In the mean time an institution which seriously interfered 
with the Agricultural Society had sprung into existence in 
the county. This was the " National Horse Association,"* 
which was formed at Kalamazoo in 1858, with a paid-up 
capital stock of ten thousand dollars, and a like amount in- 
vested in grounds, buildings, track, etc. This association 
had purchased and fitted up the fine and extensive grounds 
known as the " National Park," and the result was that 
the attention of the people of the county and surrounding 
region was largely diverted from the more commonplace 
and slower-going county fair to the splendid show of horses 
and the grand races, where the presence of Flora Temple, Dex- 
ter, and Goldsmith Maid constituted an immense attrac- 
tion. But, notwithstanding this rivalry, the Agricultural 
Society continued steadily along, and made the best of the 

In 1863 and 1864 the Michigan State Agricultural So- 
ciety held its fifteenth and sixteenth annual exhibitions on 
the grounds of the National Park. In the mean time 
the County Society had sold the material on the old fair- 
grounds, and the amount received, together with the bal- 
ance remaining in the treasury, — in all, two hundred and 
fifty-one dollars and thirty-three cents, — was donated to the 
State Society, to be used in the erection of Floral Hall, now 
standing in the park. 

In 1864 the society, having leased the grounds of the 
National Horse Association, resumed their annual fairs, 
but the result was not encouraging, only enough money 
being received to pay thirty-five cents upon the dollar of 
its expenses. In 1866 the receipts improved so much that 
the society was enabled to pay seventy cents on the dollar. 
In September of the last-named year a new board of offi- 
cers was chosen, with Hon. Charles B. Stuart as president 
and Frank Little, Esq., as secretary. The new officers 
assumed their duties Jan. 5, 1867, " with an empty treas- 
ury, a broken credit, and a constituency apparently more 
hostile than friendly." 

Upon the recommendation of Col. Stuart, it was resolved 
to try once more to awaken an interest in a good old-fash- 
ioned county fair, and at his suggestion a new plan was 

One thousand tickets were printed and distributed 
among good men in the different towns of the county, 

* Technically the " Kalamazoo Town Agricultural Society." 

who offered them for sale at the various polling-places at 
the annual township elections in April of that year, but 
their utmost efforts resulted in the actual sale of only thirty 
tickets. Upon this result, at an executive meeting held 
on the 17th of April, 1867, it was 

" Resolved, That the effort to raise the requisite funds for 
carrying on the Kalamazoo County Agricultural Society, 
among the farmers, mechanics, and people generally of the 
county, having failed, the officers will make no further effort 
to sustain it, and the secretary will settle its affairs." 

The resignation of all the officers, except the secretary, 
Mr. Little, followed, and the society virtually ceased to 
exist. The secretary nominally occupied his position and 
kept the records, in order that the society might not entirely 

A few adherents still clung to the idea that the associa- 
tion might be made prosperous, and under their manage- 
ment attempts were made to revive it. 

In the years 1868, '69, and '70 three exhibitions were 
given at Galesburg, but with only partially successful re- 
sults. In the last-mentioned year the receipts amounted to 
eighty-four per cent, of the expenses. 

In 1871 and 1872 the Michigan State Fair was held on 
the National Park grounds, at Kalamazoo, and in conse- 
quence the County Agricultural Society suspended oper- 
ations in those years. 

In January, 1873, the secretary of the society called a 
meeting at Corporation Hall, in Kalamazoo, of all persons 
throughout the county who might be interested in the suc- 
cess of the Agricultural Society. This meeting was largely 
attended, the people having evidently become awakened to 
the value of an annual fair, which, it was decided, should 
be held at Kalamazoo on the first, second, and third days 
of October following. 

At this meeting the society was resuscitated, and the 
following persons were elected officers for the ensuing year : 
President, W. H. Cobb ; Secretary, Frank Little ; Treasurer, 
Wm. H. McCourtie; Executive Committee, H. Gr. Wells, 
D. B. Merrill, Kalamazoo ; Henry King, Comstock ; E. R. 
Miller, Richland; A. N. Le Fever, Climax; A. W. Inger- 
son, Cooper. These gentlemen, with the exception of the 
executive committee, have held their various offices since. 

With the premium-list, the following circular was ad- 
dressed to the citizens of the county by the secretary : 

" To the people of Kalamazoo County : 

" In presenting the within Premium-List of an Annual Fair of the 
Kalamazoo County Agricultural Society, proposed to be held this fall, 
the officers of the Society most cordially invite the hearty co-opera- 
tion of all classes of citizens. We feel constrained to urge this matter 
upon your attention, that you may realize the importance of doing 
all in your power to make the proposed exhibition complete and at- 
tractive in all its various departments, and creditable to yourselves as 
citizens of one of the most intelligent and best agricultural Counties 
in the State. The future welfare of the Society must of necessity be 
materially affected by the coming fair, and we shall wait and watch 
in earnest solicitude, yet, at the same time, believing that you will 
nobly and promptly respond to our appeal. 

"To the business men of Kalamazoo whose cards appear in this 
list, we desire .to extend our sincere thanks for the material aid they 
have furnished to our enterprise, and we respectfully commend them 
and the various branches of business they represent to the considera- 
tion and patronage of the farmers of Kalamazoo County. 

" F. Little, Secretary." 



The fair of that year was a decided success. The attendance 
was large, and an able address was delivered by Hon. J. C. 
Burrows, member of Congress for the district. The total 
receipts were two thousand five hundred and sixty-two dol- 
lars and twenty-five cents, and the disbursements two thou- 
sand two hundred and forty-two dollars and sixty- three 
cents. The total premiums paid amounted to an aggregate 
of one thousand and one dollars and fifty cents. The bal- 
ance in the treasury on the 10th of January, 1874, was 
five hundred and thirty -nine dollars and twelve cents. 

The fair of 1874 was held on the 29th and 30th of Sep- 
tember and 1st and 2d of October. Like its immediate 
predecessor, it was a successful one. The total number of 
entries reached eleven hundred and sixty-two ; the total re- 
ceipts aggregated three thousand five hundred and seventy- 
three dollars and eighty-seven cents, and the disbursements 
three thousand and fifty-three dollars and fourteen cents, 
leaving a balance of five hundred and twenty dollars and 
seventy-three cents. Premiums paid, thirteen hundred and 
nineteen dollars and fifty cents. 

A peculiar and most interesting feature of this fair was 
the " baby-show," brought together by premiums offered 
for the " finest and handsomest babies" in the county. 
There were thirty-eight entries in this department, and 
the winners of the four prizes offered were : Mrs. E. M. 
Wheeler, first, twenty dollars ; Mrs. J. W. Glover, second, 
fifteen dollars; Mrs. Edwin Anderson, third, ten dollars; 
Mrs. George W. Stafford, fourth, five dollars. The exam- 
ining committee consisted of Dr. A. T. Metcalf, Mrs. C. E. 
Stuart, Mrs. Henry Bishop, and Mrs. Alexander Cameron. 

The fair for 1875 was held on the 28th, 29th, and 30th 
of September and 1st of October, and was a very success- 
ful one. The total entries aggregated thirteen hundred and 
fifty- two, an excess over those of the previous year of one 
hundred and ninety. The total receipts were three thou- 
sand and thirty-six dollars and thirty-five cents ; total ex- 
penditures, two thousand seven hundred and thirty-one 
dollars and ninety-one cents, leaving a balance of three 
hundred and four dollars and forty-four cents. The total 
premiums paid were fourteen hundred and twenty-four dol- 
lars and forty-five cents. Among the attractions of this 
fair were horse-trotting and running, hurdle-racing, and 
running and jumping contests by boys and girls. 

On the 9th of December, 1875, a convention of the agri- 
cultural societies of Western Michigan was held in Cor- 
poration Hall, at Kalamazoo. The societies represented 
were those of Kalamazoo, Van Buren, Berrien, Branch, 
and Ingham Counties, and the Plainwell Union Agricultu- 
ral and Industrial Society of Allegan County. The meet- 
ing was quite largely attended, and the proceedings were 
interesting. An association was formed, called the " Asso- 
ciation of Agricultural Societies of Michigan," of which 
Frank Little, Esq., of Kalamazoo, was elected secretary. 

The total receipts of the fair of 1876, held on the 26th, 
27th, 28th, and 29th of September, were two thousand six 
hundred and forty-four dollars and sixty-five cents. Total 
expenditures, two thousand four hundred and eighty-four 
dollars and thirty-two cents. Total premiums paid, thirteen 
hundred and ninety-three dollars and seventy-five cents. 
Total number of entries, fifteen hundred and ninety-three. 

On the 23d of May, 1877, a sheep-shearing festival and 
basket-picnic was held at the fair-grounds, which was 
largely attended and produced much interest. Some lively 
trotting was also indulged in on the race-track. 

The annual fair held in 1877 was very successful, though; 
owing to almost a total failure of the apple crop, the show- 
ing in the fruit department was inferior to former years ; 
but, with this exception, the display was fully equal to that 
of any previous year. The entries numbered fourteen 
hundred and ninety-two ; premiums awarded, thirteen hun- 
dred and forty-three dollars. The total receipts were two 
thousand six hundred and nineteen dollars ; and the total 
disbursements, two thousand six hundred dollars and forty- 
five cents. 

Among the attractions of the fair of 1877 was the display 
made by the Kalamazoo Light Guard, who enlivened the 
grounds by their fine appearance and drill. 

The balance to the credit of the society in the treasury, 
including former balances, on the 12th of January, 1878, 
was fifteen hundred and fifty dollars. 

The annual sheep-shearing festival again came off on the 
23d of May, 1878. The entries of sheep numbered twenty- 
six, including thirteen fine wool. The shearing took place 
in Floral Hall, on the fair-grounds, and was very largely at- 
tended. The heaviest fleece was taken from a four-year- 
old buck, owned by W. G. Kirby, American merino, which 
weighed twenty-two pounds. Premiums were awarded to 
B. Bishop, W. G. Kirby, W. H. Patrick, W. R. South- 
worth, and J. M. Neasmith. 

The annual fair for 1878 was held on the 26th, 27th, 
28th, and 29th days of September, and was a very success- 
ful one, as all the fairs held since the reorganization of the 
society in 1 873 have uniformly been. 

The whole number of entries was 1591 ; total receipts, 
$2609.99 ; expenditures, $2609.99 ; premiums awarded, 

Mr. W. H. Cobb, president, received the diploma of the 
society for the best-cultivated farm. 

The business transactions of the society for the year 
1879 are here summarized, as follows: 


Whole number of exhibitors at the fair of 1879 298 


Whole number of entries, 1879 1371 


Horses 149 

Cattle , 78 

Sheep 56 

Swine 33 

Poultry 41— 357 

Grain, vegetables, fruits, and flowers 511 

Dairy, household, and domestic 195 

Fancy articles, paintings, merchandise, etc 204 

Iron work, carriages, implements, etc 104 


Horses, general and special $596.00 

Cattle 169.00 

Sheep 81.00 

Swine 66.00 

Poultry 33.25— $945.25 

Grain, vegetables, fruit, and flowers 196.50 

Dairy, household, and domestic manufactures.... 80.75 

Fancy work, paintings, and merchandise 123.75 

Iron-work, carriages, implements, etc 80.50 — 481.00 

Total. $1426.75 




Advertisements in pamphlet (excess) $25.00 

Rent of stands on the ground 148.75 

Citizens' subscription 159.00 

Entrance fees, special classes 182.00 

Memberships 298.00 

Gate tickets 1522.20 

Grand stand 129.50— $2464.45 


Premium checks, fair 1879 $1421.25 

Rent National Park 300.00 

Labor, watch, gate-keeper, etc 186.25 

Lumber, nails, glass, etc 77.15 

Hay and straw 179.37 

Music and wagon 68.00 

Postage, stationery, ribbons, etc 55.00 

All other contingent 360.60 

Total $2947.62 



Cash on hand, Jan. 11, 1879 $141.04 

Interest on Pearce mortgage for 1879 108.00 

Receipts from all other sources, 1879 2468.45— $2713.49 


Paid checks drawn upon treasury, 1879 2647.62 

Cash on hand, Jan. 10, 1880 65.87— $2713.49 


Treasury debtor, Jan. 10, 1880. 

Cashonhand $65.87 

Pearce note and mortgage, due April 6, 1880 1350.00 

Interest due on above, April 6, 1880 108.00 

Total assets $1523.87 

The society has, up to the present time (since the aban- 
donment of the old fair-grounds rented of Dr. Stark- 
weather), had the use (under lease) of the grounds of the 
National Horse Association. The need of suitable grounds, 
belonging to the society or the county, has long been felt, 
and the question of purchasing and fitting up some proper 
location has frequently come up for discussion. The build- 
ings belonging to the Horse Association (which held its 
last exhibition in 1867) have become almost unfit for use 
through wear and tear, and on the 11th of January, 1879, 
at the annual meeting of the society, a committee of three, 
consisting of Hon. H. G. Wells, chairman, Hon. James 
M. Neasmith, and Bradley S. Williams, was chosen to pre- 
pare a bill for the consideration of the Legislature to pro- 
vide for raising by tax upon the property of the county a 
sum not exceeding twenty thousand dollars for the pur- 
chase and fitting up of suitable grounds for the society. 

At a meeting of the Board of Supervisors held on the 
22d of October, 1879, a communication prepared by Mr. 
Little, secretary of the society, was presented to the board, 
asking that the question of raising a sufficient sum by tax 
for the purposes above stated be submitted to the people at 
the next annual election. The last two clauses of Mr. 
Little's communication are as follows : 

"We, therefore, having in view solely the public interest and an 
economical administration of public affairs, would respectfully request 
your honorable body to take under careful consideration the subject of 
purchasing grounds at the county-seat, to be the property of the county, 
that shall be adequate, and to be used for the purpose of holding 
agricultural fairs, and also for any and such other purposes, not in- 
compatible with the foregoing, as the public needs of the county may 
from time to time require, under the direction and control of the 
Board of Supervisors of Kalamazoo County. 

" To the end that the suggestions herein embodied may receive due 
attention, we would respectfully request a special reference of this 
subject to a select committee of your honorable body, to report at 
the regular meeting of your board in January next, so that, if so de- 
termined, a joint submission of such questions as may be deemed ad- 
visable and in conformity with statutes may be had at the next annual 
township elections to be held in this county." 

A special committee of three, consisting of Messrs. Hoyt, 
Lovell, and f)ouglass, was appointed to take the matter into 

The project is a very reasonable one and there can be 
no special objections to it, and the supervisors will probably 
allow the question to be submitted to the people. What 
they may conclude will be best known after the annual 

In this connection it is proper to remark that the/signal 
ability of Mr. Little as a manager and writer upon all sub- 
jects connected with the interests of this society has in no 
small degree tended to its upbuilding and prosperity. His 
extensive practical knowledge has been given to the ad- 
vancement of the cause in which he has been for many 
years a zealous laborer, and in his hands the system and 
order which characterize him in a remarkable degree have 
been brought to the highest degree of perfection, as amply 
manifested in the reports and records of the society. For 
several years Mr. Little's services have been secured and 
utilized by the American Millers' Association in the ca- 
pacity of secretary, and he is well known as an accom- 
plished officer and an able writer both in this country and 
England. Mr. Little is a native of St. Johnsbury, Vt., in 
which town he was born in 1823. 

At the annual meeting of the society, held at the court- 
house on the 10th of January, 1880, the following officers 
were elected for the ensuing year : President, W. L. Cur- 
tis ; Secretary, Frank Little ; Treasurer, James B. Cobb ; 
Executive Committee, C. E. Morrison, B. Vosburg, Orrin 
Snow, W. Judson. 

For Improving the Breed of Horses. 

This association was organized in 1858, under a general 
law of the State, and was composed of about one hundred 
gentlemen, mainly citizens of Kalamazoo and the county, 
though there were several prominent stockholders belong- 
ing in Detroit, Coldwater, and other places. 

Its purposes and designs were to encourage the people of 
Michigan, and, indirectly, those oiUhe whole country, in im 
proving the breeds of horses ; and, with this object in view, 
it furnished extraordinary inducements for bringing together 
and exhibiting every kind and grade of superior stock, stal- 
lions, brood-mares, matched teams, speed-horses, etc. 

The original stock of the association was ten thousand 
dollars, but an additional four thousand dollars was as- 
sessed upon the stock, making the working capital fourteen 
thousand dollars. Under the first regulations no man could 
hold more than one share, — one hundred dollars ; but sub- 
sequently it became necessary to change the by-laws, so as 
to allow an individual to hold ten shares. 

The first officers of the society were Hon. Charles E. 
Stuart, President; George F. Kidder, Secretary; and Wil- 
liam G. Pattison, Treasurer. Col. Stuart and Mr. Patti- 
son held their respective offices during the existence of the 
organization ; Mr. Kidder was succeeded, after a few years, 
as secretary by Or. H. Gale. The affairs of the society 
were managed by a board of directors. 

* Commonly known as the " National Horse Association." 



In 1857, previous to its organization, a number of gen- 
tlemen, afterwards connected with it, held a fair on the old 
grounds, and its success led to the subsequent organization 
of this society. In 1838 a tract of land containing sixty- 
four acres and a fraction, located on section 22, in the 
township of Kalamazoo, was purchased, principally of L. 
S. Evans, at one hundred dollars per acre. A few acres 
were bought of Alexander Cameron to make up the required 
amount. It was eligibly located and abundantly supplied 
with water, its western part lying along Portage Creek. 

The land cost a little over six thousand four hundred dol- 
lars, and the total working capital of fourteen thousand dollars 
was expended in improvements, including fences, buildings, 
etc., and the finest one-mile track in the Northwest. In ad- 
dition, all the surplus earnings were also expended in im- 

The society never united with the National Horse Asso- 
ciation, although many people have the impression that it 
did. Its premium-lists were very liberal, and no entrance 
fee was ever exacted of exhibitors ; while, except upon spe- 
cial occasions, when Flora Temple or some noted horse was 
present, only twenty-five cents admission fee was charged ; 
on the occasions spoken of, the amount was raised to fifty 
cents. With the exception of one or two years during the 
civil war, fairs were annually held, commencing with 1858 
and ending with 1867. During the war the grounds 
were occupied by the State military authorities for camp- 
grounds, etc. 

During the continuance of these great fairs people vis- 
ited Kalamazoo from all parts of the country, attracted by 
the liberal premiums offered and the fine display of stock 
which invariably was collected here. The most noted trot- 
ting-horses in the Union were among the attractions, and 
we may mention Flora Temple, Princess, P]than Allen, 
Dexter, and Goldsmith Maid, who were on the grounds at 
various times. It was here, in October, 1859, that Flora 
Temple made her greatest time, 2.19 f, which was then the 
best on record. On that occasion Princess was pitted 
against her. In order to get these famous horses to visit 
Kalamazoo, it became necessary to offer a special premium 
of two thousand dollars. The stockholders as a body ob- 
jected to this, and finally the officers made the arrangement 
that if they could have the proceeds of the fair on the days 
when the big trots came off, they would take the responsi- 
bility to offer the premium. To this proposition the stock- 
holders readily agreed. The result fully justified the ven- 
ture ; an immense crowd was in attendance, and the enthu- 
siasm was unbounded. The proceeds balanced all expenses 
and left a considerable surplus, which was expended in a 
grand supper at the Kalamazoo House, at which Col. Stuart 
presided, and where all who participated enjoyed themselves 
to the utmost. After this experience there was no trouble 
in getting the stockholders to sanction any reasonable ar- 
rangement to induce the famous trotters to visit their fairs. 

So far as was possible, the business of the association was 
conducted strictly upon honorable principles. No jockey- 
ing, pool-selling, or gambling was allowed on the grounds 
or in connection with the fairs, and no time-races were ever 
permitted. Every race or trot was graded by age, sex, and 

At these great fairs a large amount of stock changed 
hands, for people came long distances to purchase choice 
stock, and the gatherings were not only interesting to the 
lookers-on, but also profitable to stock-breeders and dealers. 
The total premiums usually varied in amounts from eight 
thousand to ten thousand dollars annually. The exhibi- 
tions were uniformly successful, both financially and other- 

With the guaranty of a continued success before them, 
the question very naturally arises, Why did the association 
not continue their annual exhibitions ? The plain answer 
is this : It was found to be impossible to control, for any 
considerable length of time, the tendency to make the busi- 
ness one of jockeying and gambling. Mr. Pattison states 
that among all the managers of noted horses who at va- 
rious times visited the grounds, he never knew but one who 
was willing to conduct a test of speed, or race, in an honest 
and straightforward way ; and it would appear that the 
entire business of trotting and racing was a gambling 
scheme on a grand scale. If ten thousand people assem- 
bled to see a trial of speed between Dexter and Ethan 
Allen, the strong probabilities were that one or both the 
horses would be "off" when brought to the score, and 
everybody would go home disgusted at the jockeying and 
fraud, which, for ulterior purposes, the " horse-men" 
seemed determined to practice. Knowing the inevitable 
outcome of the matter, the society, in the midst of a most 
successful career, sold out the entire property to Mr. T. C. 
Reed, for thirty thousand dollars, in 1870. The business 
had been so successfully managed that the entire net pro- 
ceeds of each share of one hundred dollars, upon the closing 
up of the society's affairs, exceeded four hundred dollars. 

Among the stockholders were the following gentlemen : 
G. H. Gale, W. G. Pattison, James A. Walter, S, G. Patti- 
son, Thomas L. Acker, S. S. Cobb, John Gray, L. L. Kid- 
der, J. K. Ward, L. Hull, S. Hubbard, W. B. Clark, John 
Parsons, J. P. Woodbury, D. Cabeau, John Parker, I. D. 
Bixby, W. A. Blanchard, B. M. Austin, E. 0. Humphrey, 
George W. Fish, W. A. Wood, J. C. Bassett, C. R. Bates, 
W. A. House, A. Noble, Charles E. Stuart, Benjamin 
Drake, W. H. De Yeo, A. Cameron, J. H. Downing, John 
F. Gilkey, John Dudgeon, H. Mower, P. C. Davis, Israel 
Kellogg, H. Arnold, J. B. Crippen, F. W. Curtenius, 
James Henry, C. S. Crittenden, A. Ferguson, L. S. Evans, 
L. W. Whitcomb, John Milham, W. B. Letts, George W. 
Winslow, E. H. Davis, T. F. Pickering, N. A. Balch, C. 
L. Cobb, Henry Gilbert, M. Shoemaker, George A. Good- 
ridge, Joseph Sill, Nelson Eldred, George F. Kidder, A. C. 
Balch, James Taylor, F. V. Smith, Stephen Eldred, E. T. 
Lovell, A. R. Balch, W. Beckwith, George W. Lovell, C. 
H. Brown, D. S. Walbridge, William Bair, H. F. Cock, F. 
E. Walbridge, S. R. Balch, E. L. Goodridge, F. E. Eldred, 
A. C. Fisk, E. N. Wilcox, J. Frakes, Hiram Ward, John 
A. Kendall, S. Earl, B. F. Axtell, William M. Burt, A. 
Healey, N. Root, F. Ransom, F. Henry. 

After the sale to Reed, that gentleman continued the an- 
nual exhibitions for two or three years. He paid enormous 
premiums, sometimes aggregating thirty thousand dollars 

* The fairs were held in the early days of October, and usually con- 
tinued through three or four days. 



in one year, and charged heavy entrance fees and one dol- 
lar for admittance to the grounds. He also joined the Na- 
tional Horse Association, and endeavored by every possible 
means to make the business successful, but after a few 
years discontinued his exhibitions. He still owns the 
grounds and appurtenances. 


The organization known as Patrons of Husbandry first 
took root in Kalamazoo County by the organization of Osh- 
temo Grange, No. 3, of Michigan, Nov. 26, 1872, in the 
township of Oshtemo, with Thomas Buekhout, Master, and 
C. L. King, Secretary. The organizing Deputy, J. C. 
Abbott, of Iowa, who held a commission from the National 
Grange, continuing his work, No. 4 was organized Novem- 
ber 27th, in Wakeshma, D. I. Fritz, Master, and H. Copley, 
Secretary ; No. 5 in Comstock, November 29th, C. B. 
Mitchell, Master, and Henry King, Secretary ; and No. 8 
in Schoolcraft, December 26th, S. F. Brown, Master, and 
V. C. Smith, Secretary. 

The work of organizing was renewed in 1873 by T. 
A. Thompson, Lecturer of the National Grange. Alamo 
Grange, No. 15, was organized by him March 26th, with 
J. S. Veley, Master, and Hiram Veley, Secretary ; and 
Portage Grange, No. 16, March 27th, with D. Cahill, Mas- 
ter, and C. F. Sheldon, Secretary. He then turned his at- 
tention to other places for a few days, returning in April. 
On the 14th he organized Galesburg Grange, No. 18, in 
the township of Comstock, with D. B. Hull, Master, and 
J. H. Hopkins, Secretary. 

Lecturer Thompson had authorized C. L. King, of Osh- 
temo Grange, to establish granges in the county, and on 
the 9th of April Summit Grange, No. 20, was organized 
by him, with II. T. Balch, Master, and A. C. Clapp, Sec- 
retary. Mr. Thompson was authorized, when the requisite 
number (fifteen) of subordinate granges had been estab- 
lished, to effect a State organization. As there were at that 
time more subordinate granges in Kalamazoo County than 
elsewhere in the State, the National Lecturer had issued a 
call for a convention of delegates from the subordinate 
granges of the State to be held in Kalamazoo on the 15th 
of April. In answer to the call, twenty representatives, 
from fourteen of the twenty granges then organized in the 
State, met at the court-house on the day designated, and 
commenced the work of organizing the State Grange of 

This work was perfected on the second day, and the State 
Grange officered as follows : S. F. Brown, of Schoolcraft, 
Grange No. 8, Master; Joseph Gillman, Paw Paw, Grange 
No. 10, Overseer ; H. H. Bruerton, Stockbridge, Grange 
No. 7, Lecturer ; B. W. Sweet, Eureka, Grange No. 2, 
Steward; R. Barnum, Unadilla, Grange No. 6, Assistant 
Steward ; C. L. King, Oshtemo, Grange No. 3, Chaplain ; 
J. T. Cobb, Schoolcraft, Grange No. 8, Secretary ; D. B. 
Hull, Galesburg, Grange No, 18, Treasurer ; C. B. Mitch- 
ell, Maple, Grange No. 5, Gate-Keeper ; Mrs. C. L. King, 
Oshtemo, Grange No. 3, Ceres ; Mrs. Samuel Langdon, 
Paris, Grange No. 19, Pomona; Mrs. D. Duncan, School- 
craft, Grange No. 8, Flora; Mrs. R. Barnum, Unadilla, 
Grange No. 6, L. A. S. Steward. 

The State Grange was incorporated in 1875, and by the 
act of incorporation the office of the secretary was made its 
place of business. 

As J. T. Cobb, its first secretary, elected in 1873, has 
continued to hold the office from that time, the State Grange 
of Michigan has been, de facto, an institution not merely 
of Kalamazoo County, but of the township of Schoolcraft, 
and hence we have assumed that a brief history of the order 
in Michigan might very properly have a place in this work. 
It will be observed that seven of the first officers of the 
State Grange belonged to Kalamazoo County ; and we may 
properly add to this number D. Duncan, Chairman of the 
Executive Committee, who was then and is now a resident 
of the township of Prairie Ronde. Four of the eight were 
also members of Schoolcraft Grange, No. 8. 

From this small beginning the order grew with such 
rapidity that at its first annual meeting at Kalamazoo, in 
January, 1874, nine months after it had taken on its State 
character, two hundred and eighteen granges had been es- 
tablished in the State, and one hundred and ninety-one 
were there represented by voting delegates, with large ad- 
ditions of visiting members of the order from different parts 
of the State. 

The next annual session was held at Grand Bapids in 
January, 1875, at which time the number of granges had 
increased to five hundred and sixty-seven, with a paying 
membership of twenty-eight thousand two hundred and 

This unexampled growth of the order, not only in Mich- 
igan but throughout the Union, was so unexpected by its 
founders that no constitutional provision had been made for 
lessening the representation from subordinate granges to 
the State Grange ; and as nearly all the granges in the State 
were represented by their Masters, and very largely by the 
wives of the Masters, who, in common with their husbands, 
are representatives, and clothed with equal legislative rights, 
this third session comprised a voting membership of nearly 
a thousand people, a body much too large for effective work. 
Before the fourth annual session the National Grange 
made provision for reducing representation to the State 
Grange, so that at this session, held in December, 1875, 
the body consisted of one hundred and eighty-five elected 
delegates, in addition to the State officers and executive 

This third session of the State Grange was held in the 
hall of the House of Representatives, in the city of Lansing, 
and was presided over by Hon. J. J. Woodman, who had 
succeeded the Hon. S. F. Brown in the Master's office in 
the election of State officers at the previous session. 

Each annual session after the third was held in the hall 
of the House, in the old capitol building, until the session 
of December, 1878, when the new capitol building, then 
nearly completed, was tendered to the executive committee 
by the Board of State Auditors of Michigan for the sixth 
session of the State Grange. 

Faithfully adhering to one of the prime articles of its fun- 
damental laws, it has kept aloof from politics, and was there- 
fore welcomed to the hall of the House of Representatives, 
in the new capitol, in December, 1878, by the Governor, 
Charles M. Croswell, and the several heads of the various 



departments of the State Government, as an organization 
of the farmers of the State who were accomplishing a good 
work in the elevation of the agricultural class to a higher 
plane in society. 

These favorable surroundings and this cordial recognition 
from the State officials, following so closely a similar recog- 
nition of the order by the President of the United States, 
who, in the preceding month of November, had by special 
messenger invited the members of the National Grange, 
then in session in Richmond, to call on him at the White 
House, was highly appreciated by the order, and served to 
give it a better standing and more prominence throughout 
the State. 

It has been customary for considerable numbers of the 
order who were not representatives to attend these annual 
sessions, and, made up as they have been of several hundred 
of the intelligent representative farmers of the State, with 
their wives, these annual gatherings have exerted an im- 
portant and salutary influence throughout the State. 

The order embraces within its membership men who 
have held and still hold prominent official positions in the 
State ; pioneers in its settlement, men and women of ripe 
experience, whose opportunities for knowing not only the 
wants and needs of our agricultural population but of all 
our people are ample, and who are second to no other class. 

In support of this assertion, we present a few names 
well known to those familiar with Michigan history. 

The Hon. Alonzo Sessions, an extensive farmer of Ionia 
County, and the present Lieutenant-Governor of the State, 
joined the order at an early day, was for two years on its 
executive board, and has given it a consistent, earnest sup- 
port. Hon. J. J. Woodman, Master of the State Grange, 
and holding the second office in the National Grange, was 
for four years. Speaker of the House of Representatives of 
Michigan. Hon. S. F. Brown, the first Master of the State 
Grange, is one of the oldest settlers of Schoolcraft township ; 
has remained an officer of the State Grange since the close 
of his official term as Master, holding the responsible office 
of treasurer. He, too, has rendered the State service in 
both branches of its Legislature. Hon. J. M. Neasmith, 
another Schoolcraft farmer, now serving his first term as 
State Land Commissioner. Hon. C. G. Luce, a wealthy 
farmer of Branch County, which he has repeatedly repre- 
sented in the State Legislature ; now State inspector of 
illuminating oils. Hon. J. Webster Childs, of Washtenaw 
County, for many years and still a member of the State 
Board of Agriculture. Hon. Thomas F. Moore, of Adrian, 
and Hon. Westbrook Divine, of Montcalm County, State 
Prison Inspectors. The two brothers, Henry and William 
Chamberlain, of Three Oaks, both men of experience in 
the State Legislature. Hon. Charles E. Mickley, of 
Adrain ; Hon. C. K. Carpenter, of Orion ; Hon. 0. H. 
Fellows, the present Master of Schoolcraft Grange; and 
last, but not least, Hon. F. M. Holloway, Chairman of the 
Executive Committee of the State Grange. 

Many other names might be added to this list, but the 
local character of this work would perhaps not justify more 
particulars in this connection. 

It seems, however, in place to briefly refer to the work 
accomplished by the order in Michigan. As a State organ- 

ization it has sustained its official relationship to the National 
Grange, and promptly discharged every obligation to every 
person, association, or interest with which it has had busi- 
ness relations. 

It has, by persistent and well-directed effort, broken a 
combination of manufacturers of land plaster (which boasted 
in 1874 of having a million dollars of capital so invested, 
and an organization so complete, that all farmers must buy 
through their agents, and pay at the rate of four dollars 
per ton at the mill), and reduced the price, not only to 
patrons, but to all farmers of the State, from four dollars to 
less than two dollars per ton, thus saving to the agricultural 
interests of the State during the last three years not less 
than sixty thousand dollars annually. 

It has, through a " Mutual Defense Association," organ- 
ized by members of the order, defeated in the United States 
court the claims for royalty on the slide gate, made by a 
band of sharpers organized to levy tribute from every 
farmer in the State. 

Before measures were taken to resist by combined means 
this raid upon .the pockets of the farmers, these impudent 
plunderers had filched several thousand dollars from the 
farmers of the eastern part of the State. 

This co-operative effort at self-protection has not only 
saved in this one thing thousands of dollars to the farmers 
of Michigan, and relieved them from the annoyance and 
irritation to which every man is subjected that is assailed 
by this class of plunderers, but has proved of great advan- 
tage by deterring that class from renewing at once an attack 
upon the grangers of Michigan for the use of some article 
covered or alleged to be covered by patents. 

It has stimulated inquiry, made large numbers of farmers 
more familiar with the cost of all classes of articles used 
by them and their families, and enabled them to co-operate 
and thereby realize more in quality or quantity when 
making purchases. It has built or rented Grange Halls, 
where farmers and their families congregate regularly for 
social enjoyment and educational improvement, and by the 
practical lessons taught in the mere work of carrying on 
the organization has made many a man a fair parliament- 
arian, while it has broadened and increased the common 
intelligence of all who have participated in the work of the 

It has, in short, to some extent, carried out the prime 
objects had in view by the founders of the order, " by de- 
veloping a better and higher manhood and womanhood 
among farmers, and enhancing the attractions and comforts 
of their homes. It has fostered mutual understanding and 
co-operation, and labored to hasten the good time coming. 
It has discountenanced the credit system, the mortgage 
system, and every other system tending to prodigality and 

It has established and sustained a journal devoted to the 
work of the order, which has a circulation of nearly forty- 
five hundred copies, and a subscription-list which from the 
first has constantly increased. 

The first number of the Grange Visitor was issued in 
April, 1875, by direction of the executive committee of the 
State Grange, and its management committed to the Master 
and secretary. 



It was first issued monthly, but before the third volume 
was completed it was enlarged and issued semi-monthly, 
and its entire management committed to J. T. Cobb, Sec- 
retary, from whose office it has been regularly issued since 
it was first established. It has, in fact, become an important 
part of the machinery of the order in this State, and seems 
to be doing its full share of the work which the grange or- 
ganization has undertaken. 

At the December session of the State Grange, in 1879, 
it was ordered that the Grange Visitor be enlarged, which 
was immediately carried out, and the paper made fifty per 
cent, larger than before, and greatly improved in many 

Although the order in the State is strong and in good 
condition, yet, like all voluntary associations, individual 
members sometimes weaken, and individual organizations 
lose vigor for a time, and then revive under some renewing 
influence ; or, perchance, lose first their vigor, then their 
vitality, and, lastly, even life itself. So it has been with 
some of the granges in Kalamazoo County : Nos. 3, 4, 5, 
19, and 20 have failed to keep alive their several organiza- 

All the others are in good standing, and were officered with 
Master and Secretary, in 1879, as follows : No. 8, School- 
craft, 0. H. Fellows, Master, and Anne Fellows, Secretary ; 
No. 11, Eureka, Isaac Birdsell, Master, and L. A. Sterne, 
Secretary ; No. 16, Portage, Harvey Booth, Master, and 
Frederick Cox, Secretary; No. 18, Galesburg, H. Dale 
Adams, Master, and Z. C. Durkee, Secretary ; No. 21, 
Arcadia, 11. F. James, Master, and B. M. Thomas, Secre- 
tary ; No. 24, Ross, H. F. Johnson, Master, and C. L. 
Young, Secretary; No. 49, Montern,* Adam Haas, Master, 
and Adelbert Forbush, Secretary; No. 61, Brady, Albert 
Judson, Master, and Charles Clowes, Secretary ; No. 72, 
Climax, F. Hodgman, Master, and Nancy McAllister, Sec- 
retary ; No. 171, Texas, L. P. Stafford, Master, and L. B. 
Kinney, Secretary; No. 203, Charleston, William Allison, 
Master, and Daniel Lawler, Secretary. 


A County Bible Society seems to have been in existence 
as early as 1831, for the records go back to January 9th 
of that year, when Edwin Kellogg was treasurer, f 

The transactions were necessarily small, for there were 
very few inhabitants then within the limits of the county. 

On the 8th of July, 1831, there is an account of seventy- 
eight " Nonpareil Duodecimo" volumes received from the 
American Bible Society, valued at thirty-nine dollars, or 
fifty cents apiece. 

On the 16th of September, 1832, the Kalamazoo Bible 

* Montour ? 

f The published reports of the American Bible Society for 1831 
show that in the fall of 1830, Rev. George B. Davis was sent to the 
Territory of Michigan, and that during the following severe winter 
he visited every county in the Territory, and formed auxiliary socie- 
ties in most of them, and the report of 1831 mentions one in Kala- 
mazoo County, Thomas W. Merrill, of Prairie Ronde, being its sec- 
retary. For some years the supplies were procured through the 
agency at Detroit. In 1837 the American Bible Society reports three 
hundred Bibles and Testaments supplied gratuitously from its estab- 

Society purchased one hundred Bibles of various sizes, the 
total, with package, amountiug to forty-four dollars and 
fifty cents. 

Among the early names of patrons we find the following 
in 1832 : Alonzo Vanduzer, Joseph Bair, Christopher Bair, 
John B. Youmans, Mrs. Bucklin, Joseph Downs, James 
Dycus, William Robinson, Alexander Leslie, James Arm- 
strong, Joseph Fraikes, Erastus Tisdall. 

In 1836, S. Woodbury, William Jones, M. Hey denburk, 
Simeon Mills, L. H. Trask, T. W. Merrill, Isaac Briggs, 
James Porter, John Burns, Jeremiah Hall, Mrs. Woodbury, 
Mrs. Gilbert, Miss Case, Miss Warner, Mrs. Trask, Mrs. 
Heydenburk, J. Winslow, William Taylor, E. Ransom. 

In 1836, Dr. John Winslow was treasurer of the Society, 
and in 1837, Rev, Luke Lyons; in 1841, David Swayze ; 
and in 1845, T. P. Shelden. From Feb. 24, 1845, to 
Jan. 24, 1846, Mr. Sheldon's account with the society foots 
up two hundred and twenty-seven dollars and forty-eight 
cents. Among the additional names on his list are N. A. 
Balch, A. T. Prouty, Wheaton, Grimes & Gibbs, A. H. 

Edwards, Stephen Vickery, T. W. Dunham, Dunning, 

and others. 

In 1846 the name of D. A. McNair appears as treasurer, 
and continues until Oct. 17, 1853. Daring his term of 
office the transactions largely increased, the total for the 
whole time, July 22, 1846, to Oct. 17, 1853, amounting, 
as shown by the books, to about $2000. 

The transactions of the society since 1855, as shown by 
the treasurer's books, have been approximately as follows 
1855, $216.31; 1856-57, $251.36; 1857-59, $280.66 
1860, $600; 1861, $380; 1862, $300 ; 1863, $357.46 
1864, $566.03; 1865, $570; 1866, $962.40; 1867 
$678.03; 1868, $602.84; 1869, $700; 1870, $256.46 
1871, $195.62; 1872, $298.73; 1873, $250.71; 1874 : 
$287.70; 1875, $536.33 ; 1876, $323.77 ; 1877, $216.84 
1878, $204.60 ; 1879, $238.17. The total from 1831 to 
1880 approximates $12,000. 

The old society was reorganized in 1841, with Hon. L. 
F. Stevens, President, and Rev. Richards, Secretary. 

Again, in 1850, it was reorganized and placed upon a 
more permanent foundation. The county was canvassed at 
irregular intervals from 1831 to about 1860, when an 
attempt was made to have a thorough canvass once every 
year, and this was carried out for a few years. Recent 
canvasses have been about as follows: 1865-66, by Mr. 
Ellers; 1867, by Mr. George; 1869-70, by Deacon W. 
Mills ; 1875, by Rev. Philetus Montague. 

Officers. — The officers of the society, since its organiza- 
tion in 1850, have been as follows: 

Presidents. — Beginning with 1849, Rev. Wm. C. Den- 
man ; 1850, Rev. A. S. Kedzie; 1851, Rev. C. A. Bruce; 
1852, N. A. Balch; 1854, L. H. Trask; 1856, N. A. 
Balch; 1857, Judge Webster; 1859, J. A. Allen, M.D. ; 
1860, Wm. Burtt; 1861-62, L. H. Trask; 1863, E. R. 
Miller; 1864, H. Montague; 1865, President Gregory ; J 
1866-69, L. H. Trask; 1870-74, H. Montague; 1875- 
80, L. H. Trask. 

Vice-Presidents. — 1850, David Swayze; 1851, Samuel 

\ President of the Illinois Industrial University. 



Goodale ; 1852, M. Heydenburk ; 1854, A. Ransom ; 1856 
D. B. Webster; 1857, G. W.Ryder; 1859, H. Montague 
1860, T. R. Sherwood; 1861-62, H. Montague; 1863 
Wm. Brooks; 1864, Moses Colton ; 1865, Willard Mills 
1866, E. R. Miller; 1867, Philip D. Miller; 1868-69, C, 
W. Hall ; 1870-73, C. R. Brown ; 1874, L. H. Trask 
1875-80, H. Montague. 

Secretaries.— 1850, N. A. Balch ; 1851-52, L. H. Trask ; 
1854, S. W. Walker; 1856, J. 0. Seely ; 1857-67, G. H. 
Lyman ; 1868-80, M. B. Miller. 

Treasurers. — Commencing with 1831, Edwin Kellogg; 
1836, Dr. John Winslow ; 1837, Rev. Luke Lyons ; 1841- 
44, David Swayze ; 1845, T. P. Sheldon ; 1846-55, D. A. 
McNair; 1855-56, A. P. White; 1857, D. A. McNair; 
1857-62, J. O. Seely; 1863-80, D. O. Roberts. 

Depositary.— 1856, G. W. Ryder; 1857-80, D. O. 


This society, composed of members of the various evan- 
gelical denominations, was organized at Kalamazoo, May 7, 
1856. The officers are a president, a vice-president for 
each township in the county, a secretary, treasurer, and an 
executive committee. The officers and pastors of the va- 
rious churches in Kalamazoo, being ex-officio members of 
the committee, co-operate in the work of the association. 

Its meetings are held annually, usually at Kalamazoo, on 
the third Wednesday of October, for the election of officers 
and the transaction of such business as may come before 
them. At the meetings, reports are made by the vice- 
president, and other Sabbath-school workers, of the work 
done and the condition and progress of the schools through- 
out the county, and statistical matters from any school in 
the county are expected to be furnished. The executive 
committee, soon after each annual meeting, divide the va- 
rious townships among them to be looked after, each be- 
coming responsible for his share of the work, and co-opera- 
ting with the vice-presidents. Previous to 1872 these 
officers worked in direct connection with the schools of the 
county. In the last-named year, believing that the Sab- 
bath-school cause would be greatly promoted by having an 
organization in each township, the president and secretary 
commenced the work of forming them, and completed it in 
1874, each township having been supplied with an organi- 
zation similar to the county association, so far as applicable 
to townships. Since this arrangement was consummated 
the township associations have become responsible for the 
work in their respective jurisdictions. The officers of the 
county association co-operate with these as far as practi- 
cable, the president and secretary exercising a general su- 
pervision of the work. 


Presidents.— 1856, N. A. Balch ; 1857, Rev. S. Has- 
kell ; 1858, Henry Montague; 1859, Rev. J. A. B. 
Stone; 1860, Dr. Foster Pratt; 1861, Rev. E. Taylor; 
1862, L. H. Trask; 1863, E. R. Miller; 1864, Professor 
D. Putnam and S. W. Walker; 1865, H. Montague-; 1866, 
L. H. Trask ; 1867, C. D. Hanscomb ; 1868, C. H. Booth ; 
1869, H. C. Briggs; 1870, D. 0. Roberts; 1871, M. B. 
Miller; 1872-73, Merritt Moore; 1874-75, Hon. G. M. 

Buck; 1876, L. H. Trask; 1877-78, J. A. Seely; 1879 
-80, H. C. Briggs. 

Secretaries.— 1856-62, Edward Olney ; 1863-65, P. L. 
Haines; 1866-67, D. 0. Roberts; 1868, C. S. Montague; 
1869, J. H. White; 1870, Merritt Moore; 1871, G. H. 
Lyman ; 1872-73, M. B. Miller ; 1874, Francis Coleman ; 
1875-76, Professor H. A. Ford; 1877-79, M. B. Miller. 

Treasurers.— 1856-62, S. W. Walker; 1863, Henry 
Wood ; 1864-68, F. W. Wilcox ; 1869-71, E. J. Phelps ; 
1872-80, D. 0. Roberts. 


The first association for insurance purposes within the 
county was that of the Kalamazoo Mutual Insurance Com- 
pany, incorporated by the Territorial Legislature on the 7th 
of March, 1834. The original incorporators were James 
Smith, Jr., Cyren Burdick, Thaddeus Smith, Jr., E. L. 
Brown, William Duncan, Lyman I. Daniels, James A. 
Smith, Albert E. Bull,* Johnson Patrick, Titus Bronson, 
and associates. It was chartered for twenty years. This 
company advertised extensively in the Gazette, and had 
offices, among other places, at Detroit, Monroe, Pontiac, 
Lapeer, Ann Arbor, Jacksonburg (Jackson), Marshall, 
White Pigeon, Schoolcraft, Comstock, Romeo, Battle Creek, 
and Kalamazoo. 

Cyren Burdick was secretary for a number of years, and 
Zephaniah Piatt succeeded him July 5, 1837, and con- 
tinued until 1840, when A. T. Prouty succeeded him, and 
continued till the company withdrew from business. In 
1841 the company was reorganized under an amended 
charter, and at the annual meeting held at Kalamazoo, on 
the 5th of May in that year, the following gentlemen were 
chosen directors for one, two, and three years : For three 
years, E. Lakin Brown, William H. Welsh, Thomas J. 
Hulbert, Jona. G. Abbott, of Kalamazoo ; Henry Smith, of 
Monroe ; Stillman Blanchard, of Tecumseh ; Warren Hill, 
of Detroit. 

For two years : Abram Edwards, Hosea B. Huston, 
Frederick W. Curtenius, Isaac Moffatt, Jr., of Kalamazoo; 
Jacob Beeson, of Niles ; Melancthon Judson, of White 
Pigeon ; George Sedgwick, of Ann Arbor. 

For one year : Luther H. Trask, Amariah T. Prouty, 
Roswell Ransom, Hezekiah G. Wells, of Kalamazoo ; Sid- 
ney S. Alcott, of Marshall; Francis Darrow, of Pontiac; 
Merrick C. Hough, of Jackson. 

Officers : Abram Edwards, President ; Luther H. Trask, 
Vice-President ; Amariah T. Prouty, Secretary ; Jonathan 
G. Abbott, Treasurer; William H. Welsh, Attorney and 

Its sphere of operations was considerably enlarged at 
this time, and its business seems to have been in all parts 
of the State. 

On the 25th of May, following the last-named election, 
Amos Brownson, former treasurer, published a lengthy 
communication in the Kalamazoo Gazette, denouncing the 
whole proceedings as a fraud, and the article was copied in 
the papers of the State. 

H. B. Huston, one of the directors, replied to this in 
the next issue of the Gazette, denying Mr. Brownson's 

* This name may be Buell. 



statements, and Mr. Brownson appears soon after with a 
rejoinder, and Col. Huston closed the controversy on the 
25th of June following. 

A very full report was made by the secretary on the 4th 
of January, 1843, by which it appeared that during the 
eight years in which it had been doing business its stock- 
holders had been assessed thirty-five per cent., and this was 
increased in the same year by seven per cent, additional, 
making forty-two per cent. The total number of policies 
issued to Jan. 4, 1843, was 1665. That amount covered 
82,120,394. Total losses paid in 1842, $11,349.31. Busi- 
ness transacted in thirty counties of the State. 

The Farmers' Mutual Insurance Company of Kalama- 
zoo County was organized Feb. 17, 1863, by the following 
corporators: John Milham, Isaac Cox, Samuel Crooks, 
Joseph Beckley, Ezra Carpenter, Albert Latta, William 
Trumble, and Moses Kingsley. The first election for offi- 
cers was held at the court-house in Kalamazoo, on the 4th 
day of July, 1863, at which time the following gentlemen 
were elected : John Milham, President ; Augustus H. Hill, 
Vice-President ; Moses Kingsley, Secretary and Treasurer. 
Directors: John Milham, Moses Kingsley, Isaac Cox. 

Mr. Milham served as president until 1879, when he re- 
signed on account of ill health. Mr. Kingsley has held the 
offices of secretary and treasurer since its organization. 
The present officers are William H. Cobb, President ; Eli 
B. Miller, Vice-President ; Moses Kingsley, Secretary and 
Treasurer ; William H. Cobb, Moses Kingsley, Orrin Snow, 
Willis Judson, and Bernard Vosburg, Directors. 

Capital, Jan. 1, 1880, $4,593,745 ; number of members, 
1666 ; losses paid in seventeen years, $50,565.84. Average 
cost per annum of insurance, one-eighth of one per cent. 

The Citizens' Mutual Fire Insurance Company of Kala- 
mazoo County was organized Feb. 3, 1874, by the follow- 
ing corporators: F. W. Curtenius, B. S. Babcock, B. M. 
Austin, H. 0. Hitchcock, T. S. Cobb, E. 0. Humphrey, 
Henry Bishop, J. B. Wyckoff, H. G. Wells, Moses Kings- 
ley, L. C. Chapin, and Martin Willson. The first election 
for directors was held at the court-house in Kalamazoo, 
April 20, 1874, which resulted in the choice of the follow- 
ing gentlemen : F. W. Curtenius, H. 0. Hitchcock, E. 0. 
Humphrey, L. C. Chapin, T. S. Cobb, B. S. Babcock, 
Moses Kingsley. 

At the organization of the board, B. S. Babcock was 
elected President, and Moses Kingsley, Secretary and 
Treasurer. The following were elected directors Jan. 14, 
1880 : H. G. Wells, Moses Kingsley, F. W. Curtenius, B. 
S. Babcock, George E. Curtis, E. 0. Humphrey, H. W. 
Page; H. G. Wells, President; Moses Kingsley, Secre- 
tary and Treasurer ; D. T. Allen, Special Agent and Can- 

Capital, Jan. 1, 1880, $725,425 ; number of members, 
529 ; amount of losses paid in six years, $5786.22. 


The Pioneer Society of Kalamazoo County was organ- 
ized on the 30th day of May, 1871, at a meeting held at 
Corporation Hall, in Kalamazoo, pursuant to a previous 
published notice. The meeting was called to order by 
Wm. G. Dewing, who stated briefly the objects of the meet- 

ing, and on his motion Nathaniel A. Balch was called to the 
chair, and Amos D. Allen appointed secretary. 

Bemarks were made by several persons, and the follow- 
ing persons were appointed a committee to submit a plan 
of organization : Wm. G. Dewing, Alexander Cameron, 
Frederick W. Curtenius, Henry Gilbert, and George W. 

On the same evening the committee submitted the fol- 
lowing articles of association, and the same were adopted, 
viz. : 

" We, the subscribers, desiring to promote a more cordial and fra- 
ternal regard amongst our rapidly-decreasing number, and for the 
purpose of preserving the annals of the settlement of Kalamazoo 
County, and other objects, do hereby pledge our best endeavors for the 
furtherance of the above objects, and subscribe our names to the follow- 
ing constitution : 

" Article 1. The society shall be known as the Pioneer Society of 

" Article 2. The officers shall consist of a president, two vice-pres- 
idents, secretary, treasurer, executive committee of five members, and 
a historical committee of three, who shall perform the duties usually 
pertaining to such offices. 

" Article 3. The above-named officers shall be elected by ballot, 
after the first election, at the annual meeting to be held each and 
every year, on the first Monday in June, and due notice of such meet- 
ing shall be published by the secretary. 

" Article 4. It shall be the duty of the secretary to keep a faithful 
record of the proceedings of this society, and as far as practicable to 
arrest from oblivion such other facts and reminiscences of the early 
settlement of the county as he may collect. 

"Article 5. Any adult resident of Kalamazoo County previous to 
the 1st of July, 1840, and now residing in township of Kalamazoo, 
may become a member. 

" Article 6. This constitution may be amended at any annual 
meeting by a two-thirds vote of all the members present/' 

The following persons were appointed a committee to 
recommend the names of officers, such committee to report 
at an adjourned meeting to be held on the 5th of June, 
viz. : Alexander Cameron, Theodore P. Sheldon, and 
Henry Little. And on the 5th of June, 1871, Mr. Cam- 
eron, from said committee, made report, and the following 
persons were elected to the several offices named, viz. : 

Nathaniel A. Balch, President; Caleb Sweetland, Israel 
Kellogg, Vice-Presidents ; Amos D. Allen, Secretary ; Theo- 
dore P. Sheldon, Treasurer : Wm. G. Dewing, George W. 
Winslow, Samuel H. Ransom, Frederick W. Curtenius, 
Bradley S. Williams, Executive Committee ; Hezekiah G. 
Wells, Volney Hascail, Marsh Giddings, Historical Com- 

The executive committee were instructed to consider and 
perfect a plan for a celebration of the 4th of July. And 
said committee, after considering the subject, concluded to 
have the first meeting of the association a basket picnic, 
and on the 29th day of July, 1871, the first meeting of the 
association was held in the National Horse Association 
Park in Kalamazoo. There was a large number of pioneers 
present, and they had a very enjoyable time. 

The officers of the association elected in 1871 held over 
through 1872, and the next gathering of the association 
was held on the 1st day of September, 1 872, at the same 
place as the former one. 

On the 2d of June, 1873, the following persons were 
elected officers of the association, who were continued in 
office until July 17, 1875, to wit: Alexander Cameron, 



President; Israel Kellogg, Caleb Sweetland, Vice-Presi- 
dents ; George Torry, Secretary ; Henry Bishop, Treasurer ; 
Amos D. Allen, George W. Winslow, Samuel H. Ransom, 
Frederick W. Curtenius, Bradley S. Williams, Executive 
Committee; Henry Little, H. G. Wells, Yolney Hascall, 
Historical Committee. 

The by-laws of the association were amended so that 
article five reads as follows : 

" Article 5. Any adult resident of Kalamazoo County 
previous to the 1st of July, 1843, and now residing in the 
county of Kalamazoo, may become a member." 

The third annual meeting was a basket picnic, held at 
Schoolcraft on the 21st day of August, 1873. 

The fourth annual meeting was held at Galesburg, on 
the 1st day of September, 1874. 

On the 17th of July, 1875, the following persons were 
elected officers of the association, to wit : Hezekiah G. 
Wells, President ; Henry Bishop, Vice-President ; Frank 
Little, Secretary ; Henry Bishop, Treasurer ; William G. 
Dewing, Eli R. Miller, Wm. Bair, Henry Gilbert, A. D. 
P. Van Buren, Executive Committee ; E. Lakin Brown, 
Henry Little, A. D. P. Van Buren, Historical Committee. 

The fifth annual meeting of the association was held at 
Vicksburg, on the 12th day of August, 1875. 

On the 12th day of January, 1876, the following per- 
sons were elected officers of the association, to wit : Heze- 
kiah G. Wells, President ; Henry Bishop, Vice-President ; 
Amos D. Allen, Secretary ; Henry Bishop, Treasurer ; Al- 
exander Cameron, David Fisher, William Bair, Eli R. 
Miller, William G. Dewing, Executive Committee; His- 
torical Committee, same as in 1875. 

The sixth annual meeting was a basket picnic, held in 
the public park on the 31st day of August, 1876. 

The officers elected in 1876 were continued in office until 
the 4th day of June, 1879. 

The seventh annual meeting was a basket picnic, held at 
Augusta on the 6th day of September, 1877. 

The eighth annual meeting was also held at Augusta on 
the 9th of September, 1878. 

On the 4th day of June, 1879, the following persons 
were elected officers of the association, to wit : Stephen F. 
Brown, President ; William G. Dewing, Julius Hackley, 
Vice-Presidents ; Henry Bishop, Treasurer ; Amos D. Al- 
len, Secretary ; Jerome T. Cobb, Russell Bishop, George 
Brown, George Torry, Alexander Cameron, Executive Com- 
mittee ; A. D. P. Van Buren, George Torry, and William 
Bair, Historical Committee. 

The ninth annual meeting of the association was held on 
the 14th day of August, 1879, at Schoolcraft. 

Names. Date of birth. Names. Date of birth. 

L. J. Fox 

Henry Bishop.. 1813 

Rockwell May 1799 

Gilbert E. Reed 1822 

Jonathan G. Abbott 1802 

Julius Hackley 1808 

Edwin M. Clapp 1805 

Benjamin F. Smith 1804 

Isaac Moffatt 1791 

Caleb Sweetland 1802 

Geo. W. Winslow* 1809 

James I. Robe 1808 

Henry Little 1797 

Ruth Little 1801 

Wm. H. Harrison 1819 

Frank Little 1823 

Nathan M. Thomas 1803 

L. D. Fox 1811 

William Bair 1815 

E. Lakin Brown 1809 

J. A. B.Stone 

Eli R. Miller 1818 

George Torrey 

James Taylor 1812 

* Deceased. 

Names. Date of birth. 

Charles E. Stuart 1810 

Amos D. Allen 1815 

Hezekiah G. Wells 1812 

John F. Oliver 1820 

Wm. B. Clark* 1804 

Bazel Harrison, Jr 1812 

David Fisher 1827 

M.L.Hill 1812 

Solomon Forbes 1816 

Zachariah Fletcher 1828 

Henry Gilbert 1810 

A. D. P. Van Buren 1822 

Jesse Earl 1805 

Silas Hubbard 1812 

S. F. Brown 1819 

I. P.Sheldon 1810 

John S. Harrison 1820 

Peter Oman 1813 

Elias Ranson* 1798 

Abner Burson 1803 

Hiram Arnold 1808 

Hiram L T nderwood 1817 

James Campbell 1808 

Thaddeus Smith* 1798 

Geo. W. Kennicott 1810 

William Harrison 1790 

Geo. C. Crose 1823 

Abraham Deal..* 1831 

Jane Ann Sparks 1818 

Alex. Stewart 1816 

N. S. Woolverton 1816 

Joseph Frakes 1800 

George Patterson 1803 

Mary B. Crose 1826 

Elizabeth M. Yetter 1834 

Calista Hicks 1829 

Delamore Duncan 1839 

John H. Moss* 1811 

James Wilson 1810 

Martin Heydenburk 1798" 

Bazel Harrison* 1771 

Evart B. Dyckman 1800 

Preston J. McCrany 1805 

John Brown* 1791 

Abner Mack 1795 

Robert Purse] 1799 

Godfrey Knight 1790 

Asa Fitch* 1788 

Erastus Williams* 1809 

George Nisbitt 1807 

Alex. Cameron 1813 

A. H. Proctor 1820 

James Armstrong* 1788 

Samuel C. Davis 1790 

Names. Date of birth. 

Isaac Mason 1798 

Alfred Thomas* 1811 

Charles E. Smith 1824 

Margaret L. Smith 1829 

Neal Hindes* 1798 

Frederick Bush 1832 

A.Louisa Bush 

Valentine C. Smith 1809 

Clark Harrison 1829 

A. S.Parker 1805 

Russell Bishop 1813 

0. H. Fellows 1820 

A. B. Judson 1819 

Lewis C. Kimble 1815 

Minton Bradley 1812 

Martin Wilson 1794 

William Dey Armond 1824 

Lewis C. Starkey 1830 

Win. S. Harkney 1820 

Jerome T.Cobb 1821 

James H. Bates 1826 

Calvin C.White 1803 

Thomas C. Brownell* 1812 

A. K. Burson 1809 

Gilbert Stuart 1830 

Willis Judson 1826 

John Baker 1814 

William A. Wood 1828 

William G. Pattison 1822 

F. W. Curtenius 1806 

L. L. Clark 1816 

Henry E.Hoyt 1828 

Moses Kingsley 1810 

Enos T. Lovell 1821 

JohnE. Mills 1813 

Owen P. Morton 1831 

James P. Corning 1817 

Wm. G. Dewing 1809 

Duncan Anderson 1815 

E. A. Bissell 1823 

Henry P. Smith 1826 

David Ingersoll 1816 

Peter Kniss 1808 

Rodney Seymour 1806 

Allen Potter 1818 

H. Dale Adams 1828 

Jonathan Sidler 1822 

Benjamin Cooley 1822 

Frederick Cellem 1838 

M. Freeman 1799 

N. A.Balch 1808 

Oliver C. Hill 1803 

Jesse W. Turner 1799 



Acts of Congress — Territorial and State Legislation — The School 
System of Michigan — The Michigan and Huron Institute — Kala- 
mazoo College — Kalamazoo Branch of the State University — Aca- 

As early as 1785 the Congress of the United States 
made liberal provision for the education of the masses. In 
that year, under an act establishing the new system of sur- 
veys by townships and sections, the sixteenth section of 
every township was set apart for the use and benefit of 
public schools. 

The ordinance of 1787, for the government of the 
Northwest Territory, reiterated the provisions of this act, 
and it was made a part of the act of 1804 for the disposal 
of public lands. 

According to Judge Campbell, the earliest school law of 
Michigan was passed by the Legislative Council in 1809, 
but it does not appear of record, having probably been de- 
stroyed during the occupation by the British in 1812-13. 



The University of Michigan was created by an act passed 
Aug. 26, 1817. 

The earliest school law which was put in operation was 
enacted in 1827, when Gen. Cass was Governor of the 
Territory. This act provided that the citizens of any town- 
ship having fifty householders should provide themselves a 
schoolmaster of good morals to teach the children to read 
and write. Any township containing as many as two hun- 
dred householders must have a schoolmaster who under- 
stood Latin, French, and English. Six years later this act 
was repealed and another passed; providing for three com- 
missioners and ten inspectors. It also created the office of 
superintendent of common schools, but there is no recorded 
evidence that it was ever occupied. 

The first State constitution provided for a superintend- 
ent of public instruction, and under this law Rev. John D. 
Pierce was appointed superintendent in 1836.* The law 
was the work of Hon. Samuel E. Crary and Mr. Pierce. 
Gen. Crary was a delegate to the convention which framed 
the constitution, and chairman of the committee on educa- 
tion. He was soon after elected to Congress. 

At the request of the Legislature, Mr. Pierce prepared 
plans for the organization and support of primary schools, 
for a university with branches, and for the proper disposi- 
tion of the university and primary school lands. 

A most important item in the general disposition of the 
school lands was owing to the good sense of Gen. Crary. 
While in Congress he secured the passage of the act giving 
the State exclusive control of the sixteenth section in every 
township, the proceeds to be included in a general fund 
arising from sales of these lands, so that every township in 
the State should receive, pro rata, its j ust proportion of 
the fund. This was a wise provision, for in many town- 
ships the sixteenth section was comparatively or wholly 
valueless by reason of being located in swamps or under 
the waters of the numerous lakes for which the State is so 
remarkable. Even the sections which were situated on 
dry land varied greatly in value, but under Gen. Crary's 
wise provision each township received its just proportion 
of the school fund. In this respect Michigan possesses 
advantages over any other State. 

The following incident in the history of education in 
Michigan is related by Rev. Dr. Fitch, of Detroit, and 
shows how narrowly the State University escaped being 
wrecked by designing parties : 

" The Governor, Stevens T. Mason, was said to be, when he took 
the reins of State, not twenty-one years of age, unless his mother 
told the truth, who said he was, and, as she was sister to the then 
Postmaster-General, she was supposed to be correctly posted. Michi- 
gan never had cause to raise the question of his age. He filled the 
State offices with young men, it is true, not as in child's play, but 
with manly discretion. Were I to name the survivors who are yet 
among us, it might not seem true that the State officers were then 
young men. When Stevens T. Mason died, yet comparatively a boy, 
a man died. An illustration of one manly deed : Congress had appro- 
priated to the State lands for a university and other schools. These 
were selected with such care that their minimum price was fixed at 
twenty-six dollars per acre, whilst other government lands could be 
had for one dollar and a quarter. Squatters settled down upon the 
choice lands, and then combined and got a pledge from their candi- 
dates for the Legislature that they would favor a law to let squatters 
have these university lands, valued at twenty -six dollars, at the price 

* His appointment was upon the recommendation of Gen. Crary. 

of government lands, and let the university go again into the woods 
and take other lands worth only one dollar and a quarter. The State 
capitol was then in Detroit. I happened to be in the house when this 
piratical bill was proposed in an insidious shape. I saw what was in 
the wind, and addressed a note to Senator Olney Hawkins, of Ann 
Arbor, a stranger, calling his attention to this finely concocted scheme. 
But the trap was sprung, the bill was passed. Senator Hawkins has- 
tened to the Governor and opened his eyes to the villainy that was 
being perpetrated. Though Mr. Hawkins was a decided Whig and 
in a minority, the Governor a Democrat, and the bill* concocted 
by his supporters, he promptly and manfully vetoed it. The public 
was astounded at the danger averted. These legislators privately 
thanked the Governor for vetoing the iniquitous bill, which they 
voted for against their consciences, only because they were under a 
pledge. So near did the magnificent university of Michigan come to 
being robbed and strangled, even before it came to the birth. Thanks 
to Governor Mason's veto, which put on the brakes as the university 
train was about to plunge into the chasm of destruction. This is one 
sample of the kind of guardianship with which Providence has 
watched over this highly favored and prosperous university from the 

The branches of the university were established in 
1837-38, — the first, at Pontiac. The others were located 
at Detroit, Niles, Tecumseh, White Pigeon, Romeo, and 
Kalamazoo. The branch system was found not to be as 
valuable or feasible as expected, and was afterwards aban- 
doned.f The present normal school was located at Ypsi- 
lanti in 1849. 

The chapter on education in Kalamazoo is relatively an 
important one ; indeed, there are materials here for a vol- 
ume on this theme. The first settlers in this county, as 
also in the entire State, were largely from New England and 
New York, and they naturally regarded schools as one of 
the necessaries of life, and established them almost as soon 
as they erected homes for their families. There were also 
so many of these immigrants who had themselves been 
favored with a greater or less degree of academic culture 
that they wished their sons and daughters to enjoy the 
same educational advantages. 

The Rev. Thomas W. Merrill, of Comstock, who was 
a graduate of Waterville College, Maine, was the pio- 
neer in this work, having traveled over a large part of the 
State to awaken an interest in the subject. The Hon. 
Caleb Eldred, who also resided at first in Comstock, but 
was afterwards known as the Nestor of Climax, was among 
the active helpers in the work, especially in the efforts to 
locate the institution at Kalamazoo. The original charter 
of what is now known as Kalamazoo College was granted 
April 22, 1833. The petitioners for this charter did not 
confine their plan to the culture of the youth of a single 
town or county, but made it exceedingly broad. Hence 
they gave to the institution the expansive name of " The 
Michigan and Huron Institute." Of course they designed 
to provide for all the youth dwelling between these two 
great boundary lakes. If the suggestion should be made 
that they had neglected to embrace the upper peninsula in 
their descriptive name, they will find justification in the 
fact that the upper peninsula was not then embraced in the 
Territory of Michigan. 

f See history of Kalamazoo College and branch of university, 

J Prepared by Rev. J. A. B. Stone, D.D., and Rev. Kendall Brooks, 



The trustees named in the charter are Caleb Eldred, 
William Meek, William Duncan, H. H. Comstock, Na- 
thaniel Millard, John Clark, F. P. Browning, Anson Brown, 
John Booth, B. B. Kerchevel, Thomas W. Merrill, John 
S. Twiss, C. H. Swaim, Robert Powell, Steven Goodman, 
and C. A. Lamb. 

There is no religious character or sectarian test to be 
found in the charter, although a majority of the first trus- 
tees were attached to the Baptist denomination, and special 
appeals were made to that church for support, in conformity 
with the example of all the colleges that had then been 
established in this country. Hitherto it was supposed that 
no college could exist and flourish unless some religious 
denomination became its special guardian and responsible 
for its support. After the institution was permanently 
located in Kalamazoo, the Legislature changed its corporate 
name to " The Kalamazoo Literary Institute.' 1 The term 
" institute" was employed rather than " college," because at 
that time the French name " institute" was fashionable, and 
there were several schools founded in other States which 
chose this name, although they were evidently designed to 
be colleges. That this was true of the college here is evi- 
dent from the language of the charter, which reads, — 

" Said trustees shall establish in said Territory, at such place as 
they may judge best, a Literary Institute, to promote the knowledge 
of all those branches of education usually taught in academies and 
collegiate institutions." 

The academy or preparatory studies were embraced in 
their plan, because there were then no other academies in the 
Territory, and no schools where students were prepared for 
entrance on a college course. Nor was there at that time 
any other college, the university itself coming into existence 
some years later. The claim of Kalamazoo College to being 
the oldest classical educational institution in the State is, 
therefore, indisputable. Indeed, it begins to count itself 
relatively venerable in this new country, having but a little 
time left to make preparations for the celebration of its 
semi-centennial anniversary. 

The friends of the new enterprise took hold of the work 
in earnest. In a short time considerable funds were raised, 
the Rev. T. W. Merrill and Mr. Samuel H. Ransom acting 
as financial agents, — the sum of two thousand five hundred 
dollars being subscribed in Kalamazoo. A large tract of 
land (one hundred and thirteen acres) was purchased on the 
south side of the village of Kalamazoo, embracing in its 
northern portion what is now denominated the Institute 
Addition to the village. A two-story frame building was 
erected on what is now Walnut Street, in 1836, and some 
progress was made soon after toward the erection of a 
second and larger building. Instruction was commenced, 
and a considerable number of students presented themselves 
at once, many of them entering the classical department. 
We regret to be obliged to state that there is a great 
paucity of facts in the early history of the institution now 
obtainable, made more aggravating because the official 
records of the institute and college, for the first thirty 
years of its chartered existence, have been unfortunately 

The first teachers employed were Nathaniel Marsh, a 
graduate of Hamilton College ; Walter Clark ; Nathaniel 

A. Balch, a graduate of Middlebury College, who since he 
left the work of teaching has been widely known as an 
able lawyer in Kalamazoo for forty years ; David Alden, a 
graduate of Brown University, and Miss Thirza M. Hart, 
who, in 1840, was married to Mr. Alden. 

But the Kalamazoo Institute was not allowed to occupy 
the educational field without a rival. Its younger sister, 
the University of Michigan, which had been born some 
years after the institute, also proposed to cover the whole 
educational field of Michigan. The regents established 
branches in various parts of the State, which they de- 
signed should bear the same relation to the central institu- 
tion that the gymnasia of Germany do to the universities 
of that country. Kalamazoo was selected as the site of a 
branch, to meet the demands for classical and preparatory 
training in this part of the State. Public-spirited citizens 
here subscribed a sufficient amount to erect a two-story 
frame building on Academy Square, which had been 
already dedicated to educational purposes. The first prin- 
cipal of the Kalamazoo branch was George B. Eastman, a 
graduate of the University of Vermont, a very estimable 
man and an efficient teacher. But there was one serious 
drawback to the new enterprise, — it had very few students. 
The public regarded it somewhat in the light of an oppo- 
sition school, and the patronage of the institute was much 
greater than that of the branch. But the institute, also, 
had its difficulties. The speculation fever of 1836 had 
burned itself out, business matters were prostrate, and the 
pecuniary condition of the institution was depressed ; their 
building operations had been suspended, and the future pros- 
pects of the school were decidedly gloomy. The regents of 
the university took in the situation, and made overtures to 
the trustees of the institute for a fusion of interests. The 
terms of the compromise were essentially of this character : 
The trustees of the institute might nominate or elect the 
teachers ; the regents would ratify the election, thus 
making them the officers of the branch, and would, more- 
over, furnish the money necessary to keep the institution 
alive. This plan of a double-acting engine was carried into 
effect, probably in 1839, under the principalship of David 
Alden, who had already been for some time at the head of 
the institute. The branch building was now used for 
school and recitation purposes, and the institute building 
was occupied by the students for dormitory purposes. The 
success was gratifying, and a goodly number of students 
resorted hither for instruction. 

In 1840, Mr. Alden was succeeded in his principalship 
of the branch by William Dutton, a graduate of Brown 
University. Mr. Dutton was a blameless man. His three 
years' service in the school is pleasantly remembered by his 
pupils to this day, who always speak of him with grateful 
respect. He finally resigned, because he had determined 
to enter the gospel ministry, remaining in town, however, 
one year longer to pursue the study of Hebrew and biblical 
literature with his successor in office, J. A. B. Stone. 

It was in May, 1843, when J. A. B. Stone and his wife, 
Mrs. L. H. Stone, appeared on this scene of educational 
labor, where they continued to work uninterruptedly more 
than twenty years. Both of them had had experience in 
teaching, he in academies, in Middlebury College, and in 



Newton Theological Seminary. Literary institutions in 
Michigan were at this time in a rather primordial state. At 
least, they appeared to be so to those who had been familiar 
with the older schools in New England ; even the institute 
was then hardly ten years old. Four teachers were em- 
ployed during the first year. A considerable number of 
the students were entering upon a classical course, while 
others were more limited and miscellaneous in their studies. 
Many of the young men went to the university, or to some 
college out of the State, to finish their course, as no degrees 
were conferred here until some years later. The regents of 
the university soon withdrew their pecuniary aid, which 
had at no time been as large as the promises they made, and 
measures were taken to reorganize and rehabilitate the 
board of trustees of the institute. The conviction was gen- 
eral that the Baptists of Michigan, who had begun this 
work of establishing a college at Kalamazoo, must carry it 
on. An eligible and commanding site, embracing more than 
forty acres of land, was purchased on the west side of the 
village. A few individuals — John P. Marsh, S. H. Ransom, 
T. W. Merrill, Leonard Slater, the principal of the institute, 
and a few others — contributed a sum sufficient to pay for 
the purchase of the land. Preparations were made imme- 
diately to erect a four-story college building, one story to be 
used for recitation -rooms and the remainder for dormitories. 
For some time the attention of Dr. Stone was given largely 
to raising funds and superintending the building operations, 
but he was still responsible for some half-dozen or more 
daily recitations. Other teachers were occupied in hearing 
recitations, Mrs. Stone devoting her whole time to the work, 
while the number of young ladies who received instructions 
in a liberal course was constantly increasing. It was already 
evident that public sentiment in Michigan was strongly in 
favor of a high standard of female education, and it was 
very soon a foregone conclusion in Kalamazoo that no col- 
legiate institution in Michigan which overlooked the claims 
of women could long find favor with the people. 

After the regents of the university withdrew from the 
bipartite educational treaty, those who contributed the 
funds to erect the branch building claimed it as personal 
property. They alleged that it reverted to them on account 
of a non-user on the part of the university, for whose use 
it was built. The claim seemed a reasonable one ; and their 
vested rights were purchased by Dr. Stone, individuals 
making their own estimate of the present worth of their 
respective shares. Some accepted ten per cent, of their 
original contributions, some demanded thirty per cent, and 
one or two persons insisted on seventy per cent, of what 
they had originally contributed. 

Historical completeness in the history of the branch 
building requires that we should mention its final diversion 
from its original purpose. When the Western College 
building had been completed and occupied, and the Eastern 
or Ladies' College, as it is called, was yet in process of 
erection, the old branch was still occupied by the college, 
principally for the use of the female department. The 
building stood, as before mentioned, on Academy Square, 
which was dedicated by the proprietor of the village plat 
for educational purposes. But a project had been started 
to change Academy and Jail Squares into a public park. 

The fight of reversion had been purchased from the suc- 
cessors of the original proprietor of the plat, for the benefit 
of the village, as had also the same right to Church Square. 
This gave the village no legal claims to Academy Square, 
so long as it was used for the purposes for which it had 
been dedicated. But twenty years' consecutive occupation 
was likely to make the title permanent and indisputable. 
Just before the expiration of the twenty years, the village 
trustees gave Dr. Stone official notice to remove the build- 
ings from the square, although neither he nor the college 
were proposing to acquire a permanent title by occupation. 
But the building having been purchased, with all the rights 
it entailed, and the continued occupation making the title 
as complete as the title of the churches to the several sites 
they occupied on Church Square, no attention was paid to 
the notice of the trustees. But one morning it was found 
that while men slept a few wakeful men, and strong horses 
in their service, had removed the branch, with all its edu- 
cational machinery, pianos included, and left it standing in 
the highway. Word was then sent to President Stone that 
if the trustees were liable for damages they would pay them, 
and they offered to move the building onto the college 
grounds, or upon any site in the village he might designate. 
He accepted the latter alternative, and requested them 
to move it back to Academy Square. This they declined 
to do. The building stood for some weeks in the street, an 
eye-sore to the public, as well as to all the parties concerned. 
The college was in great need of the building, the old and 
original institute building on Walnut Street having long 
since been destroyed by fire, and Mrs. Stone was obliged to 
rent other quarters, at considerable expense, for the use of 
the female department. Finally, the trustees, having been 
puzzled for a long time what to do with their elephant, con- 
cluded to move it to Williard Street, where it was used for 
several years for a public school building, and finally sold 
by the school board, to be used as a dwelling-house. The 
spirit in which the controversy, as this was considered, was 
conducted may be gathered from the fact that, whatever the 
justice or the equity of the affair may have been, it did not 
interrupt the most friendly relations between the village 
trustees and the president, nor between them and the col- 

This branch episode cannot perhaps be dismissed in any 
more appropriate way than by a brief quotation, taken from 
an address delivered at Schoolcraft in September, 1876, be- 
fore the Pioneer Association, by Mr. A. Depuy Van Buren, 
who was for some years a classical student at Kalamazoo ; 
" The old branch building, a two-story frame structure, 
stood among the burr-oaks on the northeast corner of the 
park, — truly an academic grove worthy of Plato and his 
pupils. A spirit of old classical mythology seemed to per- 
vade the place ; one thought of a genius loci and nymphs 
and dryads hiding among these oaks, that half-embowered 
this seat of learning and half-hid the entire village with 
their beautiful foliage. What that famous old school has 
done for Kalamazoo, this county and State, who can tell ? 
The Kalamazoo branch was widely known, and was very 
popular at home and abroad. Its students had gone out 
over this State and many others. Probably no similar in- 
stitution in the land had a more intellectual class of stu- 



dents, or one more eager for learning. To come here was 
to be inspired with a desire for a complete education. A 
draught from this * Pierian spring* made the aspirant thirst 
for more. There was an atmosphere about the institution 
that stimulated, incited, and urged on all who came within 
its walls to higher attainments. The great object of the 
school was to fit students for the university at Ann Arbor ; 
or to take a full course here or at some other college. Where 
so many were striving for a full education the student was 
a dullard who was not inspired by them. 

" The course of instruction was ample and most thorough. 
It embraced, to those who wished it, the college curriculum. 
To have come from the Kalamazoo branch for admission 
to the university at Ann Arbor was ever prima facie evi- 
dence, with the Faculty at the latter, of good scholarship. 
This was during the palmy days of the old branch, and the 
ambitious days for learning throughout the State. Here- 
tofore, save a few private schools in some of the larger vil- 
lages, the people had nothing in the line of educational 
facilities above the limited log school-house course, — read- 
ing, writing, arithmetic, geography, and grammar ; and 
when Gen. Crary's favorite system of branch universities 
were scattered here and there over Michigan we felt as if 
Yale or Harvard, or England's Oxford, Eton, or Cam- 
bridge, were brought so near to us that we could all go to 
college, and most of us went. . . . 

" The students, as we have said, could prepare here for 
the university or for any other college ; or they could go 
on here in the course and enter the sophomore or junior 
class at the university ; or they could graduate here, the 
text-books corresponding with those at the university. I 
refer now to the branch, under charge of Dr. J. A. B. 
Stone and his accomplished wife. To them this school 
owed very much of its celebrity. He had succeeded Pro- 
fessor Dutton, a man of rare excellence as a teacher and a 

" The daily course began thus : The school-bell rang at 
fifteen minutes before nine o'clock in the morning. Stu- 
dents must be in their seats at nine. All assembled, both 
sexes, in Dr. Stone's room below. First reading the Scrip- 
tures, then prayer, then singing by the school choir. After 
this Dr. Stone usually gave a ten or fifteen minutes' lecture, 
in which useful instruction, hints, and valuable informa- 
tion were given to the students. Then the class-recitations 
went on during the day, always thorough and always made 
interesting. Our teacher had the power to awaken an in- 
terest in our studies. And here let me revert again to the 
morning lectures, for in them we got the direction and in- 
spiring draught for our school- work. Here he at times, in 
his happy and instructive manner, gave just such a lecture, 
or ' talk,' as the students from time to time needed. Time 
was our capital, and in its minutes, hours, and days, if we 
improved them well, would yield rich and rare treasures to 
us. These instructions were full of wisdom. 

" He never separated morals from anything we had to do 
in our school course ; they belonged to everything we did in 
life. He was unwearied in creating ' moral thoughtful- 
ness' in every student, ever endeavoring to direct our steps 
aright, to shape our course, and inspire us to go on im- 
proving by pointing to noble objects ahead, — noble exam- 

ples of scholarship as well as of exalted virtue. He would 
say, ' Morals and mathematics, excellence of character and 
scholarship go together, for be assured the Christian is the 
highest style of the man and the scholar. 1 Again, he 
would say, ' Shoot an arrow at the sun every morning.' 
' But we can't hit it,' was the answer. 4 You will hit 
higher than if you aimed lower,' he would reply. To the 
idle, he would say, l Do something ; if nothing more, whittle 
a stick, and thus learn to bring things to a point.' He 
urged the students to start right ; the first step led to the 
last. Let each lesson be a perfect one, then every one fol- 
lowing will be attained so much the easier. We would 
thus become proficient in every branch we studied. There 
were too many smatterers and dabblers in learning. ' These 
general scholars,' he said, ' will get a little here and a little 
there, but not enough of any one thing to do them any 
good. Lessons first ; if friends bother you, lock the door 
of your room ; lounging and Latin do not go well together.' 
He strove to develop the whole character, moral and intel- 
lectual, and his influence as an educator was so effectually 
exerted over his students in the school-room that it went 
with them wherever they went. 

" The management of Mrs. Stone's department, in the 
upper room, was of the same character. And none of the 
surviving students who attended either department of the 
old branch but can to-day attest to this fact, — that their 
instruction did not cease with the school ; that we were 
taught in it that education was a life-work ; that we would 
ever be in school wherever we went ; that a schoolmaster 
would ever be with us until we graduated into a higher 
school, above. 

" Highly gifted by nature as educators, and richly quali- 
fied by their profound and varied scholastic attainments for 
their professions, both Dr. and Mrs. Stone, by their long 
and eminently successful labors in the cause of education 
in Kalamazoo, have written their names on the brightest 
pages of its school history, — she as the Madame Campan in 
her department, and he as the Arnold at the head of this 
Kugby school of ours. 

" A list of some of the first students : From Climax were 
George, Enos T., and Lafayette W. Lovell, Louisa, Catha- 
rine, and Nelson Eldred ; from Grand Prairie were Eliza- 
beth and Jane Drake ; from Kalamazoo, those who first 
went to the university were Paul W. H. Bawls, Fletcher 
Marsh, and Edwin Dunham ; from Battle Creek were 
James Mason, Morgan Beach, James and Sovier Dolson, 
Sidney Dunning, A. D. P. Yan Buren, Durfee Mason, and 
Hoyt Seymour ; from Centreville were Joe and Frank 
Brown and Miss Benedict ; from Union City were Wil- 
liam G. and Mary Goodwin, Amelia Kellogg, Winslow D. 
Howe, and Darius Davidson ; from Gull Prairie were 
Dwight, Elizabeth, and Charles S. May, J. Powers, Rev. 
Leonard Slater's children, Rachel Browne, Miss Harkness, 
Andrew J. Eldred, and Alfred Otis ; Harvey Bush from 
Charleston. From Kalamazoo were Wells R., Jane, Charles, 
Elia, and George Marsh. Abby, Minerva, and Joseph B. 
Cornell, Zilpha Foote, Mary and Delia Rood, Charles and 
Henry Beck with, Willis and Antoinette Ransom, Eliza 
and Lydia Hayes, Caroline and Marguerette Walter, Emily 
and Caroline Swayze ; from Judge Mitchell HinsdelPs 



family, remarkable for scholarship and love of literature, 
were Edwin C, Norman, Myron, George A., Genevieve, 
Joseph, and John ; Mary, Cornelia, and George Clark, 
Henry and Elizabeth Hoyt, Isaiah J. Babeoek, James S. 
Duncan, Mary, Sarah, and George A. Fitch, George and 
Hannah Trask, Laura Barrows, Sarah Weaver, Minerva 
and Mary Heydenburk, Helen Rice, William Eames, Je- 
rome Barrett, Richard, Henry, and Lewis Starkey and 
sister, Edward and Clarence Eddy, Amelia Arnold, Harriet 
Gibbs, Ellen, Jasper S., and Justus Rice, Dennis and Emily 
Gray, Mary Gregg, Elias Cooley, Lyman C. Barker, 
Charles Watson, John Goodrich, Elisha Eames, J. Ely 
Kellogg, James Knight, Orrin Mills, George Bates, Wil- 
liam Acker, Horace Sheldon, Charles H. and Edward E. 
Carter, Horace Clapp, Francis W. and Herbert Cornell, 
William T. Eastland, Thomas C. Langley, John F. Mc- 
Nair, Frederick B. Porter, Oscar Seeley, Norman Robin- 
son, Jefferson Smith, and many others whose names we 
cannot recall. 

" Of all the recollections of my school-days, none are 
dearer to me than those connected with the old branch ; 
some of my old schoolmates are here to-day. Some of 
those young men who, over thirty years ago, were of our 
school, striving for an education, sit here. And here are 
those who, when young ladies, entered the lists with us for 
achievements in our school-day contests in the old branch. 
Time has dealt lightly with them. Those dark-brown or 
auburn curls may be slightly touched with gray, but their 
smile is just as winning, their eyes as bright, — in fact, 

" ' They look the same looks, speak no other Greek 
Than your eyes of school-days begun last week.' 

" As I came to Kalamazoo this morning, and looked over 
the old school-ground, I was reminded of these touching 
lines of a school-boy poet : 

" ' I wandered to the village, Tom, and sat beneath the tree, 
Upon the school-house playing ground, that sheltered you and me. 
But few were there to greet me, Tom, and few were left to know, 
Who played with me, upon the green o'er thirty years ago.' " 

To make a new college successful in a new State, it is 
desirable not only to secure an able and devoted body of 
men who are willing to serve as trustees and to give their 
time and unwearied attention to building up the institution, 
but there is always a necessity for self-sacrifice on the part 
of the teachers. The school at Kalamazoo was fortunate 
in this respect. Both male and female teachers received for 
many years very meagre compensation for the labor they per- 
formed ; but they toiled on with just as great enthusiasm, 
perhaps, as if they had been stimulated by more princely 
salaries. Among these apostles of self-denial, mention should 
be made of Rev. William L. Eaton, a graduate of Dartmouth 
College, who came from New Hampshire to Michigan in 
1843. He was called to Kalamazoo some years later, to 
fill the Latin professorship in the college. He was a man 
possessed of a lovely spirit, apt and indefatigable as a teacher, 
and abundantly given to the exercise of a sound discretion. 
He died in the flower of his years, Dec. 25, 1853, lamented 
by all who knew him. His loss was felt deeply by the 
president, who had always held his counsel and advice in 
high estimation, arid it had been noticeable that when the 

trustees and some of the other teachers differed in their 
opinions on matters of educational polity, Professor Eaton, 
Professor Daniel Putnam (also a graduate of Dartmouth 
College), and the president were nearly always in accord in 
their views of the best policy to be pursued in the institu- 
tion. This may have arisen from the fact that they had all 
acquired their former experience in college affairs in the 
New England States. 

When the upper college-building had been finished and 
was well filled with students, the trustees, and, indeed, all 
parties concerned, began to think it was time for the students 
to finish their literary course entirely in Kalamazoo, instead 
of going to other colleges to receive their degrees. The 
catalogue for 1854-55 shows an aggregate in all depart- 
ments, male and female, of two hundred and sixty-five stu- 
dents. Of these, thirty-one young men had already been 
admitted to the several collegiate classes. The young 
women in the college course were not accurately classified 
until the next year. 

The members of the Faculty were as follows : Rev. J. A. 
B. Stone, D.D., President and Professor of Intellectual and 
Moral Philosophy ; Rev. Samuel Graves, A.M., Professor 
of Greek Language and Literature ; Edward Olney, A.M., 
Professor of Mathematics ; Daniel Putnam, A.M., Professor 
of the Latin Language and Literature ; Morris A. Page, 
A.M., Professor of Rhetoric and History. 

Professor of Natural Sciences, Rev. 0. Mather, A.M., 
Professor in the Scientific Department ; Mrs. L. H. Stone, 
Principal of Female Department, and Teacher of History 
and Literature ; Miss Mary E. Sheldon, Associate Princi- 
pal and Teacher ; Miss A. C. Pettingil and Miss E. B. 
Esty, Teachers in the English Department ; Miss Mary B. 
Graves, Teacher of Drawing and Painting; Miss E. B. 
Cornelius, Teacher of Music ; Mr. S. E. Chandler, Teacher 
of Vocal Music. 

It was at this time the name of the institution was 
changed to Kalamazoo College, and the terms upon which 
degrees should be conferred were particularly defined. 
When President Stone went to Lansing, in January, 1855, 
to have these changes made, he found the friends of the 
university were making strong efforts in the Legislature to 
confine the power of conferring collegiate degrees exclusively 
to the State University. The educational representative 
of Kalamazoo facetiously suggested that this was rather 
cheeky in a younger institution to claim a monopoly in the 
matter of degrees ; that if exclusive prerogatives were to be 
granted to any institution it would be more appropriate to 
delegate them to the one at Kalamazoo, as it was the oldest 
chartered classical school in the State. This led to the 
suggestion on their part that Kalamazoo might be allowed 
to retain its vested rights ; but since there were no other 
chartered colleges then in the State, except the one at Kala- 
mazoo and the university, and the new constitution forbade 
granting any more special charters, this would be the limit 
to institutions which could confer literary degrees. • This 
was not a very democratic sentiment to be uttered by either 
educators or politicians. 

Seminaries had already been started at Albion, Olivet, 
Hillsdale, and Adrian, which it was expected would ulti- 
mately become colleges. A bill was drawn up and intro- 



duced into the senate, for the organization of colleges under 
the general provisions contained in the bill, which, being 
general and not special, met the provisions of the new con- 
stitution, and required the curriculum of all institutions 
which should confer degrees to be the same as, or equiva- 
lent to, the course adopted in the university. The passage 
of this bill was stoutly opposed by the friends of the uni- 
versity. President Tappan, of the university, led the op- 
position ; behind him stood the good Dr. Duffield, of 
Detroit, and several able lawyers and skillful politicians, 
some of whom were well known among the lobbyists of that 
day. Among outsiders the advocacy of the bill chanced to 
devolve largely on the president of Kalamazoo College, 
which was especially irritating to the university, because, 
personally, he had no interest in its passage, except to give 
to other institutions of the State the same rights and privi- 
leges which were now confined to the institutions at Kala- 
mazoo and Ann Arbor. But during the discussion in the 
Legislature, and in the meetings held outside, it leaked out 
that one great cause of opposition to the bill was the fear 
that under its provisions women were to be educated the 
same as men. It was several times sarcastically said, " Pass 
this bill, and the first we shall know they will confer de- 
grees on women." The issue was accepted, and the right 
and policy defended. Kalamazoo was already known as the 
champion of the collegiate education of women ; and the 
president did not hesitate to leave his post at Kalamazoo 
for several weeks to assist in carrying on the contest at 
Lansing. By the aid of Senator E. L. Brown, of Kala- 
mazoo County, Senator Charles Upson, of St. Joseph 
County, and other legislators of liberal views, the bill finally 
passed the senate. But the opposition were not yet ready 
to yield the point, and, as they expressed it, " to break 
down the great division line between the men and women 
of the State." The earnestness in the discussion of the 
lower house was greater than it had been in the senate, but 
the liberal views of the majority of the representatives of 
the people gave the bill the victory ; the vote was carried 
in a scene of excitement not equaled in the passage of any 
other bill during the session. The Governor and officials of 
the two branches of the Legislature afterwards caused a 
beautiful copy of the law to be engrossed, and, having 
signed it officially, sent it to Dr. Stone, with the suggestion 
that in after-days, when the State should be full of institu- 
tions filled with young women as well as young men, this 
copy of the bill might be a pleasing memento of the con- 
test that had now been fought in behalf of free colleges. 

Kalamazoo was among the earliest colleges in the coun- 
try to place women on an equality with men, allowing them 
free access to all classes and an equal right to receive de- 
grees for all courses completed. The University of Mich- 
igan is at the present time often spoken of, especially in 
the Eastern States, as a pioneer in the liberal work of open- 
ing college doors to women, when really the regents re- 
ported against its advisability, ridiculed and fought it 
until every other institution in the State had adopted it, 
and finally came laggard and sulking along, the latest con- 
vert, at least in Michigan, to this-great educational advance 
of the age. 

Since 1855 the institution has continued to confer de- 

grees on the test of thorough examinations, maintaining 
instruction in all the studies embraced in the curriculum 
which its charter requires, which is the same as, or similar 
to, that prescribed for all the colleges in the State. 
It is proper here to introduce a brief sketch of 


As this is also an old institution, although not quite as 
old as the college, it has sometimes been confounded with 
the college. But there is no organic connection between 
the two. The Baptist Convention of Michigan was granted 
a charter giving it power to establish and maintain a school 
for training theological students. Hence the origin of the 
theological seminary. Its funds are separate from those 
of the college, as is also the government of the institution. 
It has sometimes occurred, however, that some of the pro- 
fessors in the college have also been professors in the theo- 
logical seminary. But the college funds were never used 
to pay them for this theological teaching. Whatever co- 
operation there has been between these two schools, it has 
always been for the pecuniary advantage of the college. 
The trustees of the theological seminary had funds, their 
expenditures were less, and they were more flush and were 
willing to do something for collegiate education, because they 
wished their candidates, so far as possible, to take a college 
course before entering the theological seminary. Among 
the professors of the college who were also teachers in 
the theological seminary were Dr. J. A. B. Stone, Dr. Sam- 
uel Graves, Rev. Daniel Putnam, Rev. Theodoric R. Pal- 
mer, Rev. Edward Anderson, Rev. H. L. Wayland, and 
Dr. Silas Bailey. The students were generally graduates 
of the college, although some were from other colleges, — 
some, indeed, graduates of the university. 

There was no injustice to any parties concerned in em- 
ploying the professors in both institutions, unless to the 
teachers themselves, who did double duty, but did not re- 
ceive double salaries. In the case of President Stone, the 
question once sorely puzzled the Circuit Court, in a suit 
where the college was a party, as to who paid him his sal- 
ary for services as president and professor in the college. 
The records of the institution were all read in the court, 
yet no appropriation could be found for paying his sal- 
ary. It finally came out, in evidence, that for some twelve 
years, while he taught in both institutions, that from the 
theological seminary he received about half a salary, which 
they were able to pay, but he did not at that time receive 
any salary as president and professor of intellectual and 
moral philosophy and political economy, and occasion- 
ally filling temporary vacancies in other studies, although 
his recitations and lectures here in so many departments 
were what was considered as overwork. A small allowance 
was voted him for traveling expenses, correspondence, and 
other expenses incurred in behalf of the college. But, as 
he had then some outside sources of income, he proposed, 
each year, that provision should first be made to pay 
the salaries of the other teachers, and whenever there 
should be an excess above what was necessary for that pur- 
pose, he would present a bill for his own salary. That 
happy contingency never occurred. But he has never been 
heard to recommend his own experience as a precedent for 



others who were in the work of building up colleges. If 
a teacher does the work of two men, or attempts to do it, 
it matters not whether he receives half of one salary, a 
whole salary, or a double salary ; in future years the result 
is sure to be a shattered system or an impaired constitu- 
tion, which time may or may not repair. 

The college has been sustained from the first by volun- 
tary contributions, furnished by the liberal friends of a lib- 
eral education. Dr. Stone has often remarked that during 
his entire connection with the institution he has frequently 
been surprised at the interest taken in the educational work 
in Kalamazoo, and the readiness of friends to make what 
were really very generous contributions at a time when 
money was scarce in a new country, and wealth unknown, 
and the personal necessities of most persons absorbed their 
income. There were several friends on whom he could 
always rely when emergencies arose. As he remembers with 
grateful pleasure, he never asked such tried friends as Leon- 
ard Slater, S. H. Ransom, J. P. Marsh, Mrs. Delia Bulk- 
ley, Hon. F. W. Curtenius, Hon. Allen Potter, and Hon. 
Caleb Van Husen, of Detroit, and many others in different 
parts of the State, — never even suggested a specific sum as 
very desirable at this particular time, but it was forth- 

The funds to defray the expense of erecting the women's 
college, or " Kalamazoo Hall," which was dedicated in No- 
vember, 1859, were contributed almost entirely by the 
citizens of Kalamazoo village, except one thousand dollars, 
which was donated for that purpose by Hon. Caleb Van 
Husen. A partial endowment-fund was raised by the sale 
of scholarships, which were sold for one hundred dollars 
each, and entitled the purchaser to the free tuition of one 
student annually for twenty-five years. These scholarships, 
having been sold twenty -five years or more ago, have now 
expired. Considerable sums have also been contributed by 
the Eldred family for an T^ldred professorship ; by Hon. 
John Burt, Caleb Van Husen, Rev. T. W. Merrill, and 
others, towards the establishment of other professorships. 
Efforts are still made for the same purpose, but the insti- 
tution has not been able hitherto to find a sufficient number 
of friends to place it in a situation of permanent pecuniary 
independence. The interruption to the work of endow- 
ment caused by the war was very unfortunate for the suc- 
cess of the enterprise. Efforts, however, are still being 
made and pressed with energy to complete the work. 

Among the literary societies connected with the college, 
the Sherwood Rhetorical Society is the oldest, having 
been founded some thirty years ago. It has a considerable 
library, and a permanent fund was given by Dr. Adiel 
Sherwood, the interest of which is given annually as prizes 
for the encouragement of rhetorical excellence. The Phi- 
lolexian Society has also a library; its exercises consist 
largely in forensic discussions. The Eurodelphian Society, 
in the female department, is in some respects similar to the 
other two societies, its membership being confined exclu- 
sively to the young women of the college. 

After the work of conferring degrees was begun and the 
Faculty was enlarged, the number of students continued for 
some time to increase. In the catalogue for 1857 there 
were, in all departments, four hundred and seven students, 

one hundred and twenty-seven being in the college classes. 
The names of the Faculty were as follows : Rev. J. A. B. 
Stone, D.D., President and Professor of Intellectual and 
Moral Philosophy ; Rev. Samuel Graves, A.M., Professor 
of Greek Language and Literature ; Edward Olney, A.M., 
Professor of Mathematics ; Daniel Putnam, A.M., Profes- 
sor of Latin Language and Literature ; Morris A. Page, 
A.M., Professor of Rhetoric and History ; Nathaniel A. 
Balch, A.M., Lecturer on Political Economy and Interna- 
tional Law; J. Adams Allen, M.D., Lecturer on Chemistry 
and Physiology ; Rev. R. R. Prentice, A.M., Professor in 
the Scientific Department; Chandler Richards, B.A., Prin- 
cipal of the Preparatory Department ; Mrs. L. H. Stone, 
Teacher of History and English Literature ; Miss A. H. 
Wilcox, Teacher of Mathematics and English Language ; 
Miss Elizabeth Robinson, Teacher of Latin and French ; 
Miss Anna M. Woodbury, Teacher of Mathematics; Miss 
Sarah Willboe, Teacher of Penmanship ; Miss Sarah A. 
Fisher, Teacher of Instrumental and Vocal Music ; Mrs. 
Mary B. Graves, Miss Mary Forbes, Teachers of Painting 
and Drawing. 

The next year the requisites of admission were increased, 
and there were only three hundred and one students, 
ninety-six being in college classes. In 1859 the college 
classes contained one hundred and ten, and the preparatory 
department one hundred and fifty-nine. 

During the academic year of 1859-60 we find the largest 
freshman class which has ever been admitted, embracing 
fifty-five members, twenty-three of whom were young men 
and thirty-two young women. As this was the last year 
before the war, we give again a list of the Faculty, as it had 
undergone considerable changes since the last one we have 
recorded : Rev. James A. B. Stone, D.D., President and 
Professor of Intellectual and Moral Philosophy ; Rev. Ed- 
ward Anderson, A.M., Professor of Greek Language and 
Literature; Rev. Theodoric R. Palmer, A.M., Professor of 
Latin Language and Literature ; Edward Olney, A.M., Pro- 
fessor of Mathematics; Daniel Putnam, A.M., Professor of 
Natural Sciences; Liberty E. Holden, A.B., Professor of 
Rhetoric and Principal of the Preparatory Department ; 
Nathaniel A. Balch, A.M., Lecturer on Political Economy 
and International Law; Foster Pratt, M.D., Lecturer on 
Physiology ; Mrs. L. H. Stone, Teacher of History and 
English Literature ; Mrs. Martha Osborn, Teacher of Latin 
and Mathematics ; Miss Ella Fletcher, Teacher of French, 
Painting, and Drawing ; Miss Jennie S. Finney, Teacher 
in the Preparatory Department ; Mr. J. Maurice Hubbard, 
Mrs. Sarah Hubbard, Teachers of Instrumental and Vocal 

On the breaking out of the war a considerable number 
of the young men, both in the collegiate and preparatory de- 
partments, enlisted in the army, laying aside their books to 
shoulder the musket, and exchanging their comfortable dor- 
mitories for the hardships of the tented field. One of the 
professors also entered the army, — Rev. T. R. Palmer, after- 
wards Col. Palmer, of the Michigan 13th. Other profess- 
ors were ready to go, and the president was anxious to be 
counted in for the defense of his country, but he had just 
returned from a tour on the Eastern Continent, undertaken 
on account of failing health, and it was thought better to 



accept, in his stead, two of his sons, then students in the 
college, who remained in the service, as many of the stu- 
dents did, until the close of the war. Of nearly or quite 
one hundred students who, in the course of the four years 
of the bloody conflict, made haste to fly to the protection of 
their country, too many, alas ! fell on the battle-field or died 
of disease while in the army. A tablet placed in the college 
chapel commemorates the names and the remembrance of 
the following students who fell in the service of the Union : 
James Allen, C. S. Burge, Judson W. Carter, George W. 
Carter, Seymour A. Cornell, Samuel Crooks, Edwin B. 
Easton, Richard H. Eldred, Lucius F. Handy, Alfred S. 
Handy, Joseph W. Hinsdale, William H. Lamb, Charles 
Porter, Walter Prouty, George A. Wilson, W. J. M. Wood- 

The derangement of financial affairs incident upon the 
war was a great obstacle in the way of efforts made for an 
ample and permanent endowment. The minds of the young 
men of the State were diverted from educational purposes, 
and many, instead of going to college, went to the South to 
fight for their country. Still, the college was not deserted. 
The catalogue of 1862-63 shows an attendance of one hun- 
dred and ninety-four, ninety-three being in the college 
classes, the young women considerably outnumbering the 
young men. In the graduating class of 1863 there were 
still eighteen members, the young women being in the ma- 
jority here also. 

The entrance at the next academic year was consider- 
ably larger than for some years previous. But an event 
occurred Nov. 4, 1863, which caused a temporary derange- 
ment in the college affairs. President Stone and Mrs. L. 
H. Stone at this time sent in their resignation. This de- 
termination had been taken some time previous on their 
part, but only two or three of the trustees were aware of it, 
and not a single student in the institution had any sus- 
picions of their intentions until their resignation was ten- 
dered. The trustees were surprised, and proposed a 
committee of conference, but this was declined. As the 
resignations were peremptory, they were finally accepted, and 
a resolution was passed that " we assure them we shall ever 
cherish for them the warmest sympathy and Christian affec- 
tion, and we recommend the appointment of a committee 
to make each of them a proper expression of our feelings." 

It is not necessary here to enter into the reasons given 
at the time for these resignations, tendered after more than 
twenty years of service in the institution. Dr. Stone had 
long been of the opinion that there were some unwise 
counsels among a portion of the trustees, there being a de- 
cided difference of opinions, especially in reference to the 
management of the female department. Their long con- 
nection with the school, and their services having been 
largely gratuitous, had been to the doctor's pecuniary dis- 
advantage. They felt that they had tried to do their full 
share in building up a successful institution, and their 
friends could well afford to excuse them from further ser- 
vice. Mrs. Stone also wished, if she spent any longer time 
in teaching, to do it in accordance with her own convictions 
of the best manner. 

At a subsequent meeting of the trustees the following 
resolutions were passed : 

"Resolved, 1. That the triumphant success, both in completing the 
building for the female department, and in the department itself, 
amply vindicates the wisdom, as his own sacrifices and untiring labors 
proved the earnestness of the zeal, of President Stone in establishing 
the female department. 

" Resolved, 2. That in the opinion of this board, to the tireless energy, 
self-sacrificing labors, and able conduct of Dr. Stone and his earnest 
and accomplished wife, it is, under Providence, largely due that the 
village of Kalamazoo is adorned, its prosperity enhanced, and its social 
attractions so greatly increased, by this institution of learning/' 

In a historical sketch of Kalamazoo College, prepared at 
the request of the trustees by Rev. S. Haskell, the secre- 
tary of the board, and published in 1864, we find the fol- 
lowing description of the work done by Dr. and Mrs. Stone 
in their connection with the college : 

" To Professor J. A. B. Stone fell the lot of following 
Dutton ; and the short course of the one is in contrast 
with the long course of the other. Dr. and Mrs. Stone 
commenced their labors in 1843 ; and they twain have 
been one flesh and one spirit in these labors, uninterrupt- 
edly, until the present time. Their work has been multi- 
form and multiplex. There is nothing which they have 
not touched, from the gravel beneath all material founda- 
tion stones to the finial of each pupil's edification in learn- 
ing and character, their means, the while, spreading as 
diffusively through the work as their labors have done. 
With the entrance of the institution upon its full college 
career Dr. Stone was appointed its president, and has so 
continued through these nearly nine years, Mrs. Stone 
throughout occupying the position of principal of the 
female department." 

Professor Edward Anderson was requested by the trustees 
to act as president pro tern, until a permanent president 
should be appointed. After the resignation of Dr. and 
Mrs. Stone a difficulty arose between the students and 
Faculty. The students had known nothing of the resigna- 
tion until after it occurred, and being disappointed and dis- 
satisfied, without knowing the reason of their resignation, a 
large number of them, somewhere from a hundred and twenty 
to a hundred and fifty, determined to leave the college and 
petition the Faculty for a dismission. This movement was 
regarded in the light of a mutiny, and they were expelled, 
unless they returned to the institution. The trustees at 
first sustained the Faculty in their vote to expel them. Dr. 
Stone, who was still president of the board of trustees, 
called another meeting, made a statement of his under- 
standing of the case, assuring the trustees that there had 
been no communication between himself and the students 
before their request to be dismissed, the students also 
making a statement that they did not wish to break the 
laws of the institution, but thought that they had a right 
to withdraw peacefully, without giving their reasons, when 
a unanimous vote was passed that the Faculty should give 
them, on application, an honorable dismissal. Quite a 
number of those dismissed graduated at Adrian College, at 
Olivet, at the universities at Rochester, Ann Arbor, Chi- 
cago, and elsewhere. 

In April, 1864, Hon. John M. Gregory, who was at that 
time State superintendent of public instruction, was elected 
president. After arrangements had been made to guarantee 
his salary, — for he did not propose to follow the example of 
his predecessor in the matter of salary, — he accepted tire 



office, and entered upon his duty some time afterwards. 
Mr. Gregory was a graduate of Union College, was already 
favorably known as an educator, enjoyed the confidence of 
the public, and, bringing great energy to his work, could 
scarcely fail of success. The disturbance connected with 
the loss of so many students was a misfortune for which he 
was not responsible. But the property of the institution, 
the grounds, the ample buildings, some start towards an 
endowment, and the prestige which the school had already 
attained rendered his situation a more comfortable one than 
that of his predecessor twenty years before. 

Dr. Gregory infused great energy into every department 
of the college, and made an effort to secure an able and 
effective Faculty. The catalogue of 1865-66 reports the 
whole number of students in attendance two hundred and 
seventeen, the young men being nearly twice as numerous 
as the young women. The students of both sexes in the 
collegiate classes were fifty-nine, the remainder being in the 
preparatory department. The members of the faculty were 
as follows : Rev. John M. Gregory, LL.D., President, Pro- 
fessor of Moral and Mental Philosophy and History ; Rev. 
Daniel Putnam, M.A., Professor of the Latin Language 
and Literature; Rev. H. L. Wayland, M.A., Professor of 
the Greek Language and Literature and Instructor in 
Chemistry and Physiology ; Charles D. Gregory, B.A., 
Principal of the Preparatory Department ; Robert H. Tripp, 
M.A., Instructor in Ancient Languages; Austin George, 
Instructor in Bookkeeping and Natural Science ; J. W. 
Caldwell, Instructor in Mathematics ; Joshua S. Lane, In- 
structor in Grammar and Arithmetic ; Miss Julia A. King, 
Preceptress and Teacher of German and English Litera- 
ture; Mrs. Martha L. Osborn, Teacher of French and 
History; Miss Letitia J. Shaw, Teacher of Drawing and 
Painting ; Prof. J. Maurice Hubbard, Mrs. Sarah Hubbard, 
Teachers of Instrumental and Vocal Music. 

President Gregory's career as an educator in Kalamazoo 
was not destined to be a long one. He was invited to be- 
come president of the Illinois Industrial University, which 
office he accepted after his resignation of the college presi- 
dency had been accepted. The trustees parted with him 
reluctantly, and passed the following resolutions indicative 
of their high esteem of his services : 

"Whereas, Dr. J. M. Gregory has been called to another field of 
labor, and under a sense of duty has tendered to this board an uncon- 
ditional and immediate resignation of the office of president of Kala- 
mazoo College ; therefore 

" Resolved, That we hereby accept his resignation of said office. 

" Resolved, That we hereby express our deep regret that his official 
relation to us and his present connection with our beloved institution 
are now brought to a close, disappointing our hope of his continued 
co-operation in this important work of Christian education, and de- 
priving the institution of services which we had come to think so 
essential to its prosperity; and that we tender to him our heartfelt 
thanks for the energy, devotion, and self-denial with which he has 
prosecuted his mental labors among us, and assure him that he has 
our high esteem and full confidence as a fellow-laborer in the Master's 
vineyard j and that he bears with him to his new field of labor our 
affectionate regards, while our earnest prayers shall ever go up to the 
throne of grace that the richest blessings of heaven may descend and 
rest upon him, and that when the Great Teacher shall gather his dis- 
ciples into his heavenly home we may together receive the crown of 

" Resolved, That ever recognizing the hand of God in the history 
of our beloved institution, and calling to mind the oft-repeated de- 

liverances which he "has wrought for us in the past, and especially 
in the advanced position which he has enabled us to gain under the 
leadership of President Gregory, we are enabled to say, ' Hitherto the 
Lord hath helped us;' and believing that now, as in the past, he is 
on our side, we take courage and go forward, assured of his abiding 
favor, and feeling that the circumstances under which we are placed 
should only cause the friends of Kalamazoo College to gather more 
closely around it, with earnest prayer, increased faith, and enlarged 

After the resignation of Dr. Gregory the institution was 
without a regular president for a year or more, Professor Put- 
nam filling the place as president ad interim, and after his 
resignation this situation was occupied by Dr. Silas Bailey, 
who was then connected with the Kalamazoo Theological 
Seminary. During this time the number of students re- 
mained about the same as during the preceding year. Many 
plans were devised for an increase of the endowment fund, 
and for the general enlargement of the institution and in- 
crease of its usefulness. But the favorable time for a suc- 
cessful movement in this direction had not yet arrived. Dr. 
Samuel Graves, of Connecticut, had been called to fill the 
president's chair, but he declined. An invitation was also 
extended to Dr. Lemuel Moss, of Lewisburg University, 
but he did not accept the proffered honor. 

The next effort in this direction was more successful. 
Sept. 28, 1868, the trustees voted unanimously to elect 
Rev. Kendall Brooks, D.D., of Philadelphia, president of 
the college. Dr. Brooks is a native of Massachusetts, a 
graduate of Brown University, and also of Newton Theolo- 
gical Seminary. He had been for some time a pastor, and 
had also experience as a teacher, having formerly been a 
professor in Waterville College. He was favorably known 
in Philadelphia as an editor and a man well versed in liberal 
studies. With such a reputation he entered auspiciously 
upon his presidential career, which has been continued until 
the present time. 

In August, 1869, Professor Clark died, greatly lamented, 
after an illness of three months. The chair of Latin, vacated 
by his death, was filled in November following by the ap- 
pointment of Rev. Samuel Brooks, A.M., a graduate of 
Brown University of the class of 1852. Professor Brooks 
was instructor in Greek in Brown University in 1854-55, 
and was instructor in Hebrew in the Newton Theological 
Institution in 1860-61. He has held the professorship 
of Latin in Kalamazoo College from his appointment to the 
present time. 

During the early part of 1869 an effort to add fifty thou- 
sand dollars to the endowment of the college was completed. 
This effort was commenced in connection with the call of 
Dr. Brooks to the presidency, and was chiefly under the 
direction of Professor Clark 

In October, 1869, Dr. Bailey, who had served the col- 
lege three years, was laid aside from his work by sickness, 
and in December following he resigned his professorship. 
His health was never restored. He died in Paris, June 30, 
1874, at the age of sixty-five years. He was made a Doc- 
tor of Divinity in 1849 by Madison University, and a Doc- 
tor of Laws, in 1871, by Franklin College. 

In August, 1870, Prof. Wayland (who was made a 
Doctor of Divinity, in 1869, by Brown University) was 
chosen president of Franklin College, in Indiana, and re- 



signed his chair in this college. After a service of two 
years in Franklin, he became editor of the National Baptist , 
which position he now holds and adorns. 

William C. Morey, A.M., became an instructor on the 
resignation of Dr. Wayland, and soon after was selected 
Professor of History and Political Economy. He resigned 
this chair in 1872, to accept a professorship in the Univer- 
sity of Rochester, where he remains till now. On his re- 
tirement, Rev. William T. Stott was made Professor of 
Natural Science. But after accepting the appointment, 
and having served the college one term, he was called to 
the presidency of Franklin College, and resigned. He still 
remains president of the college which has twice deprived 
Kalamazoo of an able teacher to fill that office. 

Austin George, A.M., of the class of 1866, was employed 
as temporary Professor of Rhetoric and Literature during 
the college year 1872-73. 

Howard G. Colman, A.M., of the class of 1869, was ap- 
pointed Professor of Chemistry in 1873, and still holds 
that chair. Lewis Stuart, A.M., of the class of 1872, was 
appointed Professor of Greek in 1875, and remained in 
that office till 1879, when he became Professor of Latin in 
the University of Chicago. 

In 1869, Rev. Thomas W. Merrill, A.M., endowed a 
professorship, the income from which endowment was to 
become available in five years from that time. The pro- 
fessor supported by this endowment was to be college pastor, 
and to teach in such departments as might be assigned him. 
In 1875, Rev. Nathan S. Burton, D.D., was elected Merrill 
professor, but at the close of the college year 1876-77 it 
was found that the endowment was not yielding an income ; 
the professor obtained leave of absence for a year, and at 
the end of the year resigned his chair, as the endowment 
was still unproductive. In 1869, Mr. Merrill established 
two scholarships of five hundred dollars each, and in 1874 
twenty-eight others of the same sum, the income to be 
given to students in the college preparing for the Christian 
ministry. Only the first two are as yet productive. 

In 1873 the college received a legacy of two thousand five 
hundred and fifty dollars from the estate of Lewis A. Taft, 
of Wauseon, Ohio, who had been one of its students, the 
income of which is to be appropriated to students needing 
pecuniary assistance. 

In 1878 the sum of eight thousand dollars was received 
from the estate of Mrs. Hannah Davis, of Allegan. 

In 1877 it became apparent that the south tower of the 
new building was not sufficiently supported. It was re- 
moved and a new south front erected, and the whole build- 
ing thoroughly repaired and greatly improved. 

The number of students enrolled for the current year 
(1879-80) is one hundred and forty-five. The Faculty 
as at present constituted is as follows : Rev. Kendall 
Brooks, D.D., President and Professor of Moral and In- 
tellectual Philosophy; Rev. Samuel Brooks, D.D., Professor 
of Latin; Howard G. Colman, A.M., Professor of Chem- 
istry ; Clarence L. Dean, A.B., Instructor in Literature and 
History; Alexander Hadlock, P.B., Instructor in Math- 
ematics; Frank D. Haskell, A.B., Instructor in Greek; 
Alice M. Northrup, Instructress in French and German; 
Z. S. Harrison, Instructor in Vocal Music. 

On the 15th day of December, 1856, a corporation was 
formed in the village of Kalamazoo, consisting of gentlemen 
of various Protestant religious denominations, " for the pur- 
pose of founding and establishing a female seminary within 
the township of Kalamazoo," in pursuance of an " Act to 
provide for the Incorporation of Institutions of Learning," 
passed by the Legislature of Michigan, and approved Feb. 
9, 1855. In the articles of association it is provided that 
the institution " shall be known by the name and title of 
the Michigan Female Seminary." Its object was 

" To establish, endow, and control a seminary of learning for the 
education of young ladies in the higher branches of a thorough female 
education, having reference to the entire person, physically, intel- 
lectually, morally, and religiously considered, and shall be essentially 
modeled after the Mount Holyoke Seminary, in Massachusetts, and 
the Western Female Seminary at Oxford, in the State of Ohio." 

The control of the institution was vested in a board of 
twenty trustees and their successors, to form 

" A body corporate and politic, with all the powers, privileges, im- 
munities, and liabilities which are given and granted in the Act above 
referred to, the said Trustees to divide themselves by lot into four 
classes, holding their offices for the terms of two, four, six, and eight 
years respectively, each Trustee to continue in office until his suc- 
cessor shall be appointed, and all subsequent elections, except to fill 
vacancies, to be for the term of eight years." It was expressly pro- 
vided, however, in Article 6, that u All elections of Trustees shall be 
subject to the ratification of the Synod of Michigan, or of such other 
Synod as shall have jurisdiction, and within whose limits said Semi- 
nary is located." 

This provision insures the complete and permanent con- 
trol of the institution by the Synod. 

In accordance with the original design, the board of 
trustees in 1856 selected and purchased a tract of about 
thirty-two acres of land, situated on the east side of the 
Kalamazoo River, as a site for the proposed seminary. It 
is a fine, healthful, and commanding location on the slopes 
and uplands of the bluff", which here fall away gradually to 
the river valley below, and the grounds are made more 
beautiful and picturesque by a scattering growth of forest- 
trees, mostly white oak. Upon the plateau overlooking the 
village and a large extent of the surrounding country, it 
was determined to locate the building, which, according to 
the original plan, was to consist of an immense brick three- 
story edifice, 219 by 140 feet in dimensions, nearly in the 
form of a Latin cross, and to have basement and attic sto- 
ries. The style was to be Norman, and the plan included 
a large central building and two wings, connected by broad 
corridors, the whole to be finished and furnished with all 
the essentials of a first-class institution of learning. It was 
to be heated with steam, supplied with hot and cold water 
for bathing and other purposes, lighted with gas, and to ac- 
commodate three hundred pupils and a corps of twenty 
teachers. The estimated cost was placed at one hundred 
thousand dollars. 

The work of construction was commenced in 1857, and 
proceeded, with various delays and intermissions, until 1860, 
when it was suspended, and not renewed until after the 
close of the civil war. 

In the spring of 1866, Rev. John Covert was appointed 

* Taken mostly from a history of the institution published in a 
Kalamazoo directory for 1867. 



to take charge of the work and finish the building already 
erected, so that it might be used for school purposes. Lu- 
ther H. Trask was subsequently appointed superintendent, 
and W. H. Codington assistant. The centre building was 
completed, and a school opened on the 30th of January, 
1867, with the following Faculty : Miss Jeannette Fisher, 
Principal ; Miss Sarah A. Greer, Miss Jane W. Smead, 
Miss Julia Esty, Miss Laura E. Newhall, Mi